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BU / Communications / CM 101 / What are the types of advertising media?

What are the types of advertising media?

What are the types of advertising media?


Theories of Mass Communication 

What are the types of advertising media?

∙ Hypodermic Needle or Magic Bullet Theory

 media claims the meaning could be strategically placed into a media  message that would then be injected into or transmitted to the receiver

Chris Waldeck- The Media Needle

∙ Assumptions of Hypodermic Needle Theory

 Passive Audience

 Homogenous audience: assumes that audience does not have diverse  thought  

 Homogenous media consumption

 Absence of Noise; Noise refers to any disturbances in the environment that  distorts your consumption or the effectiveness of the message

 Technical Noise

 Semantic Noise: disturbances caused by the words being used in the  message not being received as they were intended  

What is the function of communicating strategically?

 Effectiveness: the message is not effective in producing the change that it is meant to effect

∙ Minimal Effects Theory

 Media is not as powerful as previously though

 Media can only reinforce; not change beliefs

 Only very motivated people pay attention to media

∙ Two Step Flow of Communication

 Opinion leaders> Media

 We try to influence opinion leaders will go and influence others into their  new mode of thinking i.e. Celebrities advertising products on Instagram

Strategic Communication: an effort to bring together all functions in an organization that utilize communication to ensure that all communications  gong out of an organization are consistent. (in terms of the logos, voices,  slogans, etc.)

What is the roles of advertising?

 All these smaller functions work towards the goal of the organization.  Infusing communication efforts with an agenda and a master plan.  Orchestrated use of channels of communication to move and influence  public policy or to promote an agenda or products (ACLU) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the human leukocyte antigen complex?

 The synchronization of images, actions and words to achieve a desired  effect (Department of Defense)


 Planning

 Knowledge of Organizational Goals

 Integration of organizational goals into communication goals  Knowledge and understanding of stakeholders (audiences) What does it mean to be strategic?

 Understand the audience with whom you’re trying to communicate  Establish objectives

Note on Objectives


Time Bound



Input-Output-Outcome Framework

 Inputs

 Made cold calls to 10 journalists

 Pitched 3 newspaper editors

 Purchased 5 radio spots

 Outputs: direct product of your input is an output

 Got 3 media mentions in newspaper

 Three TV commercials aired

 Outcomes: behavioral, perceptional or attitudinal changes that happen  in the minds of your audiences because of your inputs & outputs  Changed 30,000 people’s minds about vaccinating their kids  Caused 40,000 people to register to vote

 Got 50k people to think positively about our company Objectives

 Should be measurable (as far as possible)

 Should be time bound (as far as possible)

 Should be outcome based (always)

Sample Strategic Communication Objectives If you want to learn more check out What are the three main classes of membrane proteins?

 To increase sign-ups to our frequent flyer program by 30% in the next 6 months

 To achieve 95% evacuation of hurricane-affected areas within 48 hours  of alerts

 To ensure awareness of emergency procedure among 100% new  employees within 24 hours of onboarding

Defining Disasters

 Sudden event

 Disrupts systems  

 Threatens values and goals

 Require immediate action

 Large scale

 Response and recovery require coordination with multiple agencies o Government, corporate, and non-profit.



 Federal agencies (FEMA, CDC, EPA, USAID)

 Local first responders (Police, Fire Departments, EMTs_  Inter-government and international agencies (UN, WHO, World Bank,  etc.) Don't forget about the age old question of What does satellite altimetry use radars?


 Corporations responsible for or directly involved in the disaster  Corporations with operations in the affected area


 n.p w/ directly related missions (I.e. Doctors without Borders)

 n.p w/ on-the-ground operations in the affected area

Risk Communication Paradigms

 Watch Out!: precaution advocacy

 Calm Down!! & Here’s What to do: Outrage and fear management  We’ll Get Through this together: crisis management

Stakeholders/ Audiences for Governmental Agencies

 Victims in the affected areas

 Potential victims in expanded radius around affected area  Corporate partners

 Non-profit partners

 Other agencies

Governmental Stakeholder Needs during Disasters

For Victims

 Evacuation procedures (pre-disaster)

 Safety procedures (i.e. preventing infection, properly boarding home  for hurricane safety)

 Where to go for help ( first responder information, temporary medical  facilities’ information)

 Coordinating communication messages Don't forget about the age old question of How does language influence our perception of others?

 Cross-checking information

For Customers

 How the disaster will affect

Post Disaster Recovery

 Rebuilding and rehabilitation activities

 Communication about activities

 Thanking responders

 Learning from and responding to failures

 Lessons Learned

 Fundraising and reputational efforts

 Understand your audience and establish an objective

Earned media, response you earn from your content

3) Most advertising is paid for by sponsors

-exception: Public Service Announcements

4) Advertising is persuasive in nature

-Designed to win converts to a product, service, idea

5) Advertising objectives include:

-to get people to buy products or services

-to get people to donate money/time to a cause

-to get people to think differently about ideas/behaviors (i.e. ani smoking campaigns)

6) Advertising identifies its sponsors

7) Ads reach audiences via a medium

- medium is a channel available to advertisers to disseminate their  messages/advertisements to a mass audience

A key defining characteristic of advertising is that the person who paid for the advertisement needs to be made public and identified. If you want to learn more check out What is saltatory conduction?

Advertising is a tool in a strategic communicators tool box to perform their  function of communicating strategically (to do their jobs).  

What makes an ad good?

- Explicit objectives – planning, creation, and execution of each ad - Achievement of objectives – winning awards

- Creativity for its own sake does not always lead to great advertising  (ensure that your objective is your top priority) We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of a nonpolar covalent bond?

- Context is key

Roles of Advertising

 Marketing Role  your needs can be filled by our products Communication Role  Advertising is a form of mass communication Economic Role  Two main views of advertising is to market power model or  economic information theory

Societal Role  Informs us of new & improved products and teaches us how to use these innovations

Functions of Advertising

i. Provide Product & Brand Information

ii. Provide Incentives to Take Action

iii. Provide Reminders and Reinforcements

Ensuring there is a good amount of goods circulating the economy to keep  money flowing

Types of Advertising Media

 Television Advertising

- TV Commercials

o Considered the most effective mass market advertising format o Extremely expensive

 Superbowl 2018—30 second spot cost 5 million $$

o Audio-visual elements are key

- Product Placement

o Movies and TV shows feature branded products in exchange for  sponsorship

o Ability to show organic product usage

- Virtual/Static Billboards during Sports

- Player/Celebrity Sponsorships

- Infomercials

o Long format TV commercial that goes on for more than 5 minutes; a  demonstrator is able to show the use of the product

o Objective is to create an impulse purchase

o Works great for new categories of products

o Demonstration is key

 Radio Advertising

- Pre- recorded ads

- Radio host-read ads

 Print Advertising

- Newspaper Ads

o Ads printed in newspaper

o Ads clipped to newspaper

- Magazine Ads

- Trade journal Ads

- Classifieds

 Billboard advertising

- Large structures located in public places which display ads to passing  pedestrians and motorists

- Placed in high visibility areas

- Short messages

- High on visual cues i.e. logos

- Mobile billboards

 Instore Advertising or Merchandising

- Ad materials placed in stores

o Eye level

o Display cases at the end of aisles

o Near checkout counters

o Eye-catching displays promoting a specific product

o Ads in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays Street Art Advertising

- i.e. dominos pot hole campaign

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