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UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY / Biology / BIOL 2200 / How to calculate the current population size?

How to calculate the current population size?

How to calculate the current population size?


School: Utah State University
Department: Biology
Course: General Ecology
Professor: Karen kapheim
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Ecology
Cost: 50
Name: General Ecology Study Guide 2
Description: This document has the last lecture of notes in addition to a study guide for the 2nd test!
Uploaded: 10/11/2018
4 Pages 107 Views 2 Unlocks

Ecology Notes for Population Growth & Ecology Study Guide Exam 2 

How to calculate the current population size?

4. Population Growth

∙ Current population size=previous population size + (births­deaths) +  (Immigrants­emigrants)

∙ Cohort life tables are good for plants and sessile organisms. To make the  table, fill in the number alive and the fecundity (number of eggs/offspring).  o Mortality rate=1­survival rate. 

o Survivorship=number alive/number that started in the cohort o Survival rate of age class 0= survivorship of age class 1/survivorship  of age class 0. Therefore, Survival rate of age class 1=survivorship of  age class 2/survivorship of age class 1

∙ Linear graph of a life table indicates that the population is limited by the rate of growth

What is the meaning of cohort?

∙ Exponential graph of a life table indicates that the population is limited by  carrying capacity.

∙ Net Reproductive Rate (Ro): average number of offspring produced by an  individual over their lifetime.  If you want to learn more check out Who is copernicus?

∙ (Ro) > 1 means the population is growing; <1 population is declining; =1 population is stable

∙ Geometric rate of increase (lamda) = future population size / current  population size and this is used for populations with non­overlapping  generations. Increased fecundity will increase the geometric growth rate

∙ When generations overlap, Generation time (T): average time from birth to when the organism reproduces 

How to calculate the mortality rate?

∙ When the per capita rate of population growth (r) is >0 the population is  growing; r<0 population is declining; r=0 population is stable

∙ r selected species have shorter generation times

∙ Body size has a positive correlation with generation time. Human  populations grow exponentially. 

∙ Density­dependent factors: regulate the population and include disease,  predation, competition

∙ Density­independent factors: influence the growth rate of the population and examples are natural disasters.

∙ A logistic population growth curve (S­shaped) reflects the carrying capacity  (K): the theoretical max population number. The population grows rapidly  then slows and growth stops and stabilizes at the carrying capacity (K).  If you want to learn more check out What are the four major categories of macromolecules?

∙ As a population approaches K, the rate of increase approaches 0. Ecology Study Guide 2

1. Population Distribution and Abundance

∙ What questions would population ecologists ask and what  We also discuss several other topics like What are the contents of civil liberties?

experiments would they use? 

∙ What is a population and what are its characteristics?

∙ What is a niche? How do fundamental and realized niches compare? 

Give examples. 

∙ What are the 3 basic patterns of distribution in a population? Why 

would populations be patterned in this way? 

∙ If given characteristics of organisms in a population, can you predict 

their spatial distribution?

∙ How could you measure the abundance and density of a population? ∙ What factors influence species abundance and density? How might 

niche characteristics and body size influence population range? 2. Life Histories

∙ What is Life History Evolution? List some life history traits and their 


∙ What is the Principle of Allocation?

∙ What are some examples of intrinsic tradeoffs? Do they have a  positive or negative correlation? Why are they positively or negatively Don't forget about the age old question of What is the goal of personality psychology?


∙ How are life history tradeoffs linked to population range expansion?  ∙ What are species ranges and migration patterns? Give examples. 

∙ What is fecundity? How does fecundity compare with offspring size? ∙ What traits do Iteroparous organisms have? Semelparous? Give 

examples of organisms that are Iteroparous and Semelparous.  ∙ What are the predictions and conclusions of the David Reznick study 

on the life history of guppies?

∙ What characteristics do r selected and K selected species have? ∙ Compare and contrast r selected and K selected species with regard to:

intrinsic rate of increase, competitive ability, development, 

reproduction, body size, reproduction, and offspring. 

3. Population Dynamics We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of a single unit torso?
If you want to learn more check out Who published the “general theory of employment, interest, money”?

∙ What determines current population size?

∙ What influences dispersal and what does it effect?

∙ What is a life table and what does it show you?

∙ What is a cohort?

∙ There are 2 types of life tables: Static life table and Cohort life table.  What are the characteristics of each? How are they similar and  different? Be able to understand the graphs. Can you draw a graph of 

a life table?

∙ Can you estimate a survivorship curve from a life table? Can you 

determine life history traits from a life table?

∙ Understand the 3 types of survivorship curves and which types of  individuals would demonstrate each one. Example: Humans are Type 

1. Why? 

∙ Be able to interpret age distribution graphs. Periods of successful 

reproduction? Growth potential? Etc.

4. Population Growth

∙ Be able to interpret graphs made from life tables. 

∙ Be able to understand how survivorship and birth rate influence  population growth? What happens to a population if birth rate 

increases? If mortality increases?

∙ What is the geometric rate of increase? What will increase and 

decrease it?

∙ Compare and contrast the growth rate in populations with overlapping

and non­overlapping generations.

∙ How does generation time influence the rate of population growth? 

What about carrying capacity?

∙ How do generation overlap and generation time influence population 


∙ What limits exponential growth of populations?

∙ What are density­dependent factors? What are density­independent 

factors? Give examples. 

∙ Graph population growth over time and identify regions that represent exponential growth, decreasing population growth rate and carrying 


∙ Where is the population growth highest in a population on a logistic 


∙ Compare growth rate in populations with overlapping and non overlapping generations. (There is a table in the lecture notes)

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