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UT / Sociology / ANTH 120 / Where were oldowan artifacts excavated?

Where were oldowan artifacts excavated?

Where were oldowan artifacts excavated?


School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Sociology
Course: Prehistoric Archaeology
Professor: Kandace hollenbach
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: neanderthals and mousterian
Cost: 50
Name: ANTH 120 EXAM 2
Description: These notes cover what is going to be on our second exam
Uploaded: 10/16/2018
7 Pages 17 Views 3 Unlocks

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Key Sites: 

Where were oldowan artifacts excavated?

❖ Laetoli, Tanzania (Australopithecines) 

➢ Came upon a series of human footprints

➢ Wet climate

➢ Found two footprints next to each other which suggest a social bond ❖ Taung, South Africa (Australopithecines) 

➢ Found bone deposits

➢ Hominins mixed in with other animals

➢ No stone tools

➢ Instead they were using bones and teeth as weapons

■ Osteodontokeratic Industry

● Bone and teeth as tools

❖ CK, Brain Cave Taphonomy (Australopithecines) 

➢ “The Hunters of the Haunted”

■ A term used to describe that the Australopithecines were being hunted instead of doing the hunting

➢ Cranials showed two perforations that matched exactly the canine teeth of leopards

➢ Leopards will take their prey into trees they do this by the head

❖ Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (Australopithecines) If you want to learn more check out The origins of rome are explained using what?

➢ Oldowan tools were named after this

➢ Tools made by knocking the sides off and creating a sharp edge

➢ Conchoidal shape

❖ East Turkana, Kenya (Australopithecines) We also discuss several other topics like How are reliability and validity related?

➢ Oldowan Artifacts

➢ Hominin Species associated

❖ DK, Bed I, Olduvai Gorge (Homo-habilis) 

➢ Plotted occurrences of stone tools

➢ One of the first sites that had both stone tools and bones from savanna animals ➢ Bones looked like they had been fractured over

❖ Kobi Fora Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between lagging and leading strands?

➢ Possible evidence for controlled use of fire

■ Baked sediments

❖ FLK I ZInj 

➢ Had pieces of Australopithecus at the front

➢ Animal bones including gazelle, pig, giraffe, fish, and small bones

❖ Olorgesailie, Kenya 

➢ Site contained many hand axes

➢ Thought the site was used as a campsite where they would make the handaxes and come back

❖ Zhoukoudian, China 

➢ Site was a cave in a mountain called “Dragon Bone Hill”

■ Name came from the people would get the dragon bones to grind up and use as medicine

➢ Locally used as a source of fossils If you want to learn more check out What are the similar characteristics of the earth’s moon and mercury?

➢ Included thousands of tools, animal bones, hearths, and adaptations to temperate woodland environment

➢ Began to find human remains of the entire populations

❖ Dmansi, Georgia(Neanderthals) 

➢ Fossils of great antiquity surprised archaeologist excavating the medieval georgian

➢ several fossils from medieval georgian village include a full set of erectus teeth found below a saber tooth cat

➢ Also included animals that have moved up from Africa and human bones ❖ Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain 

➢ Bones from level six demonstrate a human presence in Spain at least 800,000 years ago

➢ Nearly a hundred hominid fossils and twice as many stone tools were collected in 1994 and 1995 excavation seasons If you want to learn more check out How does magma move?

❖ Steinhein, Germany 

➢ Found archaic homo sapiens or H. Heidelbergensis

■ A possible ancestor to the neanderthals

❖ La Chapple - aux- Saints, France 

➢ Found remains buried in a grave

➢ First evidence that Neanderthals buried their dead

➢ “Neanderthal Stage”

■ Hunched over, dumb

■ Not the human form of us

➢ First piece of evidence of wooly mammoth burial grounds

➢ Knees flexed up underneath chin

❖ Moldova I, Ca 

➢ Established along the ice front Don't forget about the age old question of What are the neural networks of sleep?

➢ Structures formed related to animal bones

➢ 90% wooly mammoth

➢ Building houses out of wooly mammoth bones

➢ They were hunting the wooly mammoths

❖ Teshik, Tash 

➢ Remains of a neanderthal child

➢ Horns of mountain goats with cranials still attached were laid around the child for burial

➢ Removed the flesh of the child

❖ La Ferrassie, France 

➢ Found a whole series of features

➢ Two adult burials

➢ Child burials

➢ Low mounds of earth

■ Yellow sand carried into the cave and formed 3x3 mounds

■ Dug a hole in the center for a stillborn child

➢ Young boy buried in a triangular grave

➢ Cranial on one side at the top and bones buried at the bottom

➢ First evidence of lines and circles cut in the rock

❖ Klasies River Mouth Cave, South Africa 

➢ Deep sea cave

➢ Trapped thousands of years worth of deposits

➢ Fire pits were found

➢ High deposits were called “Late Stone Age”

➢ Lower deposits were called “Middle Stone Age” also known as Mousterian ➢ Hominins were found in the middle stone age

➢ Raised questions about how modern humans and neanderthals interacted ■ 1: They were seperated a long time ago

■ 2: Modern humans arrive in local populations and evolved in different places

❖ Cro Magon (1868) 

➢ Site that tells us neanderthals buried their dead

❖ Qafzeh, Israel 

➢ Earliest homosapien found

➢ Contain Mousterian material

➢ Modern humans

➢ Burials found with male and females

❖ Kebara Cave, Israel 

➢ Hosted both modern humans and neanderthals coexisted

➢ Both species came and went to Levant, probably shifting ranges in response to colder and warmer conditions

➢ Culturally indistinguishable

➢ Small populations

➢ Eventually modern humans became the only hominins

Key Terms: 

❖ Dating- Placing a historical event within a chronology of events by analyzing physical clues (chemical, biological, and nuclear) that reflect the processes of artifact deterioration

❖ Chronology- the arrangement of historical events in there order of occurrence ❖ Stratigraphy- Superimosted sediment deposits

❖ Law of Superposition- Underlying strata are older than those occurring above them in an undisturbed archaeological sequence

❖ Law of Association- Artifacts and features (statically) occurring together were (dynamically) deposited together

❖ Chronometric (Absolute) Dating-Assigning a specific date to an event and specifying exactly how much time has passed since the date occurred. These dates are often calendar years such as “12,000 years ago”

❖ Relative Dating- Assigning dates to artifacts and archaeological deposits without specifying an exact calendar year.

❖ Radiocarbon (C14) Dating- a method of obtaining age estimates from organic materials by measuring the decay rate of the radioactive carbon isotope to stable carbon ❖ Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Dating- Radiocarbon dating technique that counts C14 atoms directly, rather than measuring the decay rate of radioactive carbon ❖ Dendrochronology- The science that estimates precise chronometric dates by counting tree rings

❖ Thermoluminescence- Used to date rocks, mineral, and pottery.

❖ Potassium- Argon Dating- Measures the accumulation of argon in a mineral from the decomposition of potassium.

❖ Archaeomagnetic Dating- Compares buried features (well-baked clay floors, ovens, kilns, iron smelting furnaces) to know fluctuations in the earth’s magnetic field ❖ Fission Track Dating- Determines the thermal ae of artifacts containing uranium bearing minerals.

❖ Electron Spin Resonance- Used to date minerals such as quartz, fossilized teeth, flint, and calcium carbonate in limestone, coral, and egg shells.

❖ Rate of Accumulation- Uses stratigraphic relationships to determine the relative ages of artifacts based on Law of Superposition

❖ Cross-Dating- A technique used to compare consistencies in stratigraphic deposits between parts of a site or between sites in a region

❖ Obsidian Hydration- Estimates dates by measuring the thickness of the hydration layer on obsidian artifacts.

❖ Zooarchaeology- the study of animal bones to address archaeological problems and questions

❖ Faunal Assemblage- a collection of animal bones recovered from an archaeological site ❖ Seasonality- the study of the seasons in which sites were occupied. Can be accomplished by examining animal bones such as horns and antlers and age related tissue development

❖ Taphonomy- the science of the laws of embedding, or the study of the post- depositional processes that affect bones from the time of animal’s death through to recovery by archaeological excavation.

❖ Domestication- establishing human control over the genetic composition, movement, and reproduction of animals; recognized by

➢ morphological and behavioral changes

➢ Changes in animal stature

➢ Sex ratios

➢ Age profiles

❖ Blade Technology( Modern Humans) 

➢ Middle Paleolithic = Mousterian

➢ Upper Paleolithic = Modern Humans

■ New kinds of tools

● Wood

● Bone and antler

● Spears

■ Aesthetic culture

● Carve pictures into rocks

■ Blade technology became more refined

■ New tools and technology

■ Make more blades from flakes

■ More flexibility

■ Extend this technology with better materials

❖ Chatelperronian blade technology 

➢ Thin blades

➢ First identified at the chatelperronian site

➢ Few “diagnostic tools” that do not occur anywhere else

➢ Bone tools

■ No obvious uses

■ found in Arcy-sur-cure

■ Mammoth bones

● Tusk cranials

■ Bone houses

❖ Aurignacian blade technology 

➢ No chatelperronian knives

➢ A lot of bone tools

➢ Same technology, but different styles

➢ Lots of jewelry made out of bones and shells

➢ Both chatelperronian made out of bones and shells

➢ Both chatelperronian and aurignacian

➢ Had to have been there at the same time

❖ Gravettian blade technology 

➢ No bone tools

➢ Diagnostic forms

➢ Hafted spears

➢ Composite tools made from different materials

➢ Both Aurignacian and gravettian made spear points but they were different ❖ Solutrean blade technology 

➢ Flint Mapping

■ How the ancestors made tools from the rocks

➢ Thin and delicate

➢ Stone tools used to represent power

■ Never used

➢ Culture reflected on materials

➢ Found in a more restricted area

➢ Came after the last glacial maximum

❖ Magdalenian blade technology 

➢ Stone tools, bone tools

➢ Small tools to put on top of of handles to create spears

➢ Ultimate flexibility

➢ Change the form of the handle

➢ Composite tools

■ Lots of pieces that change forms

Important Things to Know: 

❖ Oldowan Site Types: 

➢ Home Bases

➢ Kill/ Butchery Sites

➢ Tool and Manufacturing & Quarries

➢ Temporary Camps

❖ Homo Habilis 

➢ Means hand bones

➢ Different appearance compared to other Australopithecines

➢ More sophisticated use of stone tools

❖ Homo Erectus 

➢ More advanced version of the H. Habilis

➢ From the neck down looks like us

➢ Fully bipedal

➢ Different sized cranial

❖ Acheulean Industry 

➢ Hand ax find by John Frere

➢ He was the first to propose in print that prehistoric people produced such artifacts ➢ Hand axes were used for an array of things

❖ Peyrony excavated at Le Moustier 

➢ Start of cultural findings

➢ Found a human cranial

➢ Neanderthal bones

➢ Layers of human produced stone tools (76) levels

➢ Later called neanderthal culture “ Mousterian culture”

❖ Francois Bordes 

➢ “Handbook of Paleolithic Typology”

■ Studied how stone tools were made

■ Described 62 different kinds of tools

■ Began to notice patterns

■ Said that there was no sequence to the layers

■ Came to the conclusion that they must be from different cultures ■ Both lived on the same landscape

❖ Louis and Sally Benford 

➢ When studying these same stone tools, they came to the conclusion that they used the stone tools for different things

➢ uStone tools were all under one technology

❖ Ferrassie Mousterian 

➢ Dominated by scrapers on levallois flakes

■ Levallois point

■ Levallois blade

■ Levallois technique

● Produced flat flakes repeatedly

● Then used to make tools

❖ Quina Mousterian 

➢ Dominated by quina scrapers steep retouch

❖ Denticulate Mousterian 

➢ Dominated by notched tooles called spokehaves

❖ Typical Mousterian 

➢ Contains all 62 types in near equal proportions

❖ Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition 

➢ Contains all 62 types plus Mousterian handaxes

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