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UCR / Geography / GEOG 009 / What is hydrogenous?

What is hydrogenous?

What is hydrogenous?


School: University of California Riverside
Department: Geography
Course: Oceanography
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Oceanography
Cost: 50
Name: Oceanography Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: Study guide for the first midterm for Oceanography on 10/16/18
Uploaded: 10/14/2018
6 Pages 58 Views 8 Unlocks

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Lecture 4: 

What is hydrogenous?

Sediments: Window to the Past

What can be learned?

∙ Historical information

∙ Location of natural resources

Memory of the ocean: 

∙ Reconstruct climate and ocean history

∙ Change in color of sediment means that something BIG has  happened

∙ Sudden rise in CO₂ leads to global warming and acidification as seen during the PETM (Paleocene­Eocene Thermal Maximum)


∙ Climate

∙ Biosphere

∙ Lithosphere

Sedimentary record provides evidence of changes in any of the  items listed above

Sediment: rocks, remains of dead organisms that are deposited Marine sediments: deposited under oceans

Why deep zone has stable density?

∙ Rivers are a major source of these sediments

∙ Airborne dust and volcanic ash

∙ Interaction of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and the  lithosphere also lead to the creation of sediments through  the erosion of the lithosphere.

∙ Settling rate: how long it takes for sediment to settle o Size is a factor

o As is energy of environment (has an affect on offshore  transportation)

Sediment types:

∙ Terrigenous:

o Land by erosion

o Abundant by VOLUME (>87%)

∙ Biogenous:

o Living organisms (mainly found in the deep sea) o Has the largest amount when it comes to area

How ice absorbs heat to prevent change?

Don't forget about the age old question of Where did the olmec’s supply of jade axes come from?

o Foraminifera

o Diatoms

o Coccoliths

o Radiolaria Don't forget about the age old question of What is media?

o Plankton tests (shells)

 Silica (SiO₃)

 Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)

Calcium Carbonate Compensation Depth (CCD)

∙ Calcareous ooze is used as a measure of depth

∙ CCD ~ 4500 m but various in ocean basins

∙ Siliceous ooze is not found everywhere

∙ Hydrogenous: produced by water

o Precipitation = ions + ions = solid particle

o Manganese nodules

o Phosphorite nodules

∙ Cosmogenous: from space

o Microtektites­ tiny glassy particles > impact of  meteorite and Earth If you want to learn more check out Appointment of the solicitor general.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the national incident­ based reporting system (nibrs)?

∙ Continental shelf

o Neritic sediments

Principle of superposition: the old rock is on the bottom Principle of Uniformitarianism: the laws of nature do not change  just because time does


∙ Limestone, gypsum, salts = water dried out

∙ Some show annual cycling (but this is rare)

∙ Radioactive dating = only absolute age

∙ Want age of deposition

∙ Use volcanic ash of absolute age 

∙ Basalt = absolute age\

Lecture 5:

Water­ The Earth’s Coolant

∙ Main energy is solar radiation

∙ Heat capacity: the ability to absorb or give up energy  without too much of a temperature change If you want to learn more check out What did elizabeth blackburn discover?
Don't forget about the age old question of What does statutory law mean?

∙ Circulation of water is used to redirect the energy

Molecular structure

∙ Water is polar

∙ Pushes the electrons from the hydrogen to the oxygen ∙ Intramolecular bonds

∙ Hydrogen bonding = intermolecular bonds > liquid water ∙ Electrostatic interactions

∙ Solvent 

∙ Sticks well to thinks

∙ High surface tension (surface skin)

∙ Heat: total energy

∙ Temperature: average kinetic energy

∙ Transitions between states due to gains or losses in energy ∙ Heat capacity: how much heat one gram can absorb before its  temperature is changed

∙ Water has the highest heat capacity

∙ Calorie: amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by one degree celsius



Ice to water


Water to heated water


Water to steam


1. Hot climates take a LOT of energy

2. Cold climates prevent air from getting colder

3. Ice absorbs heat to prevent change

Average sea water

∙ 3.5% dissolved salts

∙ Salinity 0/00 = permil

∙ Freezing point is ~ ­2℃

∙ The ice in the ocean is freshwater

∙ Brine is salty water

∙ The ocean serves as a thermal buffer

Density Stratification:

∙ Surface zone is well mixed

∙ Pycnocline has a rapid increase in density ∙ Deep zone has stable density

∙ Mixing does not happen unless density is the same

Salinity Variation:

∙ Evaporation and precipitation

∙ Controlled by temperature and salinity

Color and Ocean:

∙ Little light penetrates below photic zone and is blue  (Hydrogen absorbs the red)

∙ Photic zone depth = 100m; 600m

∙ Sound travels well in the ocean

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