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SDSU / Engineering / JMS 200 / What is “convergence” in mass media?

What is “convergence” in mass media?

What is “convergence” in mass media?


School: San Diego State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Intro Contemporary Media
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: textbook, questions, JMS, and 200
Cost: 50
Name: Textbook Exam Study Guide
Description: Answers all textbook chapter questions
Uploaded: 10/09/2018
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Chapter 1: Converging Communications

What is

“convergence” in

mass media? Give

some specific


List some major

mergers in the mass media lately and list their impacts

What can the media, especially the news media, do to improve their credibility?

What are the

problems associated with hyping and

hoaxing in the media?

What could/should the media do to reduce the hpe and protect themselves and

Convergence: doing more than 1 thing at a time ● surfing the Internet while watching the news Examples: 

● Early sign of convergence was when  

audience studies revealed that people  

increasingly surf the Internet while watching  TV

● Study found that 20% of American  

households have the computer and TV on at  the same time

● TV Radio 

○ In a country with a high rate of  

illiteracy, radio and television inform  

and educate even as they entertain.  

They reach out to a huge portion of the

population. The progress of technology

has made mass media more accessible

to people.

● Broadcasters merging with newspapers ○ Newspapers had the potential to reach  a wide audience

○ More entertaining 

● Be more honesty about circumstance of  photographs

● Be more honest in general and note lie to  pursue interests (gain readership)

● Be more ethical 

○ The media must address ethics early  on in their careers not just ratings,  

circulation figures, profit margins, and  

competition from peers.

● Cause the media to lose public’s confidence ● Put media’s credibility at risk 

● Make sure their sources are credibly before  introducing information to the public

What is “convergence” in mass media?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of material culture?

consumers from


List the SEVEN major roles and

responsibilities of

mass media


What was the

Commission on

Freedom of the Press and what did it do?

1. To inform 

a. Provide us with information about  

what’s going on in our community

b. Give knowledge about local, national  and international news

2. To educate 

a. Long-term knowledge 

3. To establish public policies 

a. Gives us background we need to make  decisions on how we should act

4. To bring social change 

a. Media helps people make up their  


5. To entertain 

a. Movies, newspapers, magazines, etc... 6. To serve as a vehicle for advertising 

a. 60% of daily newspapers and  

magazines are ads

b. 30% of radio and television are  


7. To serve as watchdog 

a. Top 3 news-magazines that publish  

investigative reports:

i. Times, News Week, and U.S  

News & World Report

Commission on Freedom of the Press: A  commission of scholars business people in  community leaders what who were tired of  sensational and irresponsible News reporting.

● Suggested guidelines for the news media so  they could operate in a socially responsible  manner.

● Argued for rules and guidelines 

● Force media organizations to conduct  themselves in a more responsible manner ● Pushed media to be a factual,  

comprehensive, and intelligent account of

What can the media, especially the news media, do to improve their credibility?

Don't forget about the age old question of Who is byron peterson?

List NINE major

problems journalist face when attempting to live up to their roles and responsibilities

What are some of the major problems and pressures facing the mass media?

Who regulates mass media and what are the major regulations?

How do mass media influence people?

Define the following: ● News 

● Information

the day’s events in a context that gives them meaning

● Provide a way to present goals & values in  society

● Media should keep a close eye on  

government actions and provide criticism if  warranted

● Provide fair and balanced coverage on news  that is reported

1. Selectivity v. Objectivity 

2. Legal entanglements 

3. Fairness & Balance 

4. Rating/circulation wars 

5. Thorough reporting 

6. Serving the public v. Making money 

7. Proactive v. Reactive reporting 

8. Fear of investigation 

9. Ethical dilemmas 

● The pressures are mostly self-generated and  depend on an individual’s mood or physical  state

● Advertisers, politicians, special interest  groups, social scientists, and other media’s  critics attempt to influence decision making ● Job related pressures, consumers, laws 

● The media regulates by various trade  associations and the public

● Not the government 

● Major regulations: 

○ Accuracy 

○ Responsibility 

○ Completeness 

○ Professional behavior 

○ Objectivity 

● media influences people by creating an  image or reaction that influences readers

What are the problems associated with hyping and hoaxing in the media?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is social class?

● Entertainment 

● Persuasive


What are the

percentages of news vs. advertising

content for the major mass media?

What are the major problems associated with trying to balance the rights of mass

media with individual rights?

What are the major restrictions on

freedom of speech and freedom of the press?

What are some of the major criticisms of

mass media conduct and content? Who are the major critics?

What are DVRs and what do they do?


News: noteworthy info about recent events Information: definite knowledge acquired by  someone

Entertainment: providing amusement or  entertainment

Persuasive communication: communication  concerned with inducing adoption of certain beliefs or theories by others

● newspapers- 65% ads: 20% news 

● entertainment- 10% 

● editorials/opinions- 5% 

● one's' internalized religious, familial, and  experiential background will create a highly  individualized decision making- potential

● advertisers, politicians, special interest  groups, social scientists, and other media  critics attempt to influence decision making ● job related pressures or career  

enhancing/threatening possibilities

● The laws of libel, slander, privacy and  copyright. Freedom of the press is extended  only to information of genuine public concern and is up to the courts to define what the  public should genuinely be concerned about.  

● Invasion of privacy, defamation of character,  sexually-oriented material.

● We have copyright laws, libel laws, news  regulations, a federal trade rate commission  regulating advertising, And a restriction that  we cannot shout fire in a crowded theater  when there is a fire.

● complain word gossip and violence said ● it is the general public that criticizes

Don't forget about the age old question of Which is the brightest star?

Why are concerns

about the “digital

divide” declining?

What were the major media-related impacts of the terrorist attacks on September 11,


What were the major research finding from studies about trust in the news media,

media consumption, news consumption and the job market for mass media students?

● DVRS = Digital Video Recorders 

● record live TV; can be viewed later, but  skews ratings because not everything is  always watched

● single device can obtain several different  forms of media

● media agreed to share information to  educated viewers

● video game manufacturers delayed the  launch of "shooting games"

● 45% have good trust in the media 

● 55% have bad trust in the media

We also discuss several other topics like What is hallucinogens?

Chapter 2: The Process of Communication

What are the basic elements of the

Lasswell Model and the Shannon Model of the communication process?

Lasswell Model:

1. WHO: the source/communicator/encoder 2. WHAT: a message of content

3. WHOM: receiver/decoder/audience

4. CHANNEL: carrier/conduit/medium


a. If no effect, then no communication  

has taken place

Simply stated:  

● WHO say WHAT to WHOM through a  

CHANNEL with usually some EFFECT

SHANNON Model:  

1. SOURCE (who)

2. MESSAGE (what)

3. SIGNAL (channel)

★ NOISE: anything added to the signal  

not intended by the source


● Model reminds us that that one of our  common problems in communication is  

overcoming any interference

What is the SMCR

Model and what do each of the letters

stand for?

What are the basic types of “noise” in the SMCR model that can inhibit effective

communication? Give TWO examples of

each type.

Why do some scholars believe the SMCR

SMCR Model: a simple, useful model to help  explain how communication works

S: sender

M: message

C: channel

R: receiver

Sender - encoder - Message - Channel - decoder - Receiver

1. Semantic

a. Problems related to definitions,  

meaning, and understandings

i. When receiver doesn’t  

understand meaning of sender’s  

word, then communication is  


b. When sender and receiver doesn't  

have similar past experiences

2. Technical

a. Problems related to poor reception or  mistakes

i. When receiver cannot  

adequately hear or see the  

sender’s message because of  

static, low volume, small print,  


3. Situational

a. Involves problems related to aspects  associated with the environments of  

both the sender and the receiver

i. If either the sender or receiver is  

distracted during the  

communication process, then  

communication is ineffective

b. Can occur when either sender/receiver  is ill or in a bad mood

i. Not in a receptive mood

● They believe communication is a continuous

We also discuss several other topics like What is chevron doctrine?

model should be

written as a circle?

What are some of the major concerns

related to the SMCR model?

What are the

elements associated with the HUB model of mass communication?

What are the basic elements of the


research process and

process with senders and receivers changing roles constantly  

○ When a receiver turns into a sender,  the information they send back is  

called feedback

■ Feedback can be given in the  

form of head nods, smiles,  

frowns, quizzical looks

● Circle SMCR is good for interpersonal  communication

○ When we communicate face to face,  over the phone, on the Internet, we  

receive feedback immediately

● Linear SMCR better represents most mass  communication episodes

○ Feedback is rarely given back  


○ Feedback is given back in the forms of  comments, emails, complaints

● Determining purpose of sender

● Judging the credibility of sender

● Analyzing the mechanics and content of the  message

● Using feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of the message

HUB Model of Mass Communication: provides  a good representation of the complex process of  mass communication

● Elements:  

○ Sources of information

○ Communicators

○ Codes/standards/traditions of  

professional organizations

○ Ethics- personal and profession

○ The role of “gatekeepers”

○ The role of government and other  


○ Filters- personal and organizational

what are the aisc

types of research


List and define TEN theories of media


○ Audiences  

1. Question  

2. Hypothesis

3. Tested by means of observation/experiments 4. Gather data/record observations

Research Methodologies:  

● Content analysis

● Case study

○ Heavy observation based compared to  others which are heavily number based

● Sample survey

● experiment

1. Stimulation Theory

a. People can be stimulated to believe  

things and even to do things because  

of mass media message they see  

and/or hear

b. “Monkey see, monkey do”

c. Suggests that “normal people” can be  motivated to do something “abnormal”

by a mass media message

2. Modeling Theory

a. People model their behavior after what they read, hear and see in the mass  


b. Suggest that people who might be  

predisposed to act in certain ways find  

“models” in the mass media to help  

them decide how to conduct their own  


i. EX: “be like Mike” Michael Jordan


1. Wanted to look and act like


2. Bought his merch

3. Conversion theory

a. Suggests mass media can actually  

change people’s minds

b. Research seems to indicate that if  

people believe in something, they’re  

unlikely to change

c. It may cause you to THINK about your  position, but it’s unlikely to cause you  

to change your position

4. Reinforcement theory

a. Suggests people seek out mostly  

messages that confirm and justify our  


b. Makes us feel better about ourselves

c. Less likely to read about a candidate  we don’t like because it might  

contradict our feelings

5. Activation/Crystallization Theory

a. Suggests mass media helps crystallize  foggy notions and encourage people to

take action

b. Help people focus and clarify the  

component parts of their various  

beliefs, attitudes, and values

c. Act as a catalyst to prompt people to  act on their convictions a bit sooner  

that they might otherwise have done  

had they not been exposed to such  


6. Catharsis Theory

a. Being exposed to news stories or  

fictional accounts about mass murder  

hostage taking, sexual assault,  

robbery, hijacking, tax fraud, adultery,  

etc… serves as a deterrents to such  

undesirable behavior

b. Not much support

7. Agenda-Setting theory

a. Deals with the question: Do the mass

What are the major problems associated with the various

theories of media


List and define FOUR major theories of the press.

media tell people what to think and be  

concerned about or do the mass media

simply deal with what people are  

thinking and are concerned about?

b. Sometimes mass media help set the  

public agenda and sometimes the  

mass media simly deal with items and  

issues from a public agenda that has  

already been set

c. Just apart of the daily mosaic that  

helps us decide what to be interested  

in and what to care about

8. Cultivation theory

a. Suggests that people get many of their ideas, perceptions, and understandings

about their neighbors, community,  

nation and world from mass media

b. Can be pervasive and powerful,  

especially in the absence of personal  


c. Research shows that people too often  get a distorted picture of reality from  

the media

9. Minimal Effects Theory

a. Suggests that mass media messages  don’t have much effect at all on the  

beliefs, attitudes, values or action of  


b. Interpersonal relationships have been  found to be more influential than mass  

media messages in shaping opinions  

and motivating actions

10. Trivilization thoery

a. Suggests that most of the time, the  

mass media simply trivialize what it is  

they focus on

What is the “Make-a Buck Theory” of the press?

1. Promoting Action

2. Inhibiting Action

3. Providing poor models

4. Promoting poor values

5. Casing depression

6. Distorting reality

7. Adding little or no value

1. Authoritarian Theory:

a. Private operation of media, but with  

government control

b. Individuals or companies in favor with  officials were the ones given the  

opportunity to operate

c. Censorship and review of content was  common

d. Severe punishments for any digression  from government policy

2. Communist Theory:

a. Media were not in private hands

i. Owned and operated by the  

communist party

b. Requires media support of the policies  and aims of government

3. Libertarian theory:

a. Described as a reaction to the  

Authoritarian theory

b. Individual expected to be rational

c. Based on the ideals of democracy,  

representative government, national  

rights of the individual, and a freedom  

that would end only when the rights of  

others were abused

4. Social Responsibility theory:

a. Developed as it became clear that the  Libertarian theory simply was not  

working well in modern society

i. People did not have the time to  

read several newspapers and

What are some of

negative impacts

associated with the media coverage and portrayal of crime and violence?

What were the major findings of the study by economists on the

effects of violent films on the rates of real world assaults?

About how much

television are babies watching and why do parents say they

permit their children to become TV


What were the major findings of the

research studies

concerning pay-TV

“cord-cutting” and

video viewing?

magazines, listen to numerous  

radio stations, etc…

ii. Control over media outlets was  

becoming more and more  


b. This theory encouraged media owners, operators, and practitioners to be  

“socially responsible”

i. Cornerstone is providing fair and  

complete information even if it  

might be contrary to the views of

media moguls

● Used the term hogwash to describe his  opinion of the Social Responsibility theory ○ The media were not safeguarding  

society, nor enlightening it

○ The media are prostitutes to the  

purchasing units forming the American  

corporate state

■ Centered on advertising function  

of the media

● People have a distorted picture of the  percentage crimes committed by young  people

● Mass media can help cultivate public  perceptions, so it is critical that the  

messages are mirrors of reality rather than  distortions that reinforce stereotypes

● When violent films are screened on  

weekends, the incidents of real-world violent  crime actually decrease

● Analyzed a decade worth of statistics and  discovered that assaults decreased by about  1,000 per weekend when violent films were  screened

○ No increase in assault rates was found  in the weeks following such screenings  

as well

● Critics pointed to decades of research that  has found that the brutality found in media

How’s Blockbuster

doing these days?

promotes aggressive behavior, especially  among people predisposed to violent acts ○ The displays of violence serve to  

increase the growing desensitization  

toward violence that pervades much of


● Two thirds of babies (one year or less) watch  more than one hour of TV everyday

● Parents indicated that they permitted TV  watching because it served as a sort of an  “electronic babysitter” and made it possible  for them to watch TV programs on other  television sets

● Number of pay TV subscribers declined by  251,000 in 2013

● “Cord-cutting” was especially bad for the  cable TV industry with about 2 million  


○ Satellite companies added about  

170,000 subscribers and telephone  

company TV services added about 1.6  

million subscribers

● Despite the losses, 85% of US households  still subscribe to some sort of pay TV service ○ Fees have been growing at 6%  

annually and if that pace continues,  

experts predict that US consumers will  

be paying about $200 per month for  

basic TV service by 2020

● Video viewing  

○ Changing dramatically among  

millennials (18-24 yrs)

■ Smartphone streaming (20%)

■ Tablets (15%)

■ Live TV (10%)

■ DVRs (7%)

● At one point Blockbuster had more than  9,000 retail stores

● By 2014, they did not exist

Chapter 3: Mass Media Economics

What are some of the basic elements of the Telecommunications Act of 1996?

● Made it easier for companies to merge and  center new and exciting areas

● One of the major goals was to free up the  marketplace and make it more pro

competitive and less regulated

● Hope for greater freedom would lead to  more research and development in  

telecommunications that would result in  more and cheaper choices for consumers ● Hoped that cable TV companies would begin  to compete with one another by providing  similar ranges of services  

○ This competition would lead to better  and cheaper choices  

● Interesting economic-related components: ○ A company or network is permitted to  own as many TV stations as it wants as

long as the combined reach of the  

stations is no greater than 35% of the  


○ A company or network can own as  

many eight radio stations in a given

List TEN of the major mergers/buyouts in mass media.

(see page 53) 

What are the likely impacts associated with media



○ A company or network can wn as  

many A tV station and a cable TV  

system in the same area

○ Cable TV systems can charge  

whatever they want for standard  


★ For timeline of the evolution of media giants  buying eachother out, see page 52

1. CBS-Viacom merger created the country’s  second largest media company

2. American Online and Time Warner merged in $106 billion deal in 2001

3. NBC bought Bravo cable entertainment from  Cablevision Systems, Corp. for $1.25 billion  in 2002

4. NBC merged with vivendi Universal  

entertainment in $14 billion deal in 2003 5. Sony Corp. of america bought Metro

Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) in 2004

a. Comcast joined sny at the last moment in the $4.8 billion deal

6. Comcast and Time Warner jointly bought out Adelphia for $17.5 million in 2006

7. Walt Disney Company sold its 22 ABC Radio  Stations and its ABC network to Citadel  

Broadcasting for $3 billion

8. Knight ridder (second largest newspaper  company in WS) was sold to the McClatchy  Company in $4.5 million cash and stock deal

9. Two TV “netlets” Merged in 2006 to create  CW, CBS, and Warner Brothers  

entertainment combined their UPN and WB  network to create the CW

10. 2007- merger of the two major  satellite radio companies, Sirius and XM,  began

● Bigger, meaner, more diverse, more  powerful, more profitable companies

● Many more opportunities for cross

promotions, multiple uses of content, and

What are the basic types of economic

support systems for the mass media?

What are the average “profit margins” for the various news

media organizations?

What techniques do news media

organizations use to attract an advertisers?

discounted advertising rates for companies ● Money and plenty of it for those on the  “inside”

○ For those on the “outside” may mean  bankruptcy

● may mean fewer voices reaching the  american consumer

1. Consumer supported 

a. Consumers pay most, if not all, of the  costs associated with producing and  

distributing the product

i. Recording industry 

1. “pay/premium” cable  

television-- HBO, Cinemax,  


ii. Book publishing industry 

2. Advertising supported 

a. Advertisers pay most, if not all, of the  costs associated with producing and  

distributing the product

i. Radio, broadcast television,  

“freebie” newspapers and most  

web sites

3. Consumer and advertiser supported 

a. Advertisers pay for most of the costs  associated with producing and  

distributing the product but consumers

contribute as well

i. Newspapers, magazines, regular  

cable television

4. government/private subsidy supported a. government/foundations/organizations or individuals contribute money to  

cover the costs of producing and  

distributing the product

i. Public radio, public television, in

house “newsletters”  

● Daily Newspapers: 15-20% 

○ Normal successful business: 13% 

● Magazines: 10% 

● Radio: 7-10%

How does the

economic theory of “supply and demand” work in mass media?

What are the

economic trends in the daily newspaper


What are the problems associated with the economic aspects of the daily newspaper business?

What are the

economic trends in the magazine business?

What is meant by

“shared revenue” in the magazine


What are the problems associated with the economic aspects of

● Television: 20% 

● Supply something that advertisers desire  and advertisers are willing to pay what mass media wants

● Supply: availability of specific space and  time at a fair price

● Demand: amount of the desire to purchase  such space and time plus the ability to pay  for it

● Fewer than 10% sell more than 100,000  copies/day

● More than half sell fewer than 25,000  copies/day

● Fewer than 50 cities have more than one  newspaper and in about 25% of those cities,  the “competitors” have entered into a “Joint  Operating Agreement”

● Advertising usually accounts for 75% of  newspaper’s annual revenue

○ Ad rates are determined by circulation  figures

1. Loss of diversity 

2. Loss of uniqueness 

3. Absentee owners 

4. Bottom-line orientation 

5. High costs 

6. Advertiser influence 

7. Increased competition for ad revenues 

● Profit margin= 10% 

● 50% of revenue from advertising 

● Subscription sales account for 33% 

● Single-copy sales 17% 

● Important concept in magazine business

the magazine


What are the THREE major ways that radio station make money?

What are the

economic trends in the radio business?

What are the problems associated with the economic aspects of the radio business?

Why are many local television news

operations having

economic problems?

What are the

economic trends in the television business?

What are the problems associated with the economic aspects of television business?

● Magzine publishers “share” subscription  revenues with distributors, wholesalers, and  retailers

○ Publisher usually ends up with about  half of what he/she charges for  


1. Too many mouths to feed 

2. Production costs are too high 

3. Specialization frenzy 

4. Time constraints 

5. New technologies 

6. Dependence on “freelancers” 

1. selling spots to local retailers 

a. 85% of a local station’s revenue is  

generated by advertising that is sold  

to local retailers

2. selling spots to national advertisers 

3. getting a % of the money paid to networks  by advertisers

● + 1/2 of Americans still listen to radio ● 86% listen some of the time 

● 75% listen to stay up to date 

● 58% regularly tune in while in their cars 

1. Salaries are low 

2. Formula programming 

3. “Shock” radio 

4. News linked to programming 

5. Payola 

6. Gimmicks 

7. Less news 

● Video rentals 

● More cable channels 

● Some dissatisfaction with programming ● More competition for advertising dollars 

● 80% of local TV revenue comes from  advertising

What are some of the most recent examples of consolidation in the media industries?

● spots sold to local retailers and 15% sold to  national advertisers

● 5% networks who play local stations 

1. Staff downsizing 

2. Utility players 

3. News increases  

4. Concentration of ownership 

5. Local control 

6. Advertiser influence 

7. flash/trash 

8. Unreliable ratings 

a. Accuracy of findings 

b. Poor samples 

9. Formula TV 

● In early 2014, Comcast agreed to pay & 45  billion for Time Warner Cable

● Nielsen paid $1.26 billion to acquire Arbitron ● Walt Disney Company paid more than $4  billion for Lucas film and the rights to future  Star wars

○ Acquired Marvel entertainment for $4  billion in 2009

○ Pixar Animation Studios for $17.4  

billion in 2006

Chapter 4: The History of Mass Media

Why is Johann

Gutenberg so

important in the

history of mass


What were the major early newspapers and who were the major publishers in the

american colonies?

Why is Benjamin

Franklin considered the the “father” of

American journalism?

What were the major newspapers and

publishers in the pre Revolutionary War


What were the most important early

magazines and who published them?

Who were the major players in the

development of the political press?

What were the major newspapers and who

● Modified a basic printing press to make it  less cumbersome, less laborious, and more  user-friendly

● His greatest invention was the movable type

● Boston News Letter- John Campbell

● Boston Gazette- William Brooker

● New England Courant- James Franklin ● Pennsylvania Gazette- Benjamin Franklin

● First to see that the newspaper could be a  vehicle for profit itself

● First to recognize the value of advertising as  the primary economic base of support for  publishing

● First to show that millions of dollars could be  made in newspapering

● First to see the value of chain ownership

● “Viewspapers”

○ Spreading dissent or supporting one  side of another of nationalists and  


● Gazette, Boston Gazette, Independent  Advertiser, Massachusetts Spy, New York  Journal

● General Magazine- Ben Franklin

● American Magazine- Andrew Bradford ● Christian heritage

● Royal American Magazine- Isiah Thomas ● Pennsylvania Magazine- Robert Aitken

● Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson

● New York Courier and Enquirer

● New York Journal of Commerce

● Journal of commerce- David Hale and Gerard

were the major editors and publishers during the 1800s?

Why are Joseph

Pulitzer and Randolph Hearst considered

giants in the history of journalism?

What is “muckraking?”

What were the major newspaper and names associated with “jazz journalism?”

What are the major “national” newspapers these days?

How are modern



● Courier and Enquirer- Colonel James Watson  Webb

● New York Herald- Bennett

● New York Sun- Benjamin Day

● New York Tribune- Horace Greeley

● New York Times- George Jones, E.B. Wesley,  Henry J. Raymond

● first to incorporated sex, violence, gossip  and trivia of the technique seen today

● Content gave him an opportunity to reach  the very people whose rights he wanted to  promote

○ Crusade for better working conditions  (sweatshops), increased education  

(especially for immigrants)

● Circulation was crazy!!

● journalists that racked up the filth, coined by Roosevelt in a attempt to discredit  

investigative journalism

○ Effort to function like private  

detectives, to perform public service  

by ferreting out corruption, meses,  

crime, malfeasance and misfeasance  

where law enforcement failed or was  

itself corrupt of slovenly

● Hearst- New York American

● Joseph Patterson- New York Daily News ● Robert R. McCormick- The illustrated Daily  News

● Morning American, Evening Journal, Daily  Mirror

● LA Times- Chandler Family

● St. Louis Post-Dispatch  

● Louisville Courier-Journal

● St. Petersburg times

● Atlanta Constitution & Atlanta Journal ● Miami Herald

● Philadelphia Inquirer

● Daily News


What have been the most significant

developments in the history of book


What were the major names and

developments in the history of radio and television news?

● New York Times

● Magazines categorizes by specialization ○ Deliver a demographically desired  

narrow set of readers that would  

appeal to a fairly low cost to a specific  


● Developing paperback

● New American Library, founded in 1960,  purchased by Times Mirror company

● Establishing publishing houses

● TV- Vladimir Azoykin and Philo Farnsworth ● KDKA- 1st commercially licensed radio  station in the US

● FM- Frequency Modulation- Edwin Armstrong

Chapter 5: Newspapers

What were some of the major newspaper scandals in the early part of the new

millenium and who were the reporters and editor involved?

How good is the

current “health” of the newspaper industry? Why?

What are the

differences and

similarities between morning and afternoon newspapers?

What have been the major changes in the newspaper industry in the last several years?

● NYT- editor Howell Raines and Managing  Editor Gerald Boyd; reporters Jayson Blair,  Rick Bragg

● Washington Post- reporter Janet cooke ● Boston Globe- reporters Patricia Smith, Mike  Barnicle

● It is slowly decreasing due to the lack of  readership

● more AM newspapers, they are harvested  before the night; PM can publish the morning news

● Hawkers on the corner were replaced by  TV+Radio Ads.  

○ smaller dailies

○ afternoon delivery in suburban and  

small communities

○ transportation habits in metro areas=  more noon TV news than morning

What are the trends associated with



How is the typical

newspaper organized? What are its major


What are the different categories of


What is the definition of news? What are the major

aspects/elements of news?

Who are the


“gatekeepers” and what do they do?

● the most common arrangement is the group, in which 2+ newspapers in diff. communities have common ownership; 10 biggest groups  have more than 1/3 of the circulation, 160  


● 5 departments: editorial, advertising,  circulation, production, business

● Head of departments: Publisher

● Each has a supervisor

● International/National Dailies

● Metropolitan/Regional Dailies

● Local Dailies

● General-Interest Non-Dailies (mostly  weeklies)

● Minority

● Foreign Language/Ethnic

● Religious

● Military

● Specialty (mostly business, entertainment,  sports)

● interests people

● unusual and out of the ordinary

● contains: consequence or significance,  conflict, timeliness, proximity, prominence,  and human interest

● make a chain with heat link carrying a  message on what to reject/allow as news  report information.

● Agenda Setting:

○ deals with the immediate plan for what the public cares about and is invested  


● Trivialization:

○ media messages make little of the  

reality and seriousness of situation in  

the media

● Middle Effects:

○ of all the impacts of media messages,  the real effects are minimal

What are the major press associations, wire services and


What are the major steps in the

newspaper production process?

What does the future look like for

newspapers? How

might new technology affects newspapers?

● Press Associations:

○ Associated Press and United press  


○ New York Associated press

○ Telegraphic & General News  

Association International News Service

● Syndicates:

○ Comic strips, puzzles, games, advice  to the lovelorn, general advice, &  


1. Type on a computer then seen on a video  display terminal

2. Letters appear as they are typed

3. Push button for story to be sent for a  photocopy

4. Fast machine prints on photographic papers 5. A negative photo is used to make an offset  printing plate

★ The computer does a lot of the work  

● Electronic distribution: News might become  a specialized commodity

● Internet news

○ Experts believe that the electronic  

delivery of the traditional newspaper  

soon might be the only economically  

viable way to survive

● There is a fear of loss of community and  shared knowledge that will result from  

individualized newspapers -“The Daily Me” ● 1/3 Americans read newspapers

● Higher educated citizens will become the  audience

What were the major findings from the

research studies

associated with

newspaper circulation, readership and

website use?

● 15,000 us magazines  

● 10000-20000 magazines published in the US

● 29%-read newspaper yesterday (down from  41% ten years ago)

● 30%- regularly read (down from 54% ten  years ago)

● newspaper websites have been gaining  visitors, but media organizations only get 10- 15% of total revenue from websites

Chapter 6: Magazines

What are some of the recent magazine

readership statistics?

What are the

differences between general-interest and

● ⅓ of Americans are heavy magazine users ● 90% of American adults read an average of  10 issues a month

● General-Interest

○ What most americans are interested in ■ Newsweek, Time, People


magazines? Give

specific examples of each.

What are the major types/subcategories of magazines. Give an example of each



What are the major jobs/staff positions in the magazine


● Special-Interest

○ Meet diverse Interests of Americans

■ Teen Vogue, Sports Illustrated

● News Magazines

○ TIME, US News & World Report

● Opinion Magazines

○ National Review

○ The Nation

● Men’s Interest Magazines

○ Popular Mechanics

○ Sports Illustrated

● Women’s Interest

○ Better Homes and Gardens

○ Woman’s Day

● Humor Magazines

○ Life

○ The National Lampoon

● City Magazines

○ San Diego Magazine

● Business Magazine

○ Forbes

○ Fortune

● Trade Journals

○ The American Brewer

○ Modern Machine Shop

● Company Publications

○ Arizona Highways

● Newsletters

● Academic Publications

● fact checkers, managing editors, freelancers, circulation, business admin.,  

manufacturing/distributing, advertising, art  director  

● writers who are paid by the article/word  count/ etc. No full time job/salary

What or who are


How has desktop

publishing and

computer technology changed the magazine industry?

What are many

magazines trying or planning to do in an attempt to remain

economically viable?

How are e-magazines doing these days?

What are the latest developments

concerning Newsweek and Ladies Home


● often they are paid $100-200 per article, but  $3,000 in larger magazines

● -small staffs

● -easier production

● -lost cost to production

● -ready supply of freelancers

● Combine the ease of production by going  online  

● Changed the magazine industry rather  dramatically to create even more future  changes

● Newsweek

○ Ceased print publication in 2013 and  went all-digital with Newsweek Global

● Ladies Home Journal

○ “User-generates”

○ Have users submit most of its content

Chapter 7: Books

Who were some of the big names in the

development of

printing? What did

they contribute?

What were the

highlights in the

development of


Who were the major players in book

publishing in colonial America? What did they contribute? Make note of all major


Who were the major authors in the 1800s?

What were major

publishing houses in the 1800s?

Who are the major

authors of the 20th

● Gutenberg

○ Came up with metal, multiple dues of  individual letters that could be put into

straight lines

○ Movable type for mass printing books ● William Caxton

○ Printed the first book

■ Iliad

● Friedrich Koenig

○ Redesigned the press so that printing  speed was tripled

● Hoe and Company

○ Rotary press in 1844 further increased  rate of printing

● Grinding up linen and cloth to create a  mulch that could be dried into a product  upon which inked marks could be pressed

● Benjamin Franklin produced Poor Richard’s  Almanac and Pamela by Samuel Richardson ● Bookstores were social and recreational to  those who could read

● Congress passed a copyright statute to  restrict the reprinting or importing of  

another story without the consent of the  author in 1790

● Harriet Beecher Stowe- Uncle Tom’s Cabin ● Frederick Douglass- Narrative of the Life of  Frederick Douglass

○ My bondage and my freedom

● William McGuffey- 6 children’s books

● Hoe and Company

● Benjamin Franklin’s publishing house

● Upton Sinclair- The Jungle

● HG Wells- Outlines of History

● Will Durant- Story of Philosophy

● Edith Wharton- the Age of Innocence

● F. Scott Fitzgerald- This Side of Paradise


What are the major publishing houses of the 20th century?

What have been the major effects of media mergers on book


Why are college

textbook sales


Why are paperbacks been described as one of the most significant developments in book publishing?

What is “perfect

binding” and why is it important?

● Ernest Hemingway- The Sun Also Rises ● Thomas Wolfe- Look Homeward Angel ● John Steinbeck- The Grapes of Wrath

● William Faulkner- Sartoris and Intruder in the Dust

● Alfred A. Knopf

● Simon and Schuster

● Stanley Rinehart

● Harcost and race

● McGraw-Hill  

● Prentice-Hall

● Simon & Schuster  

● Random House

● New means of storing, retrieving, and  delivering data made information

● Narrowness of the subject for each course ○ 30% Decrease in numbers of college  textbooks sold

○ Price to the student of a typical  

textbook has doubled

○ Prices gone up partially because of the Used Book Trade

● Able to reach larger audiences

● Expanded the audience for hardcover  authors

● It is a method of using adhesive to bind  books instead of sewing them

● This produced great savings when high speed presses and offset printing were used  in the production process

● Mass: Mainly distributed through chain  stores, supermarkets, drug stores, and also  in bookstores

What is the difference between mass-market paperbacks and trade paperbacks?

What happens to

paperbacks that don’t sell?

How much does it cost to market a book and what are the major techniques used to market books?

How many new books are produced each


How are bookstores doing these days and what are the major competitive

techniques used by such stores?

Why have book sales remained rather high even with all the new media competition?

What are the elements

● Trade: Often reprints of hardcover trade  books and can be more expensive and better made books

● They are either returned or destroyed

● $1 for each book sold  

● need to reach potential readers who would  otherwise be unaware of the book

● Techniques of advertising, promotion, and  marketing

● 100 New books or reprints

● Most likely part of a chain  

○ There are increasingly fewer chains  

because of mergers

● Opening superstores, large-scale purchasing, and a computerized inventory control

● Offering large inventory of books, music, in house café, and a public relations plan  

● Large section of titles -Small Independent  bookstores are surviving by specializing  ● Offer used books, Especially older, hard-to find, or out of print titles

● Continues to prosper:

○ Americans are buying 1.2 billion books a year

○ Books are not supported by  


○ Books have a long life

○ They are collected, maintained, and re read

○ They educate, inform, inspire, and  


○ They can exist with each medium that  comes along  

● Reading them -Electronic books -E-book  readers:

○ $300-$600 each

with e-books, e-book readers, and e

bookstores? What are the concerns

associated with e


What are the statistics related to the

readership of books?

What’s Amazon doing to encourage the

readership of printed books and e-books?

What’s the status of self-publishing in the book industry?

○ Accuracy of content

○ Charging publishers to promote  

products and not informing consumers

about it  

● 78% of all American say they read at least  one book a year

● More than 80% of young Americans read at  least 1 book a year

○ About 60% visit a local library

● About 75% of people under the age of 30  had read a printed book

○ 19% read an e-book

○ 11% listened to an audio book

● Reducing the price of digital books

● Deals

○ Ex: buy a printed book, then you get a  digital book for free

● Growing trend

○ 45% of the 400,000 print books  

published in the US are self-published

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