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MSU / OTHER / BIO / What are all chemical reactions in the body catalyzed by?

What are all chemical reactions in the body catalyzed by?

What are all chemical reactions in the body catalyzed by?

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Biology I
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Biology Exam 2
Description: Example test questions with answers 60 questions keyterms
Uploaded: 10/11/2018
7 Pages 5 Views 8 Unlocks
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Biology 2 Exam Review


What are all chemical reactions in the body catalyzed by?



1. In what organisms does  

fermentation that produces  

lactate occur in?

2. What are all chemical reactions in

the body catalyzed by?

3. What does the fate of pyruvate  depend on?

4. What does isotonic mean? 5. What is turgor pressure?

6. What is a catalyst?

7. In what organisms does anaerobic respiration occur in?

8. Is ATP the same in anaerobic  cellular respiration and  

photosynthesis?

9. What does hypertonic mean? 10. What are pigments? 11. What is plasmolysis? 12. Where does the Calvin cycle

occur during photosynthesis? 13. What are 2 ways molecules  can move across membranes? 14. Which process is more  efficient: Calvin cycle or  

photorespiration?

15. What is an enzyme substrate complex?

16. What is contact-dependent  signaling?


What does isotonic mean?



17. What occurs during carbon  fixation in the Calvin cycle?

18. What is an electron carrier? 19. What does having different  pigments allow plants to do? 20. What happens during signal transduction in cellular signaling?

A. some prokaryotes

B. 1. Passive transport, 2. Active  Transport

C. When solute concentration is  higher than another solution. D. The enzyme Rubisco attaches CO2  to the molecule RuBP. If you want to learn more check out uic chem 122

E. Calvin cycle

F. enzymes

G. Stroma

H. Absorb light at many different  wavelengths.

I. A series of proteins form a signal  transduction pathway and transfer  the signal to the inside of the cell.

J. animals and some bacteria K. When molecules bound to the  surface of cells serve as signals to  cells coming in contact with them. L. yes

M.Pressure that pushes the plasma  membrane against the cell wall,  maintaining a plants size and  shape.


What is turgor pressure?



N. When a plant wilts because of a  loss of water in plant cells.

O. When water and solute and water  concentrations are equal.

P. The availability of oxygen

Q. An intermediate, formed when an  enzyme binds its substrate.

R. Molecules that absorb light energy. S. A molecule that transfers  

electrons.

T. An agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being  consumed during the reaction.

RuBP is produced

a. What occurs during the 

regeneration of RuBP in the 

Calvin cycle?

b. Which process is more efficient:  Calvin cycle or photorespiration?

c. What does is mean for a 

molecule to be oxidized?

d. What can alter the efficiency of 

photosynthesis and how the 

Calvin cycle works?

They fix carbon dioxide into a 4C molecule  at NIGHT and release carbon dioxide into  the Calvin cycle during the DAY Don't forget about the age old question of Why was Latin America’s economy unstable?

a. What is endocytosis?

b. What is simple diffusion?

c. What is activation energy?

d. How do CAM plants work?

Plants that have a 3 carbon molecule as the first product of carbon fixation.

a. What is a C3 plant?

b. What is a mitochondria?

c. What is a prosthetic group?

d. What is saturation?

­7.3 kcal/mole

○ What is the cell membrane 

composed of?

○ What is the result of glycolysis? 

(3)

○ What is the free energy for ATP­> ADP + P

○ What are the results of the citric  acid cycle? (4)

 Process of cells detecting and responding  to signals in the extracellular environment a. What is a prosthetic group?

b. What is cellular communication? c. What is an autophagosome?

d. What is activation energy?

When cells secrete signaling molecules that bind to their own cell surface and similar  neighboring cells.

○ What is exocytosis?

○ What is autocrine signaling? ○ What is osmotic lysis?

○ What is facilitated diffusion?

1. signal amplification

2. increased speed of signal  amplification

● What are 3 types of cell surface  receptor?

● What are 2 ways to overcome  activation energy? Don't forget about the age old question of moshka meaning

● What does the Calvin cycle  produce (in photosynthesis)? (4) ● What are two advantages to  second messengers?

Input of energy needed to get a  reaction started (needed for both  endergonic and exergonic reactions). ● What is a metabolic 

pathway?

● What is a catalyst?

● What is activation energy?

● What is an induced fit 

model?

A molecule that transfers electrons. A. What is a product?

B. What is a mitochondria?

C. What can osmosis do to a 

cell?

D. What is an electron 

carrier?

distant cells

A. What occurs during the 

regeneration of RuBP in 

the Calvin cycle?

B. What does a transcription 

factor do to a cell?

C. What cells do hormones 

released into the 

bloodstream affect?

D. Where do light reactions 

occur during 

photosynthesis?

Thylakoid membrane

A. Where does the formation of  acetyl­CoA take place? We also discuss several other topics like eduardo davila asu

B. Where do light reactions occur  during photosynthesis?

C. What is a good analogy for 

receptors in cellular signaling?

1. Growth

2. Repair

3. Reproduction

4. Muscle contraction

5. Nerve impulses

6. Chemical reactions

A. What are the 3 stages of cell signaling? B. What do carbohydrate chains do? (2) C. What does the plasma membrane  ensure? (3) Don't forget about the age old question of cellular respiration occurs in three distinct, yet interconnected series of reactions. which of the following gives the correct order of these reactions?

D. Why do living organisms need energy?  (6)

1. Energy in molecular bonds

2. Type of potential energy

A. What is the result of glycolysis? (3) B. What is chemical energy?

C. What do carbohydrate chains do? (2) D. What are the 3 stages of the Calvin  cycle?

Enzymes that cleave the bonds  between adjacent amino acids. A. What is a catalyst?

B. What is a protease?

C. What is a caspace?

D. What is a product?

1. Products have more energy than  reactants

2. There was a net input of energy a. What is the result of glycolysis?  (3)

b. Why do cells need signals? (2) c. 2 characteristics of endergonic  reactions:

d. What are the two stages of 

photosynthesis?

1. Pigment molecules in PS I absorb  energy from sunlight

2. The electron is transferred down a  second electron transport chain A. What are the steps of PS I? (2) B. What are 2 ways to overcome  activation energy?

C. What are 3 characteristics of  enzyme­linked receptors? We also discuss several other topics like to check the temperature leads of an electronic thermometer

D. What are some characteristic of  chloroplasts?

A double membrane that encloses  worn­out organelles to fuse with  lysosome; thus digesting the cell. ● What is photosynthesis?

● What is an autophagosome? ● What is Gibbs free energy? ● What is an active site?

1. found in all eukaryotes and  common in animals

2. activated receptor binds to G protein

3. releases GDP and binds to GTP  instead

4. GTP causes G protein to dissociate 5. alpha subunit and B/y dimer  interact with other proteins in a  signaling pathway

● What are 5 characteristics of G protein coupled receptors?

● What are the 5 stages of G protein coupled receptors?

● What are some characteristic of  chloroplasts?

● What are some examples of  active transport proteins? (2)

Binds to allosteric site and prevent  the enzyme from working properly,  decreasing maximum velocity.

● What is autocrine signaling? ● What is direct intracellular 

signaling?

● What is a competitive inhibitor? ● What is a non­competitive 

inhibitor?

The swelling and bursting of a cell in  a hypotonic solution.

● What is tonicity?

● What is crenation?

● What is Gibbs free energy?

● What is osmotic lysis?

1. direct intracellular signaling

2. contact­dependent signaling

3. autocrine signaling

4. paracrine signaling

5. endocrine signaling → What are 2 ways to overcome activation energy? True/False

1. Return to its original state (releasing excess  energy as heat or light)

2. Be passed to another molecule → What are the 3 stages of cell signaling? True/False

Fluid-filled region between the thylakoid  membrane and inner membrane → What  is a stroma?

True/False

1. Products have more energy than reactants 2. There was a net input of energy →  What are the 3 stages of cell signaling? True/False

Plants that have an addition carbon  fixation step before the Calvin cycle →  What is a C4 plant?

True/False

The open space within a mitochondria. →  What is a matrix?

True/False

From an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration. →  What is direct intracellular signaling? True/False

Plateau where all enzyme active sites are occupied by substrate. → What is  glycosylation?

True/False

PS II is very receptive to light  

wavelengths shorter than 680 nm while  PS I is receptive to light shorter than  700nm. → What is the relationship  between a cell wall and osmosis? True/False

1. Large amounts of heat

2. Using enzymes to lower activation  energy → What are 2 ways to overcome  activation energy?

True/False

1. Growth

2. Repair

3. Reproduction

4. Muscle contraction

5. Nerve impulses

6. Chemical reactions → What are the 4  steps of cellular respiration?

True/False

animals and some bacteria → In what  organisms does fermentation that  produces lactate occur in?

True/False

1. Substrates bind

2. Enzyme undergoes conformational change 3. Substrates are converted to products 4. Products are released → What are  some characteristics of photosynthesis?  (3)

True/False

1. Energy in molecular bonds

2. Type of potential energy → What is  chemical energy?

True/False

The receptor is activated by the binding  of a signaling molecule. → What happens  during receptor activation in cellular  signaling?

True/False

alters metabolism → How does an  enzyme affect a cell?

True/False

1. ATP

2. NADPH

3. Carbon dioxide

4. Sugars → What are the two stages of  photosynthesis?

True/False

When the enzyme binds its substrate, the active site changes conformation to fir  the substrates more snugly. → What is an induced fit model?

True/False

10 → What are the results of electron  transport chain?

True/False

When solute concentration is higher than another solution. → What is simple  diffusion?

True/False

Answers

Matching

1. J

2. F

3. P

4. O

5. M

6. T

7. A

8. L

9. C

10.R

11.N

12.G

13.B

14.E

15.Q

16.K

17.D

18.S

19.H

20.I

Multiple Choice

RuBP is produced

● What occurs during the regeneration of  RuBP in the Calvin cycle? 

They fix carbon dioxide into a 4C molecule  at NIGHT and release carbon dioxide into  the Calvin cycle during the DAY

● How do CAM plants work? 

Plants that have a 3 carbon molecule as the first product of carbon fixation.

● What is a C3 plant? 

­7.3 kcal/mole

● What is the free energy for ATP­> ADP  + P 

 Process of cells detecting and responding  to signals in the extracellular environment ● What is cellular communication? 

When cells secrete signaling molecules that bind to their own cell surface and similar  neighboring cells.

● What is autocrine signaling? 

1. signal amplification

2. increased speed of signal amplification ● What are two advantages to second  messengers? 

Input of energy needed to get a reaction  started (needed for both endergonic and  exergonic reactions).

● What is activation energy? 

A molecule that transfers electrons. ● What is an electron carrier? 

distant cells

● What cells do hormones released into  the bloodstream affect? 

Thylakoid membrane

● Where do light reactions occur during  photosynthesis? 

1. Growth

2. Repair

3. Reproduction

4. Muscle contraction

5. Nerve impulses

6. Chemical reactions

● Why do living organisms need energy?  (6) 

1. Energy in molecular bonds

2. Type of potential energy

● What is chemical energy? 

Enzymes that cleave the bonds between  adjacent amino acids.

● What is a protease? 

1. Products have more energy than  reactants

2. There was a net input of energy ● 2 characteristics of endergonic reactions 1. Pigment molecules in PS I absorb energy from sunlight

2. The electron is transferred down a  second electron transport chain

● What are the steps of PS I?  

A double membrane that encloses worn­out organelles to fuse with lysosome; thus  digesting the cell.

● What is an autophagosome? 

1. found in all eukaryotes and common in  animals

2. activated receptor binds to G­protein 3. releases GDP and binds to GTP instead 4. GTP causes G protein to dissociate 5. alpha subunit and B/y dimer interact with  other proteins in a signaling pathway ● What are 5 characteristics of G

protein coupled receptors? 

Binds to allosteric site and prevent the  enzyme from working properly, decreasing  maximum velocity.

● What is a non­competitive  

inhibitor? 

The swelling and bursting of a cell in a  hypotonic solution.

● What is osmotic lysis? 

True= Green Red= False

1. direct intracellular signaling 

2. contact­dependent signaling 

3. autocrine signaling 

4. paracrine signaling 

5. endocrine signaling → What are 2 ways to overcome activation energy 

True/False

1. Return to its original state (releasing excess  energy as heat or light) 

2. Be passed to another molecule → What are the 3 stages of cell signaling? True/False

Fluid-filled region between the thylakoid  membrane and inner membrane → What  is a stroma? 

True/False

1. Products have more energy than reactants 2. There was a net input of energy →  What are the 3 stages of cell signaling? True/False

Plants that have an addition carbon  fixation step before the Calvin cycle →  What is a C4 plant? 

True/False

The open space within a mitochondria. →  What is a matrix? 

True/False

From an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration. →  What is direct intracellular signaling?

True/False

Plateau where all enzyme active sites are occupied by substrate. → What is  glycosylation? 

True/False

PS II is very receptive to light  

wavelengths shorter than 680 nm while  PS I is receptive to light shorter than  700nm. → What is the relationship  between a cell wall and osmosis? True/False

1. Large amounts of heat 

2. Using enzymes to lower activation  energy → What are 2 ways to overcome  activation energy? 

True/False

1. Growth 

2. Repair 

3. Reproduction 

4. Muscle contraction 

5. Nerve impulses 

6. Chemical reactions → What are the 4  steps of cellular respiration? 

True/False

animals and some bacteria → In what  organisms does fermentation that  produces lactate occur in? 

True/False

1. Substrates bind 

2. Enzyme undergoes conformational change 3. Substrates are converted to products 

4. Products are released → What are  some characteristics of photosynthesis?  (3) 

True/False

1. Energy in molecular bonds 

2. Type of potential energy → What is  chemical energy? 

True/False

The receptor is activated by the binding  of a signaling molecule. → What happens  during receptor activation in cellular  signaling? 

True/False

alters metabolism → How does an  enzyme affect a cell? 

True/False

1. ATP 

2. NADPH 

3. Carbon dioxide 

4. Sugars → What are the two stages of  photosynthesis? 

True/False

When the enzyme binds its substrate, the active site changes conformation to fir  the substrates more snugly. → What is an induced fit model? 

True/False

10 → What are the results of electron  transport chain? 

True/False

When solute concentration is higher than another solution. → What is simple  diffusion? 

True/False

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