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CSU / OTHER / NR 150 / Who is responsible for the first accurate measurement of the circumfer

Who is responsible for the first accurate measurement of the circumfer

Who is responsible for the first accurate measurement of the circumfer

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Oceanography
Professor: Bob buford
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Oceanography 150
Description: These are all the I-Clicker questions from class since the previous exam, as well as the questions from the Jeopardy games from the review sessions. This also includes concepts and definitions from lecture that were not included in the questions.
Uploaded: 10/07/2018
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Exam 2 Study Guide


Who is responsible for the first accurate measurement of the circumference of the Earth?



Week 5 I-Clicker Questions

Who is responsible for the first accurate measurement of the circumference of the Earth?

Eratosthenes of Cyrene

The term “ocean” was derived from the term Okeanos, the name given by the ___for the Atlantic Ocean

Greeks

The Hawaii Islands were first colonized by the ______

The Polynesians

Which early voyagers were known for their pillaging and looting?

The Vikings

What was the ultimate goal of sea voyages by the Renaissance Europeans?

Commerce:

Any voyage had a

material goal. Trade

between east and west

had long been

dependent on arduous

and insecure desert

caravan routes through

the central Asian and

Arabian deserts

Who led the expedition with the goal to disprove the theory that earth was hollow and could be entered through huge holes at either pole?


Which early voyagers were known for their pillaging and looting?



Charles Wilkes

The first scientific expedition to use an echo sounder was:If you want to learn more check out chiral center rules

The Meteor Expedition

Who showed that the Arctic is not a

landmass?

Nansen

Satellites can measure the height of the sea surface from 835 miles above earth.

True

Week 6 I-Clicker QuestionsIf you want to learn more check out botany 130

What are bonds that are formed by the sharing of paired electrons?

Covalent bonds

The ___ of water allows individual water molecules to stick together.

Hydrogen bonding

What property of water is responsible for the amount of time it takes for water to boil?

Heat capacity

What is the only substance to have a higher heat capacity than liquid water?

Ammonia

Seawater density increases with increasing salinity and decreasing pressure.

False:

seawater’s density increases


What was the ultimate goal of sea voyages by the Renaissance Europeans?



We also discuss several other topics like teresa coulter

with increasing salinity,

increasing pressure, and

decreasing temperature

Which is a characteristic of thermoclines?

Polar waters tend to lack thermoclines

The density of water will decrease:

When the temperature increases

What visible light frequency is almost completely absorbed and converted to heat within the first few meters of the ocean?We also discuss several other topics like the most widespread method for rapidly determining alcohol intoxication is breath testing.

Red light

How does the absorption of light provide heat energy in the ocean?

When light is absorbed, molecules vibrate and electromagnetic energy is converted into heat

The salt in the ocean are similar to those of concentrated river water

False

What is the main avenue that water takes while moving from ocean to air?What is the main avenue that water takes while moving from ocean to air?

Evaporation from the ocean

As carbon dioxide enters the ocean it:

Forms Carbonic Acid

Which of the following statements about pH is not true?

A pH of 3 is alkaline, a pH of 10 is acidic The opposite is true: a pH of 3 is acidic and a pH of 10 is alkaline (base)

Earth’s atmosphere and ocean are

intertwined, their gases and waters freely exchanged.

True

Why is humid air less dense than dry air?

Molecules of water vapor have less mass than the displaced nitrogen and oxygen moleculesIf you want to learn more check out dep 3103 fsu exam 1

As air rises in the atmosphere it ____ and _____

Expands;cools

It expands because there is less pressure

What is responsible for the Coriolis Effect?

Earth’s rotation

The Coriolis Effect deflects moving objects to the left in the southern hemisphere.

True

The intersection of Hadley and Ferrel cells can best be described as __________

Sinking, compressing, and

heating air movements:

The great deserts of

both hemispheres, dry

bands centered around

30 degree latitude, If you want to learn more check out econ2030

mark the intersection of

the Hadley and Ferrel

cells

What phenomenon does the Coriolis Effect arise from?

Rotation of the earth around its

axis

High pressure centers are associated with:

Rising air and dry conditions:

Falling air warms and

increases its water holding

capacity

The Intertropical Convergence Zone is a region where:

Northeast Trade Winds meet

the Southeast Trade Winds

(surface winds of the Hadley

Cells)

Week 7 I-Clicker Questions

A system of four currents completing a flow circuit around the periphery of an ocean basin is collectively called:

A gyre

Currents tend to move in large _____ patterns in the Northern Hemisphere.

Clockwise

North = clockwise

South = counterclockwise

San Francisco’s characteristic cold and foggy weather is caused by a:

Cold Eastern Boundary

Current

All of the following statements are true about an Ekman Spiral, EXCEPT:

Ekman spiral is not influenced

by the Coriolis Effect

(this question can be tricky,

but remember it is asking for

what is FALSE about Ekman

spirals)

In samples taken from the North pacific Gyre, scientists discovered that there are:

6 pounds of trash to every

pound of zooplankton

Why are tan colored plastic fragments being eaten by seabirds and fish?

Tan colored plastic resembles

krill, an important food source

for both fish and birds

This example of upwelling takes place in the: (image of wind blowing up, rotation of earth to the right, and upwelling going left)

Southern Hemisphere

This example of upwelling takes place in the: (a second image of wind blowing down and downwelling flowing to the right)

Northern Hemisphere

The centers of gyres tend to be ______

Calm and support little life

Generally the fastest and deepest ocean currents are:

Western boundary currents

England’s weather is ___than would be expected a that latitude because of influence of surface currents

Warmer and wetter

The concentration of plastic is highest in the ______ of the North Pacific gyre

Center

What changes are caused by the southern oscillation in the pacific ocean?

Trade winds blow from West to

East

What can be caused by ENSO events in the Eastern Pacific?

Upwelling water is

nutrient-depleted, causing loss

of productivity

What water mass is the densest in the world ocean?

Antarctic Bottom Water

Study Session questions: First Jeopardy game

Who coined the word ocean?

Oceanus: Latin root of the

word okeanos used by early

Greeks

Who was one of the chief librarians at the Library of Alexandria who first calculated the circumference of the Earth?

Eratosthenes of Cyrene

Which islands were among the last islands the Polynesians settled?

Hawaii

Which country had the treasure fleets in the 1400s?

China

Which group was infamous for raiding other countries?

Vikings

Whom do we recognize as the first marine scientist?

Captain James Cook

Which European renaissance explorer set out to discover a sea route around the Sahara desert to bring back slaves and gold to his country?

Henry the Navigator

Who wanted to pioneer a sea route to the rich and fabled lands of the east, made famous 200 years earlier by Marco Polo?

Christopher Columbus

Who had his boat frozen in the Arctic Ocean to prove it was an ocean and not a land mass?

Nansen

Who is the father of physical oceanography?

Matthew Maury:

He discovered the worldwide

patterns of wind and ocean

currents

A water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom bound by which bond?

Covalent bond

What are hydrogen bonds?

The cause of cohesion of

water molecules. Negatively

charged oxygen of one water

molecule attracts the positively

charged hydrogen of another

water molecule

Water is a universal solvent and can break which kind of bonds?

Ionic bonds of salt, such as

NaCl

Why is water called a polar (bipolar) molecule?

It has a positive and negative

end

What is the bond angle in liquid water and in solid water?

Liquid: 105

Solid: 109

What is the property of water that makes it resistant to changing temperature easily?

Heat capacity

What is the only substance with a higher heat capacity than water?

Liquid ammonia

Which is the only substance on earth that exists in all 3 states?

Water

What moderates Earth’s climate?

Surface ocean water because

of its high heat capacity

Why does water have surface tension and some insects can walk on water?

Hydrogen bonds

What is the region called where temperature changes rapidly between the surface zone and the deep zone?

Thermocline

Which ocean has no thermocline or the least developed thermocline?

The polar ocean. The surface

water is cold like the deep

water.

Where is the ocean water the coldest? In the deep zone under the tropical ocean, the temperate ocean, or the polar ocean?

They are all equally cold

Which color is absorbed first in the ocean?

Red. it is converted to hear.

What is the name for the dark part of the ocean?

Aphotic zone

What creatures can stun other animals by producing a really loud sound?

Pistol shrimp

Second Jeopardy Game

How is salinity defined?

Salinity is the total quantity or

concentration of dissolved

inorganic solids in water.

What is the principle of constant proportions?

The ratio of dissolved solids is

constant, even if the relative

amounts are changing.

Oceans are said to be in

chemical equilibrium.

How is the chemistry of river water and ocean water different?

River water: dilute solution of

bicarbonate and calcium ions

Seawater: principle ions are

chloride and sodium

What happens when CO2 reacts with water?

It creates carbonic acid

Is the ocean overall acidic or basic (alkaline)?

It has a pH of 8.2 - alkaline

As warm air rises in the atmosphere it does what?

Expands and cools

How many atmospheric circulation cells does earth have?

6: 3 in the Northern

Hemisphere and 3 in the

Southern Hemisphere

Why are moving objects deflected to the left in the southern hemisphere?

The Coriolis Effect

Why is humid air less dense than dry air?

The water molecules are less

dense than the displaced

nitrogen and oxygen

Which two circulation cells meet and form the ITCZ?

The Hadley Cells

The ITCZ is a belt of what kind of

atmospheric pressure?

Low

What are winds that reverse with the season?

Monsoons

Wind always blows from? ______to _______

High to low

In which direction do hurricanes spin in the northern hemisphere?

To the left: counter-clockwise

Is the pressure below the eye of the hurricane low or high?

Low

What is the Ekman spiral?

A theoretical model of the

effect of wind blowing on water

What are the currents in the North Pacific gyre?

Kuroshio Current

North Pacific Current

California Current

North Equatorial Current

What are generally the fastest and deepest ocean currents in the gyres?

The Western Boundary

currents

Why does plastic debris accumulate in the middle of the gyres?

A combination of the Coriolis

Effect and the calm centers

Which is the largest ocean surface current, which is technically not a gyre?

Antarctic Circumpolar Current

Why are centers of the gyre usually

nutrient-poor?

Downwelling

What happens to the upwelling off the coast of Peru on an El Nino year?

It is suppressed or absent

What changes are caused by the ENSO events in the Pacific ocean?

Trade Winds blow from West

to East

What are some of the factors that can happen during an El Nino year?

● Southern Oscillation

developes

● Trade winds diminish

and reverse

● Warm water moves

eastward along the

equator

● Surface waters of

central and Eastern

Pacific become warmer

● Thermocline deeper

than normal

● Equatorial upwelling

depressed

● Absence of coastal

upwelling

Do El Nino and La Nina patterns occur on a regular basis?

No. They occur

quasi-periodically.

Concepts and Definitions Not Included in I-Clicker or Jeopardy Questions

The Polynesians are hypothesized to have gone where?

South America

What was the first United States Naval expedition for science led by Charles Wilkes?

United States Exploring Expedition

What was the name of the ship Nansen used to get frozen in the arctic ocean?

The Fram

What was the first expedition to use echo sounding?

The Meteor Expedition

What was the ship that was part of the expedition which provided evidence for plate tectonics?

Glomar Challenger

What is adhesion?

Water molecules sticking to other substances

What is the definition of the state of

substances?

The expression of the internal form of a substance

What is thermal inertia?

Tendency of a substance to resist change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy

What is the definition of heat capacity?

The measure of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celsius

What is the pycnocline?

● Area between Surface zone and deep zone

● Density increases rapidly with depth ● Temperature falls and salinity rises

What is the thermocline?

Describes the part of the Pycnocline in which temperature decreases with

depth

What is the halocline?

This describes the part of the Pycnocline in which salinity increases with depth

What is the photic zone?

Thin film of lighted water at the top of the world ocean

What is the definition of weather?

State of the atmosphere at a specific time and place

What is the definition of climate?

Long-term statistical sum of weather in the area

What are two characteristics of the Hurricane Name list?

● The list repeats every 6 years

● Some hurricane names are retired for at least 10 years due to the massive damage caused by the hurricane

What are the three aspects of hurricane damage?

● Storm surge

● Wind damage

● Freshwater flooding

What is the definition of a gyre?

A circuit of mid-latitude currents

around the periphery of an ocean

basin

What is the friction depth?

The layer in an Ekman Spiral in which the water flows the opposite direction from the top layer

What does the Coriolis effect do to the “hill” formed by gyres?

It offsets the “hill” to the west instead of it being in the center

What are the characteristics of Western Boundary Currents?

● Narrow

● Deep

● Fast

● Sometimes form eddies

What are the characteristics of Eastern Boundary Currents?

● Transport cold water back to

equator

● Shallow

● Broad (often 600 miles wide)

● Poorly defined boundaries

● Eddies tend not to form

What is upwelling?

Cold, nutrient-rich water that moves to the surface

What is downwelling?

Downward motion of water bringing

nutrients and dissolved gasses to the deep ocean

What does the pycnocline do to nutrients?

It is a boundary that keeps nutrients

from moving up or down in the water

Where does the formation and downwelling of deep-water occur?

Polar regions

What are the names of the two processes that form deepwater?

North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)

and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)

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