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MU - BIO 203 - BIO 203 Exam 2 - Study Guide

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MU - BIO 203 - BIO 203 Exam 2 - Study Guide

School: Miami University
Department: Biology
Course: Cell Biology
Professor: James
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: cellular biology
Name: BIO 203 Exam 2
Description: chapter 12, this study guide does not cover what will be covered in class on Tuesday before the exam
Uploaded: 10/12/2018
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background image Leeann Tran Miami University BIO 203 JAMES Exam One Notes (Ch. 1, 2, 4 11) CHAPTER 1: THE FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF LIFE A. Cell theory (Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow) -Every living organism composed of one or more cells
-Functional units of life
-cells are simplest basic most fundamental structural unit of life (anything 
less than a cell is not alive)
-all cells arise from pre-existing cells
B. Cells are diverse -Size (<1 micrometer to <200 micrometers)
-Shape
-example: nerve cell (central cell body with long extensions called  axons and dendrites) -example: paramecium (covered in cilia to help it move, hairy looking  appearance)
-nucleus
-scientists say 200 types of cells in human body but actually more than
that: classification of different types of cells lie on a spectrum 
-cell wall (all cells have plasma membrane but not a cell wall which lies 
outside of a cell membrane)
-cell wall exists for extra protection and support
-many bacteria have cells walls, plant cells have cell walls
-member of community or independent
-motility (how they move)
-flagellum
-cilia
-chemical requirements -some require oxygen (aerobic), some are killed by oxygen (anaerobic),
some need sunlight, some need complex macromolecules made by 
other organisms
-function -example: nerve cells generate electrical signals
-example: muscle cells generate signals to result in mechanical force 
and movement C. Cell Unity (cells are the same in some fundamental ways) -central dogma: DNA-RNAprotein -store genetic info as DNA
-replicates DNA by templated polymerization requiring sugar 
(deoxyribose), phosphate group, and nucleotides (A with T, G with C)
-transcribe genetic info to RNA
-
 are typically single stranded, instead of deoxyribose as sugar RNA 
has ribose
-translate RNA into proteins which dictate function of cell
-proteins made of monomers called amino acids, there are 20 amino 
acids
background image Leeann Tran Miami University -use protein catalysis (most enzymes are proteins which speed up 
reactions)
-regulate genes (regulation is essential for establishing different 
functions between cells)
-require free energy 
-synthesize biological macromolecules from subunits (monomers make
up polymer)
-are enclosed in a plasma membrane
D. Review of Cell Structure 1. Prokaryotic (before nucleus) include bacteria and archaea -ex. Eubacterium (surrounded by cell membrane and cell wall, 
have DNA but NOT enclosed in a membrane aka nucleus)
- small (a few microns)
-reproduce quickly (ex. every 20 mins)
-spherical, cylindrical, or spiral
-unicellular but can exist in clusters or chains
-tough cell wall
-no INTERNAL membranes that exist inside cell membrane so NO 
ORGANELLES -DNA in nucleoid, NOT membrane bound
-limited cytoskeleton
2. Eukaryotic (true nucleus) -usually larger than prokaryotes
-multicellular and unicellular
-organelles:
1. nucleus: contains DNA
-nuclear envelope made of TWO concentric membranes 2. mitochondria: make chemical energy from oxidation of food  molecules -produce ATP
-cellular respiration: uses oxygen and produces CO2
-have their own DNA and binary fission (evidence of 
evolution from bacteria)
-also two membranes
-folding of inner membrane is called cristae (lots of surface 
area)
3. endoplasmic reticulum: system of membrane bound  compartments -where cell membrane products are assembled 4. Golgi apparatus: modifies and packages products from ER for  “shipping” 5. lysosomes- intracellular digestion
6. peroxisomes- vesicles where H2O2 inactivates toxic molecules
-endocytosis: vesicles form at cell membrane to bring material 
into cell
background image Leeann Tran Miami University -exocytosis: vesicles from inside cell fuse with cell membrane 
and release contents to outside
7. cytosol: part of cytoplasm not located in intracellular 
membranes
-cytoskeleton: THREE types of protein filaments that support cell 
shape
1. actin filaments (thinnest, responsible for muscle  contraction)  2. microtubules (thickest, like hollow tubes, aids cell 
division, made of tubulin)
3. intermediate filaments (provide strength to cell support)
-cytoplasm: interior of the cell, always moving and dynamic
-motor proteins: use energy to carry organelles and proteins in 
cytoplasm
PLANTS ONLY
8. plastid: two membranes, manufacture and storage 
-storage plastids (store fats, oil, or starch)
-chromoplasts (store pigments)
-chloroplasts (photosynthesis)
9. chloroplast: photosynthesis creates sugars -release energy by oxidizing sugars in mitochondria
-have their own DNA and binary fission (evidence of 
evolution from bacteria)
-two membranes
10. vacuoles: storage and turgidity for cell
11. cell wall- structure and support
E. Eukaryotic cells may have been predatory in the past - early anaerobic eukaryotic cells may have ingested bacteria that 
eventually came to become the mitochondria and exist in the 
symbiotic relationship
CHAPTER 2: CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF CELLS - Organic chemistry is chemistry based on carbon compounds o Depends on almost only aqueous solutions
o Extremely complex, chemistry of cells is more complex than any 
chemical system o Dominated by “polymeric molecules” which are collections and  chains of subunits - Life is carbon based
A. Chemical Bonds
- elements: substances that cannot be broken down by chemical  means - atom: smallest part of element that retains distinct characteristics  1. dense, positively charged nucleus (contains protons and 
neutrons) at center surrounded by electron cloud
background image Leeann Tran Miami University 2. neutrons have almost same mass as protons - isotopes: atoms that are same element so same # of protons but diff  # of neutrons -atomic number: equal to # of protons and unique to each element
- atomic weight/molecular weight: mass relative to H atom, mass of 
protons + neutrons -chemical bonds occur using electrons in the valence (outermost) shell 1. ionic bond: electrons transferred from one atom to another
2. covalent bond: two atoms share pair of electrons
Covalent ionic -8 electrons make up a “stable” and full outer shell 1. # of electrons an atom must lose or gain to achieve a full shell
determines how many bonds it can make
-molecule: cluster of atoms joined by covalent bonds 1. shared electrons between atoms opposes repulsion of  positively charge nuclei 2. attraction and repulsion are balanced when nuclei are 
separated by a known distance, aka bond length
- covalent bonds are characterized by bond angles, bond lengths, and  bond energies 1. single bonds, double bond, and triple bond (triple is shortest  and strongest) 2. polar covalent bonds: electrons shared unequally and creates 
a positive and negative end
-electronegativity: tendency of an element to attract an electron 1. increases as you move up and to the right of the periodic table - ionic bonds formed usually between atoms that easily give up or  accept electrons 1. ions held together only by ionic bonds are “salts”
2. example: NaCl
- noncovalent bonds: weak, temporary bonds between atoms 1. electrostatic attraction: forms between fully charged atoms -weaker kinds can also form between molecules with polar 
covalent bonds
-polarity allows for electrostatic attraction
2. HYDROGEN BONDS - oxygen is highly electronegative so it attracts e- + + + +

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School: Miami University
Department: Biology
Course: Cell Biology
Professor: James
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: cellular biology
Name: BIO 203 Exam 2
Description: chapter 12, this study guide does not cover what will be covered in class on Tuesday before the exam
Uploaded: 10/12/2018
16 Pages 141 Views 112 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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