HIST1310 2nd Midterm Study Guide
Queblo Tribe: They settled in the Four Corners of the Southwest region. It emerges in 1000 AD and lasts until 1200 AD with a population of close to 6,000 people. There was a road system within and without the region and an irrigation system. There was a long drought during this time in the Southwest. They began building pueblos. This began a new form of the tribe with the creation of an elaborate religion called Katsina. After 1500 the rival Apache tribe arrived causing warfare between the two tribes. The breakdown of the culture was a violent time in the Southwest much of which being internal. This shows the dynamic of the tribes and how they were constantly changing.
John Winthrop: (15871649) was the founding Governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony and believed in the purification of the Catholic Church; They believed that they were destined to settle there and that the smallpox epidemic within the Native Americans was a sign that they were destined also.
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the goals of romantic relationships?
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The Open Field System: was used to minimize risk of losing crops by scattering it amongst all of the landscape to avoid the tragedy of a natural disaster; There was land for the meetinghouse, land for the militia, and the church; Cow commons were used for everyone to raise their cows on a community plot of land; The communal aspect was maintained in Sudbury
Slave Code: a legal body of laws governing slavery. Slavery cannot exist without it. The first Virginia slaved code was recorded in 1705
Standing Army: a professional army of paid soldiers. It was very controversial in America and England. The English libertarian tradition was skeptical of standing armies and they argued for the preservation of liberty. They believed liberty was always on the defense and that the biggest threat to the republic were military generals, based on Roman history.
The English Bill of Rights: written in 1689 stated the maintenance of a standing army within the kingdom of England was against the law. The mandate of militia having a gun was under English and American law. It set limits on the monarch’s power and this became a key part of the English Constitution.
Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation: stated in November 1775 called for slaves and indentured servants to join the British army in return for freedom. Virginians believed he was trying to start a slave rebellion.
The Boston Tea Party: occurred in 1789 when patriots disguised as Native Americans dispose of tea into the Boston Harbor after the introduction of the Tea Act. We also discuss several other topics like How many parenting styles are there?
Manumission: allowed the slaveowners to manumit or free their slaves which was very important after the gradual abolition of slavery in the North
The Glorious Revolution: Strong Protestants; James II tried to end laws that singled out Catholics; Sympathetic to Catholics; People were worried he was trying to turn England into a Catholic country; They overthrew James II and brought in William of Orange who was a ruler of Holland and a loyal Protestant
The Stamp Act: The stamp itself was used to show that taxes had been paid on documents, newspapers, etc.; The new Prime Minister George Greenville believed the Stamp Act was a fair way to tax colonies; He viewed Britain as better and higher than the colonies; It was economical beneficial for Britain to tax the colonies due to America’s growing wealth, but the colonists believed that they had no right to tax them; Following many protests in the colonies and in England it was repealed in 1766 If you want to learn more check out Can astronomers deduce fingerprints for an element?
Don't forget about the age old question of What regulates one's metabolic pathways?
Federalists: the wealthy and elite, supported the Constitution which was a big benefit to getting it ratified. They conceded that the new Constitution had issues, but that it had a clause for amendments and they believed that liberty and power was balanced in the new Constitution.
AntiFederalists: Opponents of the Constitution of the United States in the ratification debate in 17871788. While admitting flaws in the Articles of Confederation, the Antifederalists argued that the new constitution created a strong government too much like the English one and would threaten liberty. The President with a veto and no term limits seemed especially dangerous. Many small farmers, especially in the Piedmont, supported the Antifederalists. We also discuss several other topics like What were used as subjects for medical education during the 18th century?
The Jay Treaty: written in 1795 was a continuation of the treaty that followed the American Revolutionary War; John Jay, the attorney general, negotiated it and once it was ratified by the Senate it brought chaos. Many believed that Jay had sold out the people to England whereas in actuality it had little significant. This issue connected with ordinary people and boosts the Republicans while forcing the Federalists to mobilize.
Specie: silver coins, typically Spanish
Shay’s Rebellion: demonstrated the American’s government lack of control in 1786; It was centered in Western Massachusetts and began after farmers were unable to pay their taxes. Led by Daniel Shay and Job Shattuck and fizzled out pretty quickly
James Madison: was welleducated and came from a wealthy slave family. He did most of the writing for the American Constitution and concluded that a confederacy would never work, and he felt that they needed to create a whole new document which would later be the American Constitution
From the Puritans to the early American republic, trace the idea, held by many people at the time, that America was not merely an ordinary nation, but had a special role to play in human history.
∙ Intro on explaining the significance of America being the first nationally recognized former British colony that would later become a superpower; Thesis on how it was forced to not be an ordinary nation through its formation (Melting pot)
∙ Not an ordinary nation:
o Relationship with the Natives was always tense leading to many battles; Bartering between the English and the natives; Alliances formed in some cases; Dissimilar to the natives in South America and Mexico
o Puritans: Introduction of the Protestant religion that becomes very prevalent after the oppression of Catholicism in England and other European nations;
Community styled tradition that was critical to the religion (John Winthrop); o Introduction to Slavery: Contradiction between American Constitution and idea of slavery was easily recognized and attempted to be improved (though they are decades of more improvement to be made this was the first step that was critical in the beginning of the process)
o The Ratification Debate: Federalists vs. AntiFederalists; 17871788; Hamilton vs. Jefferson and Madison ideas; Constitution ratification in 1788
Benjamin Franklin when asked by the English Parliament about “the temper of America toward GreatBritain before the year 1763,” answered that it was “the best in the world.... They had not only a respect but an affection for Great Britain.” In light of this friendly attitude, why did Americans go to war with England only 12 years later?
∙ Intro on explaining how America was formed and who came to colonize there; Explain the profitability of America to the British; Thesis on the downward spiral of the relationship between Americans and the English
∙ Why war?
o French and Indian War (17541760/63) and Seven Year’s War (17561763) Tense relationship during the war between military officials but then
Britain made them take on a debt for the war leaving a huge national debt that they believed they should not have to hold
o The Stamp Act 1765
The stamp itself was used to show that taxes had been paid on documents, newspapers, etc.; The new Prime Minister George Greenville believed the Stamp Act was a fair way to tax colonies; He viewed Britain as better and higher than the colonies; It was economical beneficial for Britain to tax the colonies due to America’s growing wealth, but the colonists believed that
they had no right to tax them; Following many protests in the colonies and in England it was repealed in 1766
o No representation in the British Parliament
o Thomas Paine: called for American independence in ‘Common Sense’ a widely read pamphlet that sparked nationalism in America