E X A M 2 :
S T U D Y G U I D E
1. Molecules stand idle and do not move
a. True b. False
2. A phospholipid bilayer is made of a ________ head and _______ tail. a. Hydrophobic, hydrophilic
b. Hydrophobic, hydrophobic
c. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic
d. Hydrophilic, hydrophilic
3. Water surrounds all cells
a. True b. False
4. _______ stabilizes the membrane and gives cell control over what crosees its membrane
d. Interstitial fluid
5. Define diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and passive transport.
6. Match the membrane protein with its function:
a. Enzymes i. identifies cells as “self” or invader” b. Recognition proteins (glycoproteins) ii. hold cellular organisms together
c. Transport Proteins iii. speeds up reactions
d. Receptor Proteins iiii. regulate movement across membrane
e. Connection Proteins iv. direct and indirect sensors
7. There is a beaker of water with a divider with 7 grains of salt on the left side and 13 on the right. Identify the following in the example.
c. Gradient (does it flow from left to right or right to left?)
8. Which of the following is true?
a. Passive transport required energy
b. Facilitated transport is a form of active transport
c. Plasma membranes are selectively permeable If you want to learn more check out What is literature?
d. Osmosis flows from low to high concentrations
9. Plant cells rigid shape is thanks to _________
a. Turgor Pressure
10.Give examples of both passive and active transport.
11.In animals, ______ junctions stick cells together, ______ junctions make cells waterproof, and ______ allow communication between cells.
12.Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only converted a. True b. False
13.As energy converts from more useful to less useful forms, the transfer is 100% efferent We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of heritability?
a. True b. False
14.To get started, chemical reactions require ____________ to get started.
15.When the product contains less energy than the reactants, this is an ________ reaction.
a. Endergonic b. Exergonic
16.Generally, when things are being build in cells, this is an _______ reaction while things being destroyed is an _______ reaction. We also discuss several other topics like How to calculate the current population size?
17.Milk production during pregnancy is an example of _____________, as these enzymes are only needed during a specific life stage.
18.What is allosteric regulation?
19.When an optimal level of a product is reached, production of that product _______
a. Continues b. Stops
20.The Calvin Cycle turns (CO2/glucose) into (CO2/glucose).
21._______ prevents water from evaporating from leaves
22.During photosynthesis, _______, _______, and ______, create glucose and oxygen.
23.The fluid within the chloroplast is called the _____, which when stacked is called a ______.
a. Sheath cell, stroma
b. Grana, stroma
c. Stroma, grana, If you want to learn more check out Who is copernicus?
d. Mesophyll, grana
24.__________ __________ catch all wavelengths but green and allow for the color of leaves. In autumn, chlorophyll breaking down before __________ causes the color change of the leaves.
25.Place these in order of the path of electrons during light reactions.
PS 1, PS 2, NADP+, ETC 1, ETC 2
26.What is made during PS1? PS2? Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four major categories of macromolecules?
27.Summarize the steps of light reactions.
28.ATP synthesis is driven by chemiosmosis
a. True b. False
29.To avoid a build up of hydrogen, it exits the cell passively in ______. Chapter 8
30.What enters glycolysis? What leaves glycolysis?
31.Order the following so that they accurately describe glycolysis.
a. A net of two ATP molecules and two NADH (high-energy electron carriers) is formed
b. During the energy investment stage, phosphate groups and energy from each of the two ATP are added to glucose to produce fructose bisphosphate
c. During the energy-harvesting stage, the two G3P molecules are converted into two pyruvate molecules, resulting in four ATP and two NADH molecules
d. Fructose-bisphosphate is broken down into two G3P molecules
32.Order the following to accurately describe cellular respiration. a. The NADH and FADH2 molecules donate their energetic electrons to the ETC embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane
b. Two pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondrion and are completely broken down, yielding two ATP and ten high-energy electron carriers: eight NADH and two FADH2. The carbon atoms from the pyruvates are released in six molecules of CO2 If you want to learn more check out What does the 4th amendment protects?
c. These electrons are passed to the ETC, where their energy is used during chemiosmosis to generate a gradient of H, yielding a net of 32 ATP
d. As each acetyl CoA passes through the Krebs cycle, its energy is captured in one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH2. The carbons of acetyl CoA are released in two CO2 molecules
e. High-energy electrons release energy that is harnessed to pump H into the intermembrane space as they pass through the ETC
f. Energy-depleted electrons exiting the ETC are picked up by H+ released from NADH and FADH2 and combine with oxygen to form water
g. In the mitochondrial matrix, each pyruvate molecule is converted into acetyl CoA, producing one NADH per pyruvate molecule and releasing one CO2
33.Fermentation produces ATP
a. True b. False
34.What moves through ATP synthase during chemiosmosis?
35.Where do the electrons come from to power the ETC during cellular respiration?
a. NDH and FADH2
c. ADP and FADP
d. ATP, FADH
36.If oxygen is not available, ________ is the second state of glucose breakdown 37.Anaerobic respiration yields ___ ATP while aerobic yields ___ ATP.
38.Cell division creates two daughter cells that are genetically identical a. True b. False
39.What kind of cell can never divide again?
40.(sexual/asexual) reproduction creates genetically identical offspring 41.Summarize prokaryotic cell fission.
42.A stretched out chromosome is roughly how long?
a. 5 inches
b. 9 feet
c. 1 yard
d. 7 inches
43.Sister chromatids are held together by a (telomere/centromere). 44.Interphase is made of 3 subphases. Identify and describe the phases.
45.Place the following in the order of mitotic cell division. a. Anaphase
46.Chromosomes lining up down the middle of the cell describes a. Anaphase
47.An animal cell “pinching” apart and a plant cell forming a cell plate both describe
48.Describe the remaining phases.
49.What is the cell cycle driven by?
50.There is a checkpoint between metaphase and anaphase. a. True b. False