∙ Frames Ways to organize experiences that structure people’s interpretations of events. o How humans basically understand things
o With frames we can begin to understand other structural phenomena within separate groups and societies.
Sometimes we take the world around us for granted due to our cultural influence Every culture has several reasons, or meanings, or different acts.
Cultural diversity in used in every situation and causes you to think outside the box, look at the world through other people’s eyes
∙ Anthropological imagination challenges our own perceptions of the world o It’s basically having our own cultural assumptions of things, while looking at other cultures and how they live
Don't forget about the age old question of What is globalization?
∙ Anthropology the study of human societies and cultures, and their development 4 fields of Anthropology
1. Cultural Anthropology the study of cultures and societies of humans and their very recent path.
2. Archeology recovering pre and early history of societies and their cultures. 3. Linguistic Anthropology study of the human communication process and how it has developed overtime
4. Physical Anthropology study of the noncultural aspects of humans and nearhumans Archeologist look at the past
∙ Medical Anthropology Study of doctor, patient interactions
o Cultural study of biological Phenomena
o Evolution in medical cultural change
∙ Linguistic Anthropology system of patterns that construct a language o Study of culture through language
o Has structural meanings of sounds and syntaxes.
∙ Anthropology Values: Acronym = (B.A.R.E.H.C)
o Empiricism Observed evidence in the formation of ideas
Back up your claim with evidence
o Holism look at culture through a broad view (Past, Present)
Parts cannot exist on its own
o Comparative Analysis Compare the information that you have gathered o BioCultural Change The relationship between human biology and culture, and how culture affects biology If you want to learn more check out What are the roles and responsibilities of the media, especially the news media?
o Relativism Looking through the lens of another culture
Knowledge, truth, and morality exist in every culture
o Anti Ethnocentrism Only views their culture and traditions as correct “My way or the high way” We also discuss several other topics like Why is “hispanic” not considered a race?
Only they are correct
∙ Culture A formulation of traditions, morals, and values that set one group part from the other.
o Unspoken rules, Geography, kinship, gender, age, etc
o Set of behaviors, traditions, and knowledge that we undergo
o Cultural practices are in different frames or set times
Key Attributes of Culture
What is American Culture?
There is not one distinctive word to describe American culture.
Diverse, Everchanging, materialistic, etc We also discuss several other topics like What are family relationships like?
Not everyone will share the same experience within a culture.
Poor people may not experience a rich person’s life with that Cultre and vice versa
∙ Tradition(s) Ritualized cultural practices that are learned and shared o Tied to a belief system, worldviews, identities, and even cultural taboos ∙ Socialization “social learning” to live as a member within a group
o How to live in a society
∙ Enculturation the adaptation of the norms within a society.
∙ Ethnography A long term filed work that involves the study of large cultural groups through observation of their social practices and interactions.
Cultural symbols are most evident in cultures
∙ Symbol something that represents something else
o Symbols are learned
o Different symbols mean different things for other people.
∙ Indexicality various meanings depending on the subject Don't forget about the age old question of What does poiseuille's equation explain?
o Ex. The American Flag is not a piece of cloth, but points to a nation
∙ Ritual A order of actions that have symbolic meaning behind it.
o Also describes as performances to control the uncontrollable.
Ex. Weddings, Graduation, Healing Rituals
∙ Magic Practices that are used to reduce the chance of uncertainties, or life situations ∙ Fetishes A physical objects that is meant to bring “Supernatural” power to the holder.
∙ Myth A widespread but false belief or idea for a certain object or action. ∙ World View Your conception of the world and how you place yourself in it. ∙ Othering Looking at other culture from your point of view and viewing them as exotic, strange, or different.
∙ Cultural Relativity The opposite of “othering” in which you try to look and another culture through their lens and try to understand their ways. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 fundamental paradigms?
o Looking at life through their eyes.
o look at another culture through contexts
∙ Contexts The structural and historical backdrops in which “Life happens” ∙ Ideologies beliefs and views that people have about things such as gender, race. Politics, etc.
∙ Discourses what people are saying about a topic and how they are speaking about it ∙ Globalization the intensity of capital goods, people, images, and things around the world o This is not a recent phenomenon
∙ Status Ones “role” in society that is organized into hierarchies.
o Bases on culture, contexts, and ideologies.
o Ascribes status One is born with it, or it develops over time
o Achieved Status Effort must be made to achieve this status.
o Master Status A status that exceeds everyone in any given frame (ex. President) Not every ascribe status is natural and not every achieved status will be learned, some people fall into both categories
∙ Stigma A status that is put down
o Falls out of the social norm
o Is seen in steotypes
o Negative assumptions about a status
∙ Colonialism one nation tries to dominate another
o This is seen by a set of unequal power relationships
o Forced sociocultural change
∙ Immigrant Someone who travels from one nation to another with the intent of staying ∙ Cultural Pluralism desperate groups keep and aspect of their original cultural practices while integrating into another society
∙ Assimilation One group will change everything to fit into a society
Humans are a polymorphic species so we come in many forms
Charles Darwin believed that diversity is natural, necessary, and beneficial to all population Al l human groups differentiate culturally
∙ Culture Learned and shared way of living
o Acquired through social interaction
∙ Enculturation An individual can acquire any culture to which they are exposed to ∙ Deviance Something looked down upon
∙ Subculture when people are grouped together based on values
o Usually deviance from the mainstream culture.
∙ Counter Culture people that group together to oppose the characteristics of mainstream culture
∙ Miscegenation Bad race mixing
o Race is a constellation of traits
∙ Prejudice Hostile attitude towards someone who belongs to a group, just because they belong to that group
o This is the tendency to categorize and generalize
o In this case groups distance themselves from each other
∙ Discrimination A negative behavior towards someone made on the grounds of natural or social changes.
Prejudice and discrimination fall into inner group violence
∙ Stereotype stubborn ideas about another group
∙ Social Distance if a group is willing or unwilling to mingle and interact with other people
∙ Naturalization Immigrants become citizens
∙ Nativists White and predominantly AngloSaxon, English speaking, and protestant. ∙ National Origin Act limited the total number of immigrants per year
Anthropology allows us to challenge our own perspective of the world
We learn to engage with a variety of communities and the world
∙ Race Categorized group of people usually based on their skin color
o This is at times used to rank people into statuses
o Race is also seen as ethic groups assumed by members of a culture
o Race is a cultural construct
o Sometimes race is treated as nationality
o Race doesn’t exist until it is experienced by someone or it is pointed out o Phenotype is the physical mark of people
o Race is the Link between culture and biology
o As humans we read physical traits that have symbolic meanings
The meaning of a symbol changes over time
Franz Boas is the father of Anthropology and he had the idea of holism
∙ Genotype a person’s genetic makeup
∙ Phenotype the physical manifestation of a someone’s genotype
∙ Hypodescent your racial description is tied to your heritage
o “One drop of blood rule” that biology and culture are linked together
o There is a dominate ideology of white and black
Physical differences are interpreted through culture, language, and discourse
The difference between Ethnic and race is that ethnicity is your historical background and genetic makeup, while Race is your physical traits and how society categorizes you.
Some American Dominicans don’t identify by phenotype, but by language (Spanish) Phenotype differences are expressed through language and discourse.
∙ “Unmarked” Practices Cultural Phenomena considered to normative (those who fallow the norm)
∙ “Marked” Practices Those sociocultural practices that position against the norm ∙ Social Distance when groups are willing or unwilling to mingle and interact o Basically, the degree of which people accept others
∙ Double Consciousness When you are one thing (ex. American) and are treated like another thing (ex. non American)
∙ Silent Racism Members of a dominant group who are concerned about racism, but stereotypical images of others unconsciously effect their decisions and behavior. ∙ Identity How people identify within a society
Celebrities occupy a high status
When thinking about anthology you must think about how the information is being presented.
∙ Contexts The sociocultural, politicaleconomical, and historical backdrops in which “life happens”
∙ Ideologies beliefs, feelings, and attitudes people have about race, gender, language, etc Anthropologist analyze situations through historical contexts
Race and Class are linked together
People of the same socioeconomic status tend to stay together
∙ Fussel’s Social Class
o Bottom out of sight
o Destitute (“homeless”)
o Low Prole (unskilled Labor)
o Mid Prole (Lower Status Jobs)
o High Prole (High workingclass culture)
o Middle Class (“White Collar”)
o Upper Middle Class (lower upper class)
o Upper Class
o Super Rich (invincible)
∙ Markers of Identity
o Beliefs and Worldviews
o Specific Cultural Practices
When judging “others” we tend to judge them based on symbols, Phenotypes, material objects, or world views.
∙ Stereotype Folk understandings of one group of people by another group o Usually based on symbols and phenotype traits of a group that have been given a new meaning by another group
o Often used to maintain structural inequalities
o Based on ideas rather than reality
∙ Participant Observation A main method of ethnographic research that involves spending long periods of time with the people and communities under research.
“White Trash” is a naming practice within a difference by which race and class is maintained in the U.S
∙ Social Categorization layers of class organizations of societies into levels
Culture doesn’t evolve and isn’t more developed than another
There is not a hierarchy of culture
Paul Farmer Medical Anthropologist/ global Health
∙ Intersectionality you can’t look at social variation in isolation, you must consider all the variations
The great Migration is the African Americans form the South moving North
∙ Globalization The intensifying of Capital goods, people, images, and languages around the world
∙ Meritocratic Individualism
o Started with and after the great depression
o The idea that:
People make their own luck
People in higher positions are more talented than others
People that make bad decisions deserve punishment
People should respect the market and economic facts more than ideas and moralities.
Social inequality is natural
o Doesn’t consider the historical background
∙ Neoliberalism Global marketplace should determine the coasts of service and goods. o The idea that economic thinking is the best
When looking at culture it’s about meaning
It’s important to see how people interpret symbols and objects
∙ Medicalization The ideology of western biomedical “health” into daily lives. o The study of human conditions and problems that are defined and treated as medical conditions
o Human conditions usually become the subject of medical study.
Health Disparities adversity affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health due to their race, religion, gender, etc.
Mass Casualty Event wipes people out
∙ Structure Violence How structures treat different groups differently, sometimes through a system
o Something you can’t help, and the system can’t fix
∙ 3 keys of global idealizations
o The intensifying of:
Mental Health is culturally constructive
The sick role can opt you out of social obligations
The sick role can only be verified by a professional
∙ Structural Violence systematic way in which social structures are disadvantages to other people
Collaborative Ethnographic Research Working directly with the communities that are under study
Walls, fortresses, or boarders symbolize an empire or society
Collaborative anthropology is taking the consideration of the society that you are observing. Doctor offices are not neutral
Different groups will have different perspectives on History
∙ Homophily The tendency of individuals to associate themselves with similar people. o “Birds of the feather floc together”
o Limits people’s social worlds because they are only surrounded by people that are just like them.
o Real or imagined barriers create the idea of “us verses “them”
o In this sense people are exposed to one thing verses the other
∙ Human Ecology The idea that humans do not simply occupy territory but modify that territory
o Which creates a humanmade space where they must live and work. ∙ Human Geography Addresses the question of the relation between physical features and people.