Exam 2 Study Guide
Week 5 I-Clicker Questions
Who is responsible for the first accurate measurement of the circumference of the Earth?
Eratosthenes of Cyrene
The term “ocean” was derived from the term Okeanos, the name given by the ___for the Atlantic Ocean
The Hawaii Islands were first colonized by the ______
Which early voyagers were known for their pillaging and looting?
What was the ultimate goal of sea voyages by the Renaissance Europeans?
Any voyage had a
material goal. Trade
between east and west
had long been
dependent on arduous
and insecure desert
caravan routes through
the central Asian and
Who led the expedition with the goal to disprove the theory that earth was hollow and could be entered through huge holes at either pole?
The first scientific expedition to use an echo sounder was:If you want to learn more check out chiral center rules
The Meteor Expedition
Who showed that the Arctic is not a
Satellites can measure the height of the sea surface from 835 miles above earth.
Week 6 I-Clicker QuestionsIf you want to learn more check out botany 130
What are bonds that are formed by the sharing of paired electrons?
The ___ of water allows individual water molecules to stick together.
What property of water is responsible for the amount of time it takes for water to boil?
What is the only substance to have a higher heat capacity than liquid water?
Seawater density increases with increasing salinity and decreasing pressure.
seawater’s density increases
We also discuss several other topics like teresa coulter
with increasing salinity,
increasing pressure, and
Which is a characteristic of thermoclines?
Polar waters tend to lack thermoclines
The density of water will decrease:
When the temperature increases
What visible light frequency is almost completely absorbed and converted to heat within the first few meters of the ocean?We also discuss several other topics like the most widespread method for rapidly determining alcohol intoxication is breath testing.
How does the absorption of light provide heat energy in the ocean?
When light is absorbed, molecules vibrate and electromagnetic energy is converted into heat
The salt in the ocean are similar to those of concentrated river water
What is the main avenue that water takes while moving from ocean to air?What is the main avenue that water takes while moving from ocean to air?
Evaporation from the ocean
As carbon dioxide enters the ocean it:
Forms Carbonic Acid
Which of the following statements about pH is not true?
A pH of 3 is alkaline, a pH of 10 is acidic The opposite is true: a pH of 3 is acidic and a pH of 10 is alkaline (base)
Earth’s atmosphere and ocean are
intertwined, their gases and waters freely exchanged.
Why is humid air less dense than dry air?
Molecules of water vapor have less mass than the displaced nitrogen and oxygen moleculesIf you want to learn more check out dep 3103 fsu exam 1
As air rises in the atmosphere it ____ and _____
It expands because there is less pressure
What is responsible for the Coriolis Effect?
The Coriolis Effect deflects moving objects to the left in the southern hemisphere.
The intersection of Hadley and Ferrel cells can best be described as __________
Sinking, compressing, and
heating air movements:
The great deserts of
both hemispheres, dry
bands centered around
30 degree latitude, If you want to learn more check out econ2030
mark the intersection of
the Hadley and Ferrel
What phenomenon does the Coriolis Effect arise from?
Rotation of the earth around its
High pressure centers are associated with:
Rising air and dry conditions:
Falling air warms and
increases its water holding
The Intertropical Convergence Zone is a region where:
Northeast Trade Winds meet
the Southeast Trade Winds
(surface winds of the Hadley
Week 7 I-Clicker Questions
A system of four currents completing a flow circuit around the periphery of an ocean basin is collectively called:
Currents tend to move in large _____ patterns in the Northern Hemisphere.
North = clockwise
South = counterclockwise
San Francisco’s characteristic cold and foggy weather is caused by a:
Cold Eastern Boundary
All of the following statements are true about an Ekman Spiral, EXCEPT:
Ekman spiral is not influenced
by the Coriolis Effect
(this question can be tricky,
but remember it is asking for
what is FALSE about Ekman
In samples taken from the North pacific Gyre, scientists discovered that there are:
6 pounds of trash to every
pound of zooplankton
Why are tan colored plastic fragments being eaten by seabirds and fish?
Tan colored plastic resembles
krill, an important food source
for both fish and birds
This example of upwelling takes place in the: (image of wind blowing up, rotation of earth to the right, and upwelling going left)
This example of upwelling takes place in the: (a second image of wind blowing down and downwelling flowing to the right)
The centers of gyres tend to be ______
Calm and support little life
Generally the fastest and deepest ocean currents are:
Western boundary currents
England’s weather is ___than would be expected a that latitude because of influence of surface currents
Warmer and wetter
The concentration of plastic is highest in the ______ of the North Pacific gyre
What changes are caused by the southern oscillation in the pacific ocean?
Trade winds blow from West to
What can be caused by ENSO events in the Eastern Pacific?
Upwelling water is
nutrient-depleted, causing loss
What water mass is the densest in the world ocean?
Antarctic Bottom Water
Study Session questions: First Jeopardy game
Who coined the word ocean?
Oceanus: Latin root of the
word okeanos used by early
Who was one of the chief librarians at the Library of Alexandria who first calculated the circumference of the Earth?
Eratosthenes of Cyrene
Which islands were among the last islands the Polynesians settled?
Which country had the treasure fleets in the 1400s?
Which group was infamous for raiding other countries?
Whom do we recognize as the first marine scientist?
Captain James Cook
Which European renaissance explorer set out to discover a sea route around the Sahara desert to bring back slaves and gold to his country?
Henry the Navigator
Who wanted to pioneer a sea route to the rich and fabled lands of the east, made famous 200 years earlier by Marco Polo?
Who had his boat frozen in the Arctic Ocean to prove it was an ocean and not a land mass?
Who is the father of physical oceanography?
He discovered the worldwide
patterns of wind and ocean
A water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom bound by which bond?
What are hydrogen bonds?
The cause of cohesion of
water molecules. Negatively
charged oxygen of one water
molecule attracts the positively
charged hydrogen of another
Water is a universal solvent and can break which kind of bonds?
Ionic bonds of salt, such as
Why is water called a polar (bipolar) molecule?
It has a positive and negative
What is the bond angle in liquid water and in solid water?
What is the property of water that makes it resistant to changing temperature easily?
What is the only substance with a higher heat capacity than water?
Which is the only substance on earth that exists in all 3 states?
What moderates Earth’s climate?
Surface ocean water because
of its high heat capacity
Why does water have surface tension and some insects can walk on water?
What is the region called where temperature changes rapidly between the surface zone and the deep zone?
Which ocean has no thermocline or the least developed thermocline?
The polar ocean. The surface
water is cold like the deep
Where is the ocean water the coldest? In the deep zone under the tropical ocean, the temperate ocean, or the polar ocean?
They are all equally cold
Which color is absorbed first in the ocean?
Red. it is converted to hear.
What is the name for the dark part of the ocean?
What creatures can stun other animals by producing a really loud sound?
Second Jeopardy Game
How is salinity defined?
Salinity is the total quantity or
concentration of dissolved
inorganic solids in water.
What is the principle of constant proportions?
The ratio of dissolved solids is
constant, even if the relative
amounts are changing.
Oceans are said to be in
How is the chemistry of river water and ocean water different?
River water: dilute solution of
bicarbonate and calcium ions
Seawater: principle ions are
chloride and sodium
What happens when CO2 reacts with water?
It creates carbonic acid
Is the ocean overall acidic or basic (alkaline)?
It has a pH of 8.2 - alkaline
As warm air rises in the atmosphere it does what?
Expands and cools
How many atmospheric circulation cells does earth have?
6: 3 in the Northern
Hemisphere and 3 in the
Why are moving objects deflected to the left in the southern hemisphere?
The Coriolis Effect
Why is humid air less dense than dry air?
The water molecules are less
dense than the displaced
nitrogen and oxygen
Which two circulation cells meet and form the ITCZ?
The Hadley Cells
The ITCZ is a belt of what kind of
What are winds that reverse with the season?
Wind always blows from? ______to _______
High to low
In which direction do hurricanes spin in the northern hemisphere?
To the left: counter-clockwise
Is the pressure below the eye of the hurricane low or high?
What is the Ekman spiral?
A theoretical model of the
effect of wind blowing on water
What are the currents in the North Pacific gyre?
North Pacific Current
North Equatorial Current
What are generally the fastest and deepest ocean currents in the gyres?
The Western Boundary
Why does plastic debris accumulate in the middle of the gyres?
A combination of the Coriolis
Effect and the calm centers
Which is the largest ocean surface current, which is technically not a gyre?
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Why are centers of the gyre usually
What happens to the upwelling off the coast of Peru on an El Nino year?
It is suppressed or absent
What changes are caused by the ENSO events in the Pacific ocean?
Trade Winds blow from West
What are some of the factors that can happen during an El Nino year?
● Southern Oscillation
● Trade winds diminish
● Warm water moves
eastward along the
● Surface waters of
central and Eastern
Pacific become warmer
● Thermocline deeper
● Equatorial upwelling
● Absence of coastal
Do El Nino and La Nina patterns occur on a regular basis?
No. They occur
Concepts and Definitions Not Included in I-Clicker or Jeopardy Questions
The Polynesians are hypothesized to have gone where?
What was the first United States Naval expedition for science led by Charles Wilkes?
United States Exploring Expedition
What was the name of the ship Nansen used to get frozen in the arctic ocean?
What was the first expedition to use echo sounding?
The Meteor Expedition
What was the ship that was part of the expedition which provided evidence for plate tectonics?
What is adhesion?
Water molecules sticking to other substances
What is the definition of the state of
The expression of the internal form of a substance
What is thermal inertia?
Tendency of a substance to resist change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy
What is the definition of heat capacity?
The measure of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celsius
What is the pycnocline?
● Area between Surface zone and deep zone
● Density increases rapidly with depth ● Temperature falls and salinity rises
What is the thermocline?
Describes the part of the Pycnocline in which temperature decreases with
What is the halocline?
This describes the part of the Pycnocline in which salinity increases with depth
What is the photic zone?
Thin film of lighted water at the top of the world ocean
What is the definition of weather?
State of the atmosphere at a specific time and place
What is the definition of climate?
Long-term statistical sum of weather in the area
What are two characteristics of the Hurricane Name list?
● The list repeats every 6 years
● Some hurricane names are retired for at least 10 years due to the massive damage caused by the hurricane
What are the three aspects of hurricane damage?
● Storm surge
● Wind damage
● Freshwater flooding
What is the definition of a gyre?
A circuit of mid-latitude currents
around the periphery of an ocean
What is the friction depth?
The layer in an Ekman Spiral in which the water flows the opposite direction from the top layer
What does the Coriolis effect do to the “hill” formed by gyres?
It offsets the “hill” to the west instead of it being in the center
What are the characteristics of Western Boundary Currents?
● Sometimes form eddies
What are the characteristics of Eastern Boundary Currents?
● Transport cold water back to
● Broad (often 600 miles wide)
● Poorly defined boundaries
● Eddies tend not to form
What is upwelling?
Cold, nutrient-rich water that moves to the surface
What is downwelling?
Downward motion of water bringing
nutrients and dissolved gasses to the deep ocean
What does the pycnocline do to nutrients?
It is a boundary that keeps nutrients
from moving up or down in the water
Where does the formation and downwelling of deep-water occur?
What are the names of the two processes that form deepwater?
North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)
and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)