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UIC / Chemistry / CHEM 101 / How are molecular compounds formed?

How are molecular compounds formed?

How are molecular compounds formed?

Description

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Compounds may be molecular or ionic

  • Molecular compounds - are compounds formed from 2 or more nonmetals
  • The basic units of molecular compounds are molecules composed of the constituent atoms.
  • Ionic compounds - contain one or more cations paired with one or more anions
  • In the most cases, the cations are metals and the anions are non-metals.

If you want to learn more check out What is a combination of substances with a composition that varies from point to point?

* Do not reduce the formula for molecular compounds

The basic units that compose dry ice, a molecular compound are CO2 molecules

  • The basic units that compose table salt an ionic compound are Nacl formula units.

If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between full round and relief?

Naming Molecular Compounds

  • The first step in naming a molecular compound is identifying it as one.
  • Remember, nearly molecular compounds form from two or more nonmetals.
  • We learn how to name binary (two - element) molecular compounds
  • Their names have the following form:

Prefix - Name of 1st elementDon't forget about the age old question of What are the types of relationships between microbes and humans?

Prefix - base name 0 + 2nd element +-ideDon't forget about the age old question of What are the three phases in developing self-authorship?

To name a binary molecular compound -

  • The element to the left in the periodic table (in an earlier group is written and named first.

        C P N H S I Br Cl O FWe also discuss several other topics like What is a systemic disease involving plasmodium infection of liver cells & red blood cells (rbcs)?

Elements on the left are generally listed before

If 2 elements are from same group, the element in the lower period is written and named firstIf you want to learn more check out calc101

F

Cl

Br

I

At

Naming molecular compounds-

  • Name the most “metallic”of the nonmetals first.
  • Change the ending of the nonmetal to “IDE”
  • Indicate the number of atoms of the nonmetal by latin prefixes

Mono = 1        tetra = 4        hepta = 7        deca = 10

Di - 2                penta = 5        octa = 8

Tri = 3                hexa = 6        nona = 9        

Examples:

P2 O5 Phosphorus pentoxide

CO Carbon monoxide

Prefix - Name of 1st nonmetal                

Prefix - Base of 2nd nonmetal +ide

If there is only one atom O + the first element in the formula, the prefix mono - is normally omitted.

The compound N2O (also known as laughing gas) is named according to the 1st element, nitrogen, with the prefix di-, followed by the base name of the second element, OX, prefixed by mono, and the suffix -ide.

Name the molecular compounds: CBr4, SO2, N2O, ClF5

                CBr4

  • C is to the left of BR. It is named 1st as “Carbon”
  • Bromine is renamed “bromide”and the prefix tetra is added to show that there are four BR’s

Carbon tetrabromide

                SO2

  • S is below O. it is named as “sulfur
  • Oxygen os renamed “oxide” and the prefix di is added to show there’s 2 Os

        Sulfur dioxide

                N2O

  • N is to the left of O. It is named 1st as “Nitrogen”and the prefix di is added to show there’s 2 Ns.
  • Oxygen is renames “oxide” and the prefix mono is added to shoe that there is one O

Dinitrogen monoxide

        ClF5

  • Cl is below F1. It is named 1st as chlorine.
  • Fluorine is renamed “fluoride”and the prefix penta is added to shoe there’s 5Fs

Chlorine pentafluoride

Naming molecular compounds-

  1. CCl4 -  Carbon Tetrachloride

-        carbon  -  4  -   suffix

  1. BCl3 - Borontrichloride

-        boron - 3   - suffix

     (c) SF6  - Sulfur Hexafluoride         

  •        S         - 6    - suffix

       (d) N2O4 -Dinitrogen Tetroxide

           -         2             - 4      -suffix

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