Exam 1 Study Guides
Psychology the scientific study of mind and behavior
Developmental psychology changes in behavior from birth to death
Personality Psychology looks at peoples behavior over certain about of time and what different traits we have from another
Cognitive psychologyEmphasis on higher mental processes: Cognitions, thoughts and relationship to experiences and behaviors
Forensic psychology more toward question of the justice system
Biological psychologySpecializes in the biological bases of behavior If you want to learn more check out What are the three major changes that take place during the onset of adolescence?
Health psychology focus on how health is changed or affected by interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological elements
Sociological psychologystudies how people are affected by others
Crosscultural psychology focus on same and differences in psychological furcating across cultures and ethnic groups
Clinical psychologyinvestigates diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Industrial Organizational psychologyapplies psychological theories, principles, and research findings in the workplace If you want to learn more check out What stops the stimulation for muscle contraction?
Sport and Exercise PsychologyFocuses on psychological aspects of sport performance, including motivation and performance anxiety, and the effects of sport on mental and emotional wellbeing
Clinical neuropsychologyFocuses on relationships between biological factors and psychological disorders
Behavioral geneticsFocuses on how we might inherit genes and how the environment influences whether we will display traits.
Evolutionary psychologyExamines influence of our genetic heritage and our behavior Archival researchUse of existing data in order to test a hypothesis If you want to learn more check out How was james ii an absolute monarch?
Naturalistic observationObservation of naturally occurring behavior without intervention Survey researchA sample of people are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, and attitudes in order to represent a larger populationWe also discuss several other topics like How does structure determine function?
Case studyAn indepth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of peopleInstincts Inborn patterns of behavior that are biology determined rather than learned Drive motivation tension and ready to stratify and fill a task/need We also discuss several other topics like What were the cultural exchanges between the native american civilizations and the european settlers?
Primary drive basic drives to the biological beed of the body. Example eat food and drink water Secondary drives things that are learned and by experience
Drive reductionwe have homeostasis point example… I’m full I’m stopping now is homeostasis point.
Arousal approach seek to explain behavior in which the goal is to maintain or increase excitement. Ex amusement park
suggest that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals or incentives Cognitive approach
suggest motivation is a product/outcome of peoples thoughts, ,and goals
Instructions motivationmotivated for self fulling enjoyment/pleasure
Extrinsic motivation outside motivation ex money, impress someone
Over justification already have instructed motivation and give extrinsic motion can decrease interest
Mallows hierarchy suggest why people do what they do . 5 categories needs must be satisfying. Lower level needs first before higher levels. Psychology need ex food, water, and sex. safety needs ex need for safe and secure environment. love and belongings need to obtain love and affection, esteem the need to develop sense of self worth, and self acclamation a state of self fulfillment. If you want to learn more check out What are objects in a system called?
Emotion provide purpose gets us ready for action
Happing our future behavior helping us interact more effectively with others other 70 percent of our communication is body language Determine the rage of emotions
basic emotions happiness, anger, fear, sadness disgust
Micro expression Facial expressions that are visible like shaking of the head but in India that actually means yes
Micro expression small facial expressions. For example smirking at someone because of what they said is a small reaction. Or rolling your eyes. Just an action that can be easily missed. A little smile/grin would count or moving of hands and body. Experiment was one so participants had pencils in the mouth and it make them have to force smile and research showed they were actually happier by using those smiling muscles.
Capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges
GfactorGeneral factor for mental ability
Was thought to underlie performance in every aspect of intelligence
Recent theories view intelligence as a multidimensional concept
Fluid IntelligenceReflects informationprocessing capabilities, reasoning, and memory Crystallized IntelligenceAccumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people learn through experience
Information Processing as Intelligence
Way people store material in memory and use that material to solve intellectual tasks Speed of processing
Practical IntelligenceRelated to overall success in living
Emotional IntelligenceSet of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions
Assessing AttachmentMary Ainsworth strange situation