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What is mri?

What is mri?

Description

School: University of North Dakota
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Virginia clinton
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psyc study guide for exam 3
Description: This study guide contains all of the notes we have to prepare for the third exam
Uploaded: 10/08/2018
12 Pages 48 Views 2 Unlocks
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The Nervous System


What is mri?



∙ Composed of billions of neurons

∙ The worm C. elegans: 1 mm in length; 302 neurons ∙ Homo sapiens: 1,680 mm in length; ~100 billion neurons ∙ Nervous system

∙ Central

 Spinal cord

 Brain

∙ Peripheral

 Autonomic (involuntary movements  

∙ Sympathetic (energizing)

∙ Parasympathetic

 Somatic (voluntary movements of skeletal muscles) ∙ Central Nervous system (CNS): the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

∙ Peripheral Nervous system (PNS): carries information to and  from the rest of the body


It is a loss of ability to recognize faces resulting from brain damage. what is it?



∙ Somatic nervous system: controls sensory input and motor output

Autonomic nervous system

∙ Autonomic nervous system: controls the internal organs ∙ Sympathetic nervous system: mobilizes the body during  periods of emotions and stress

∙ Dilates the pupils, accelerates heartbeat, improves airflow in  the lungs

∙ Parasympathetic nervous system: manages the body's "rest  and digest" and "feed-and-breed" processes

∙ Constricts pupils, slows heart rate, increases digestion The Brain If you want to learn more check out Can cognitive processes be inferred from neuroimaging data?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four questions banks are most interested in?

∙ Brainstem:

∙ Connects the brain to spinal cord


What is the formation of new neurons?



∙ Helps maintain consciousness and regulates sleep cycle ∙ Regulates the heart and lungs

∙ Carries motor and sensory information between the brain and  the face Don't forget about the age old question of It eliminates the possibility of future gain or loss due to unexpected changes in the exchange rate. what is it?

∙ Medulla:

∙ Part of the brain stem

∙ Controls "primitive" functions: heart, breathing ∙ Pons:

∙ Part of the brain stem

∙ Regulates sleep/wake cycle

∙ May play a role in dreaming

∙ Cerebellum:

∙ Regulates movement and balance

∙ Involved in reflexes, simple motor skills, and classical  conditioning

∙ Diencephalon:

∙ Includes the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the pineal  gland

∙ Thalamus:

∙ "Relay center" for sensory information

∙ Hypothalamus:

∙ Controls basic drives

 Hunger, thirst, sex

∙ Controls bodily functions If you want to learn more check out Who is the daughter of numitor and the mother of romulus and remus?

 Body temp, autonomic nervous system

∙ Cerebrum:

∙ Largest brain structure

∙ Controls most sensory, motor and cognitive processes The Cerebrum If you want to learn more check out What is defined as the process in which people attempt to influence other people's perceptions through information in social interaction like the style of dress by turner­bowker?

∙ Higher mental functions concentrated in the cerebral cortex, a collection of several thin layers of cells that surrounds the  cerebrum

∙ The outermost layer is where most of the action takes place ∙ The more wrinkles in the outside of the brain, the higher the  organisms ability to process information

∙ Total surface area of the cerebral cortex:

∙ Cat= 83 cm2

∙ Human= 25,000 cm2

∙ Killer whale= 74,000 cm2

∙ This does not mean killer whales are more intelligent than  humans If you want to learn more check out What are the rules for assigning oxidation numbers?

∙ They have larger body mass, thus their brain mass is higher ∙ Humans have a proportionately larger brain mass compared  to body mass

∙ The brain is divided into 4 lobes

∙ Frontal lobe: advanced cognitive abilities, motor control,  aspects of memory, language

∙ Temporal Lobe: emotions, hearing, aspects of memory,  language, perception, and vision

 Amygdala: involved in emotions

 Hippocampus: involved in the creation of new spatial and  declarative memories

∙ We know what the parts of the brain do because some people  do not have certain parts of the brain, these people have  been studied and compared to people with these parts ∙ Occipital lobe: visual information

∙ Located at the back of the head

∙ Parietal lobe: sensory information, spatial awareness and  navigation, interpreting symbols

∙ Motor Cortex: located in the rear of the frontal lobe ∙ Controls skeletal muscles

∙ "output"

∙ Sensory cortex: located in the front of the parietal lobe ∙ Processes sensory information from the body

∙ "input"

∙ Broca's Area: located in the left frontal lobe

∙ Plays an important role in speech production

∙ Wernicke's area: located in the left temporal lobe ∙ Involved in language comprehension

∙ Paul Broca:

∙ Studied the brain of a man who suffered a progressive loss of  speech shortly before his death (1861)

∙ Conducted autopsies of other brains, showing evidence of  language localization

∙ Carl Wernicke:

∙ Continued Broca's work, discovered other speech deficits  stemming from damaged brains

 Examples: persons may speak nonsensically; persons may  comprehend speech, but cannot repeat it

∙ Language centers: Wernicke's Area decodes written or spoken words

∙ Broca's Area helps generate speech

∙ Motor cortex controls the skeletal muscles used in speech ∙ Corpus Callosum: connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain

Split-Brain Procedure

∙ Split-brain procedure: in the past, the corpus callosum was  severed in a small number of cases to reduce the severity of  epileptic seizures

∙ Essentially created a firewall, reducing seizures  Resulted in 2 different brains inside the same head ∙ Most of the time, individuals would act normally ∙ Sometimes, they could not name objects shown to the right  

hemisphere, but if asked to select these objects with their left  hand, they succeeded

Studying the Brain

∙ Brain damage studies: research focused on persons with  partially-damaged brains

∙ Limitations:

∙ Damage must be localized and survivable

∙ Behavioral change must be observable before death, brain  must be observable after death

∙ Few cases, none exactly alike

∙ Phineas Gage: Blasting foreman working for a railroad  company. Survived an explosion that sent a metal rod  through his brain

∙ The physician who studied him claimed he had a childish  intellectual capacity after his accident

 He became irresponsible and was no longer the same  individual to his friends and family

∙ Because his frontal lobe was severely damaged ∙ Importance of research:

∙ The brain and nervous system provide the biological basis for  thought, emotions, and behavior

∙ The brain changes whenever learning occurs

∙ The brain also changes over the lifespan

∙ Abnormalities in thought, emotions, behavior presumably  involve some form of dysfunction within the brain  Ex: OCD, ADHD

∙ Alcohol and other drugs damage alter brain function  Addiction has a biological component

∙ Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer disease, and dementia involve  the destruction of brain tissue

∙ The brain is not especially large, but it is incredibly complex ∙ Studying the brain works best when a given brain function is  highly localized

∙ Ex: amygdala

∙ Brain damage studies: research focused on persons with  partially-damaged brains

∙ Lesion method: intentional destruction of small parts of  animal brains

∙ Allows systematic study of the effects of brain damage ∙ Difficult to achieve precise results

∙ Can only be performed on nonhumans

∙ Has revealed that the brain has some natural capacity for  recovery

∙ Has revealed that many aspects of the brain functioning are  not localized

∙ Issues with brain damage/lesion studies:

∙ Its rare for the damage to entirely affect one region within the brain and not also affect adjacent regions

∙ Examining damaged brains sheds limited light on hoe to brain normally functions

∙ Identifying the function of parts of the brain and  understanding how to prevent/treat neurological dysfunction  are different things

∙ EEG (electroencephalogram): measures the electrical activity  of the brain

∙ MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): shows structure of the  brain

∙ PET Scan (Positron-emission tomography): measures the  biochemical activity of the brain

∙ Allows users the visually see how active every part of the  brain is

∙ Blue- least activity

∙ Red- most activity

∙ Some other methods:

∙ Isolation of individual neurons

 In vitro or in vivo

∙ Establishment of animal models of neurological injury, disease ∙ Behavioral disease

∙ Behavioral genetics

∙ No single study can definitively establish how a given part of  the brain works

∙ Instead, researchers rely on a variety of methods and look for  convergent evidence

Neurons

∙ Dendrites: receive information from other neurons ∙ Cell body: keeps the neuron alive; decides whether the neuron will fire

∙ Axon: fiber that conducts impulses away from the cell body ∙ Axon terminals: produce and release neurotransmitters ∙ Myelin sheath: cells that surround and protect axons ∙ Action potential: an electrical pulse that travels from the cell  body to the axon terminals

Action potential

∙ The resting potential of a neuron is -70 mV

∙ Incoming signals alter the charge: excitatory signals increase  the charge; inhibitory signals decrease the charge ∙ With enough excitation, an action potential will occur

∙ The action potential operates according to the all-or-none  principal: neurons either fire off a message of they don’t ∙ Neurons can fire with varying frequency but not varying  intensity

∙ The myelin sheath increases 100-fold the speed of the action  potential

∙ Synapse: connection point between 2 neurons

∙ Includes an axon terminal and dendrites

∙ Synaptic cleft: the gap between an axon terminal and dendrite ∙ Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that travel from one  neuron to another

∙ Neurotransmitters are released when the action potential  reaches the axon terminals

∙ Neurotransmitters bind with receptor sites on the dendrites of  another neuron

∙ Unused neurotransmitters are reabsorbed (reuptake) or  destroyed chemically

Neurotransmitters

∙ Serotonin: involved in mood

∙ Low levels are associated with depression

∙ Norepinephrine: involved in waking from sleep ∙ Sleeping pills block norepinephrine

∙ Dopamine: involved in voluntary movement

∙ Low levels are associated with Parkinson's disease  Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine

∙ Acetylcholine: involved in memory

∙ Low levels are associated with Alzheimer's disease ∙ Psychoactive drugs can:

∙ Increase or decrease the release of neurotransmitters ∙ Prevent reuptake of neurotransmitters

∙ Block receptors

∙ The result is an overstimulation of certain brain circuits and a  brief euphoric high

∙ When drugs wear off, depletion of neurotransmitters cause  users to crash

∙ Alcohol affects different parts of the brain depending on  amount consumed

∙ Slurred speech, loss of inhibition, poor coordination ∙ Precise drug effects depend on:

∙ Physical factors

 such as body weight, metabolism

∙ Past use of the drug

∙ Psychological factors

 Such as expectations about the drugs effects

∙ Learning and the environment

 Where and why the drug is used

∙ Using a drug after a surgery and not feeling addiction vs.  finding it in a cabinet and becoming addicted

Nervous Systems

∙ Somatic nervous system: in PNS; responsible for sensory input (senses) and motor output (movement)

∙ Autonomic nervous system: in PNS; responsible for internal  organs

∙ Includes sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic  nervous system

∙ Sympathetic nervous system: part of the autonomic nervous  system;

∙ PNS: sends messages to organs that ready the body for  stressful events (fight or flight)

Learning and Memory

∙ Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons

∙ Most people are born will all of the brain cells they will ever have

∙ Adult neurogenesis is limited to only a few small portions of  the brain

∙ Occurs in the striatum: involved in learning and cognition  (decision making) and the Dentate Gyrus: part of the  hippocampus; involved in episodic memory

∙ Plasticity: changes in the brain structure and function ∙ Results from learning or repair after an injury

∙ Increases in synaptic connections (dendritic growth) and  strengthening of existing connections

 Neurons can form new branches, these changes occur in the  synapsis

∙ Rats raised in an enriched environment develop more  synaptic connections and learn new tasks quicker

∙ Adults with a college degree show more synaptic connections  in the brains language centers than adults without college  degrees

∙ Procedural memory: cerebellum

∙ Long-term memory: stored in neural networks that extend  throughout the frontal and temporal lobes

∙ Neural networks: may involve thousands or millions of  neurons

∙ How information moves through the system depends on how  neurons are connected and the relative weights (strength) of  those connections

∙ Provide a model for the biological basis of learning ∙ Neural networks explain why:

 Long term memory appears to have infinite capacity  Long term memories don’t exist in just 1 place

∙ are not vulnerable to damage because of this

∙ An instructive exception is Alzheimer's disease

 Much of the tissue is affected, so much of the activity  between neurons is reduced

Biological rhythms

∙ Biological rhythms: a biological clock that governs  physiological functioning and that is "set" by external events ∙ Ex: menstrual cycle, sleep-wake cycle

∙ Circadian rhythms: a 24-hour biological rhythm, such as the  sleep/wake cycle

Sleep

∙ The exact function of sleep is uncertain

∙ Sleep may enable us to repair cells, strengthen the immune  system, recover abilities lost during the day, eliminate waste  products from muscles

Species

Sleep time

% of day

Horse

2.9 hr

12%

Human

8 hr

33.3%

Dog

10.6 hr

44.3%

∙ Herbovires sleep least, omnivores in the middle, and  carnivores sleep most

∙ Because herbivores don’t want to be eaten and sleep is when  they are vulnerable

∙ To examine sleep, researchers can:

∙ Measure breathing, HR, temp

∙ Use eeg to measure brain activity

 Has been especially informative

∙ Observe movement

∙ Obtain self-reports from participants

∙ Awake and alert: irregular, low-amplitude, high frequency  changes

∙ Alpha waves: present when deeply relaxed or drowsy; more  rhythmic than normal brainwaves

∙ Stage 1; sleep: drifting on the edge of consciousness/ light  sleep. Alpha waves give way to theta waves

∙ Stage 2; sleep: minor noises no longer disturb sleep. Sleep  spindles appear in EEG patterns

∙ Stage 3; sleep: breathing and pulse have slowed down. Delta  waves appear

∙ Stage 4; sleep: deep sleep. Delta waves remain ∙ Difficult to awaken from stages 3 and 4

∙ REM sleep: associated with increased eye movement, loss of  muscle tone (muscular paralysis) and dreaming

∙ Eachc stage of sleep usually lasts for 1 1/2 hours at a time Dream theories

∙ Psychodynamic theory: Freud concluded that dreams provide  insight into the unconscious

∙ Manifest content includes aspects of the dream people  consciously experience and latent content includes  unconscious wishes and thoughts symbolized in the dream ∙ Cognitive theory: dreams are related to cognitive activity

∙ Dreams frequently are related to daily life. Perhaps dreaming  is partly how a person works out concerns over relationships,  work, sex, and health

∙ Another view is that dreams = unfocused thought, because  during sleep because the mind is cut off from external  stimulation

∙ Activation sympathies theory: dreams are by-products of  random neural activity originating in the pons

∙ Brain regions that handle logical thought are relatively  inactive

∙ Dream about ex boyfriend/ girlfriend:

∙ Psychodynamic: poorly-disguised wish fulfillment ∙ Cognitive: person considers what it might be like if/when they  see this person again; person thinks about how to better  handle relationships

∙ Activation-synthesis: a memory involving the person was  randomly activated, which the mind interpreted as being with  the person again

Sensation and Perception

∙ Sensation: the experience of sensory stimulation ∙ Ex. Touch, vision, hearing, tastes, smell

∙ Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting raw  sensory information

∙ Sense receptors: neurons that turn contact with a specific  sensory stimulus into an electrical signal

∙ Absolute threshold: the minimal sensory information that is  needed for perception

Vision: The Eye

∙ Cornea: clear outer membrane that bends light to focus it in  the eye

∙ Pupil: the hole in the iris through which light passes ∙ Lens: the structure that focuses light on the retina ∙ Retina: lining in the back of the eye that contains visual  receptor cells

∙ Rod cells: responsible for night vision

∙ Cone cells: responsible for color vision

Trichromatic Theory

∙ Sensory cells respond either to red, blue or green light ∙ Color mixing allows us to see other colors

∙ Fovea: center of our field of vision; includes the greatest  concentration of cone cells

∙ Ganglion cells: integrate signals from multiple rod/cone cells  and transmit information to the brain

∙ Opponent-process theory: ganglion cells respond to either red  or green, blue or yellow, or black or white

∙ Axons of ganglion cells form the optic nerve

∙ Creates a blind spot

∙ Information is sent through the thalamus to the visual cortex ∙ Feature detectors: cells in the visual cortex that are sensitive  to specific features of the environment

∙ Some cells in the cortex respond to faces and other specfic  shapes

∙ Visual agnosia: a visual disability that is characterized by  seeing without knowing the meaning of what is seen ∙ Prosopagnosia: loss of ability to recognize faces resulting from brain damage

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