AAS 160 (LEC)
Professor Cindy L. Cheng
Week 5-October 2, 2018
Expressions of economic frustration and class tensions through xenophobia and racism
Rising influence of Labor Unions:
Workingmen’s party of CA
o 35 clubs in CA
o Began w/ critique of big corporations & Gov. support of corporate interests
o Dennis Kearny: “The Chinese must go! They are stealing our jobs!”
o Chinese Exclusions as the platform for consolidation of labor unions & growth of membership
Nativism and Formation of “Whiteness”:
Nativism: Know nothing party
1870: 40% of white population on W. Coast were foreign born o Irish, British, German, Spanish, French, Italian
o Legal: Naturalization rights (1790 law)
o Racial: Whiteness, “Anglo Saxon”
Idea of “White” Americans were the “real” or most legitimate Americans that unified the nation. Both workers and industries supported Chinese exclusion being the most viable solution to the economic woes of the nation
Racial Capitalism: Process of deriving social and economic value from racial identity. We also discuss several other topics like What should be considered in publishing research?
Exclusion and National Rights:
Chinese immigration and National politics
o 1850’s CA democrat controlled
o 1860 – democrats lost control due to pro-slavery stance; Republicans with pro-union and wage labor platform dominated o Democrats try to shed pro-slavery image found another issue: the Chinese and anti-servile labor (having or showing an excessive willingness to serve or please others.)
If you want to learn more check out When was the english bill of rights written?
o 1875 – Republicans were soundly defeated
o Decades go and Republicans came out against the Chinese o Chinese exclusion became a bi-partisan supported measure We also discuss several other topics like What are some of the strategies of self-promotion?
Exclusion of the Chinese:
CA act of 1870
Page act of 1875:
Sought to exclude 2 groups
o Chinese contract workers
o Chinese women (prostitutes)
Ineffective in enforcing exclusions of contract workers but effective in stopping women
o Didn’t want more Chinese people in the states so women were banned regulation of sex
CA constitution of 1879:
Article XIX – Chinese
Chinese exclusion act 1882:
Only act in US Legislative history to name a specific race/class for purposes of exclusion
First federally enforced act If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between statutory law and equity law?
Demographics of Chinese during exclusion movement:
33 years of open immigrants: 300,000 came, 2/3 left
1880 Chinese totaled 105,465 (21% of total population) Women: 7.2% in 1870 and 3.6% in 1890 in total pop.
Week 5-October 4, 2018
Implications for racial formation of Chinese in U.S.: Racializing the Chinese:
Scapegoat a single group out for unmerited blame, suffer the consequences, ideologically it gets placed in one group
Emergence of categories that we want to exclude to
Tease @ hierarchy
What made that easy?
∙ So few of them, no strength in #’s, really
different/newest immigrants, language barrier, If you want to learn more check out What happens to cognition after the age of 50?
“different” shore, no rights, issue of power, etc.
o Easy to see them as separate
o Racialize= one view
o Their ways are so different, they don’t mix/won’t change, so foreign that they wouldn’t be able to adapt to American culture
o Religion, hair, food, class/wealth, clothes =roadblock Don't forget about the age old question of Can astronomers deduce fingerprints for an element?
o Definition: incapable of assimilating to norms of Anglo
o Can “Assimilation” overcome the color line?
Would imply there is segregation laws/favor a
Color line models: group them in hierarchy or group
them horizontally ( either have the superior and
inferior groups OR we can have everyone all lined
together with no issues)
How assimilation and color line work together
Implications for regulation of sexual relations in U.S.: Chinese women:
Threatened normative sexual practices in U.S.
o Sexual practices contained within marriage
o Between one man & one women
o Between one white man and one white women
o These are all the normative sexual practices
Crossing of racial and class lines = moral and racial pollution
o Chinese prostitutions believed to carry more virulent strain of venereal diseases that could poison the Anglo Saxon
blood and bring downfall
Government regulation of “intimate relations”
o Who gets regulated?
Chinese Immigration during the exclusion:
The case of Angel island: 1910-1940
First illegal immigrants
Rise of illegal immigration through derivative citizenship “paper sons” and “paper daughters”
Paper sons and Paper daughters:
April 18-19, 1906 San Francisco earthquake; fire destroyed most of cities vital records
o Purely based on testimonials/ bring white friends who sympathize with them to affirm their native-born, and others passed
themselves as merchants
Significant # of Chinese men successfully represented themselves before immigration officials as Native-born American citizens of Chinese descent or Chinese merchants
As citizens, could travel to China and return; any children fathered in China were admissible to the U.S. as “derivative citizens”
Chinese wives remained inadmissible. However, Chinese wives of Chinese merchants can enter in the U.S.