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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 6

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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 6

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: Week 6 PNB 2246
Description: These notes cover lecture power-points as well as any in class comments.
Uploaded: 10/09/2018
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background image PNB Week 6 Connective Tissue Structure: Specialized cells: -chondroblasts(produce matrix); chondrocytes(mature cartilage cells) (cartilage) -Osteoblasts; osteocytes; osteoclasts (bone) Types of Fibers: Collagenous     -Protein collagen      -stable, cross-inked triple helix      -high tensile strength  Elastic      -protein elastin      -random coil conformations      -property of extensibility Hyaline Cartilage -matrix- lots of dense, fine collagen -perichondrium membrane  -strong, flexible and smooth -reduces friction in joints  -ex. articular cartilage in joints Fibrocartilage  -matrix- collagen, some elastic fibers -resists compression bc of hydration -ex. intervertebral disks Joints
background image Range of Motion(ROM): refers to the normal extent of mobility for a 
specific joint movment
Degrees of Freedom(DOF): the number of axes at which movement in a 
joint occurs
- Inverse relationship between mobility and stability (sutures,  intervertebral joint, elbow, hip, shoulder) Joint Classifications Structural categories   - Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial  Classification by function   Synarthrosis: Immovable, Amphiarthrosis: Slightly Movable,  Diarthrosis: Freely Movable Joint Movements: Smaller angle = flexion (elbow, knee… Forward = flexion(shoulder, wrist.. Opposition – “pincer” grasp Types of Fibrous Joints:  Sutures and Fontanels Sutures: connect membranous bones of the skull, immovable  Fontanels: incompletely ossified membranous area present in fetal and 
infant skulls, ossified by age 2
 Syndesmoses -bones are connected by an interosseous ligament -allows slight shift, or “give” movement -ex. between tibia and fibula
background image Types of Cartilaginous Joints:  Synchondroses -hyaline cartilage connects bones or parts of bones
-immovable
-structure reveals developmental history (e.g. epiphyseal  plates are remnants of cartilage templates for bone growth)
Symphyses
-fibrocartilage discs unite bones -allows slight movement between articulating bones  -e.g. pubic symphysis, joints connecting vertebral bodies   Synovial Joint -characterized by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid -freely movable parts -most common joint in appendicular skeleton -all share common anatomy  Function of Synovial Joint: -cushion, lubricate, nourish joint Other synovial Structures: -Bursa: “pillow” filled with synovial fluid -Tendon Sheath: “sleeve” filled with synovial fluid  Uniaxial Joint: -1 axis of rotation - 1 degree of freedom - 1 plane of movement; 1 movement pair Hinge joints:- elbow Concave surface articulating with a convex surface
background image Movement pair: Flexion/extension Pivot joints: - atlanto-axial joint Cylinder shape rotates within ring of bone or ligament Movement: Rotation Biaxial joints - 2 axes of rotation, 2 degrees of freedom - 2 planes of movement -2 movement pairs: Flexion/extension + abduction/adduction - PLUS a combined movement: Circumduction Condyloid (ellipsoid) joints: - wrist  Ovoid-shaped process articulate with a shallow cavity Saddle joints: - first caropo-metacarpal  Distinct based on the shapes of the bones involved Multiaxial Joints- Triaxial  -3 axes of rotation - 3 degrees of freedom - 3 planes of movement -Movement pairs: Flexion/extension, Abduction/adduction, Rotations (medial
and lateral) + combined movement circumduction
Ball-and-socket joints:- shoulder  Spherical surface articulating with a cup-shaped socket  Multiaxial Joints- Nonaxial -No identifiable axes of rotation (gliding) -slight gliding movements Gliding joints: - sternocostal 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: Week 6 PNB 2246
Description: These notes cover lecture power-points as well as any in class comments.
Uploaded: 10/09/2018
14 Pages 116 Views 92 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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