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COLORADO / Engineering / PSYC 2606 / What is the goal of self-presentation?

What is the goal of self-presentation?

What is the goal of self-presentation?


School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Engineering
Course: Social Psychology
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 2606 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is a comprehensive study guide that includes detailed outlines (including important terms) for Chapter 4, 7, and 8 from the book.
Uploaded: 10/16/2018
8 Pages 58 Views 7 Unlocks

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Study Guide

What is the goal of self-presentation?

CHAPTER FOUR – Presenting the Self

Main Ideas

∙ the purpose of self-presentation is to acquire desirable resources, to help  “construct” self-images, and to enable our social encounters to run more  smoothly

∙ to create an image of likeability, many may express liking for others, using  both verbal flattery and nonverbal behaviors such as smiling; point out or  create similarities with others; make oneself physically attractive; and act  modestly  

∙ to create an image of competence, many may stage performances that  display special skills/abilities, make verbal claims of competence, force  surroundings with trappings of competence, and make excuses for failures

∙ to create an image of status and power, many may display artifacts of status  and power, conspicuously consume material resources, associate with high  status/power people, and use body language to convey such power

What are some of the strategies of self-promotion?

Self-Presentation / Impression Management

- Why People Self-Present

o to obtain desirable resources  

o to create and maintain self-identities

o enables smooth social interactions  

- When People Self-Present

o when perceived to be in the “public eye”

o when observers can influence whether or not important goals are  attained  

o when it is thought that observers hold undesired impressions - The Nature of Self-Presentation  

o more about strategically revealing aspects of oneself than about  manufacturing aspects

o people want to appear likeable, competent, and high status or powerful o the fear of self-presentational failure has been labeled social anxiety

What are the goals of romantic relationships?

Appearing Likable

- Strategies of Ingratiation

o express liking for others (flattery)

o create similarity with other people

o be physically attractive  If you want to learn more check out What do federal courts have jurisdiction over?

o project modesty through downplaying successes

Appearing Competent

- Strategies of Self-Promotion

o seek out opportunities to demonstrate competence in public o tell others about accomplishments

o surround oneself with the props and habits associated with  


o generate excuses for poor performances

Conveying Status and Power We also discuss several other topics like What happens to cognition after the age of 50?

- Strategies for Conveying Status and Power

o display artifacts of status and power

o expend money on high-status symbols and material possessions o associate with other people in power or of status We also discuss several other topics like Can astronomers deduce fingerprints for an element?

o build image or impressions of power through nonverbal communication

∙ self-presentation – the process through which we try to control the  impressions people form of us

∙ dramaturgical perspective – the perspective that much of social interaction  can be thought of as a play, with actors, performances, settings, scripts,  props, roles, and so forth

∙ public self-consciousness – the tendency to have a chronic awareness of  oneself as being in the public eye  

∙ self-monitoring – the tendency to be chronically concerned with one’s public  image and to adjust one’s actions to fit the needs of the current situation ∙ social anxiety – the fear people experience while doubting that they’ll be able to create a desired impression

∙ ingratiation – an attempt to get others to like us

∙ multiple audience dilemma – a situation in which a person needs to present  different images to different audiences often at the same times ∙ self-promotion – an attempt to get others to see us as competent  ∙ competence motivation – the desire to perform effectively

∙ shyness – the tendency to feel tense, worried, or awkward in novel social  situations and with unfamiliar people

∙ basking in reflected glory – the process of associating ourselves with  successful, high-status others or events

∙ cutting off reflected failure – the process of distancing ourselves from  unsuccessful, low-status others of events  Don't forget about the age old question of What regulates one's metabolic pathways?

∙ body language – the popular term for nonverbal behaviors like facial  expressions, posture, body orientation, and hand gestures

Study Guide

CHAPTER SEVEN – What is a Friend?

Main Ideas

∙ the need for social support comes from impersonal threats and/or feelings of  social isolation

∙ getting information along with the need for approval comes from uncertain  situations and similarity of others

∙ the prominence of a social hierarchy and stigmatization motivates the desire  to gain status If you want to learn more check out How was bleeding perceived 200 years ago?

∙ communal orientation based on long relationships and close proximity  stimulates the exchange of material benefits  

What A Friend Is  

- Goals of Affiliation and Friendship

o the desire to feel good and be linked with people who make us feel  good

o to be connected with people who offer good deals

o domain-specific situations and needs sometimes determine social  goals

- Social Support

o rather than the classic “fight or flight” response, women’s more typical reaction is “tend and befriend”

o people seek the support of others when feeling threatened or isolated o the potential for embarrassment as a “charity case” erodes motivation  to receive social support

o strong attachments lead to positive cycles of interaction

- Getting Information

o people prefer to compare opinions and abilities with those who are  similar rather than different  

o there is great variation in everyone’s inclination to self-disclose  o the motivation to compare opinions, abilities, and reactions with others increases when there is more uncertainty in a situation If you want to learn more check out What are the two major fractions of blood?

o ignorance from selective social comparison may be associated with  bliss

- Gaining Status

o men’s relationships are marked by hierarchy while women’s  relationships focus on support and intimacy so as a result, men may  get more respect while women get more affection

o there is a desire to form higher-up friendships and avoid stigmatic  associations

- Exchanging Material Benefits

o the four categories of social exchange are: communal sharing,  authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing

o one factor that reduces the cost of sharing is physical proximity o social networking websites, text messaging, and the internet suggest  mixed benefits and costs compared to face-to-face contact

∙ friend – someone with whom we have an affectionate relationship  ∙ reinforcement-affect model – the theory that we like people with whom we  associate positive feelings and dislike those with whom we associate negative feelings  

∙ domain-general model – a model that attempts to explain a wide range of  different behaviors according to a simple general rule  

∙ social exchange – the trading of benefits within relationships ∙ equity – a state of affairs in which one person’s benefits and costs from a  relationship are proportional to the benefits and costs incurred by his of her  partner

∙ domain-specific model – a model that presumes that the governing principles  vary from one domain of behavior to another (such as a friendship versus  romance versus parent-child relationships)

∙ social support – emotional, material, or informational assistance provided by  other people

∙ health psychology – the study of behavioral and psychological factors that  affect illness

∙ self-disclosure – the sharing of intimate information about oneself ∙ communal sharing – a form of exchange in which members of a group share a pool of resources, taking when they are in need and giving when others are in need

∙ authority ranking – a form of exchange in which goods are divided according  to a person’s status in the group

∙ equality matching – a form of exchange in which each person gets the same  as the others

∙ market pricing – a form of exchange in which everyone gets out in proportion  to what they put in

∙ proximity-attraction principle – the tendency to become friends with those  who live or work nearby

∙ mere exposure effect – the tendency to feel positively toward people, places,  or things we have seen frequently  

∙ social capital – assets that can be drawn from one’ network of personal  relationships

Study Guide

CHAPTER EIGHT – Love and Romantic Relationships

Main Ideas  

∙ Aron and Westbay’s factor analysis thus supported Sternberg’s theory that  love has three core ingredients: intimacy, decision/commitment, and passion ∙ sexual desire arises frequently in everyday life

∙ strong bonds between mothers and offspring are characteristic of all  mammalian species, serving to promote survival  

∙ humans have harsh economics of status, resources, and mating ∙ several personal factors affect relationship stability; individuals who are  unconventional, extraverted, or moody tend to have less satisfying and stable marriages

Love and Romantic Attraction

- Defining Features of Love

o Sternberg’s triangular model of love includes intimacy, passion, and  decision/commitment

- Varieties of Love

o one subgroup of love is companionate love which encompasses  parental/maternal love, familial love, and brotherly love

o another subgroup of love is passionate love which involves romantic  and puppy love

- Goals of Romantic Relationships

o sexual gratification

o formation of a family bond  

o gain resources and status

Obtaining Sexual Gratification  

- Sexual Attraction

o attractiveness can be enhanced by positive expressions and behaviors o although people adorn themselves in different ways in different  cultures, a number of features, such as symmetry and health, are  universally regarded as attractive

- Gender Differences

o women are less interested in casual sexual opportunities and thus are  more selective

o the two sexes are similar in approaching long-term relationships o compared to women, men generally perceive more sexuality in  interactions between men and women

- Hormones and Sexual Desire

o individual differences in sexual desire have been linked to testosterone o estrogen and progesterone have been found to influence women’s  sexual attraction

- Sociosexual Orientation

o individuals with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation have more  sexual partners and choose partners who are socially attractive o restricted individuals choose partners with traits linked to good  parenting

- Arousing Settings

o situations that increase general physiological arousal can increase  passionate attraction

o arousal from any sources can be mistakenly attributed to the lover o arousal can boost attraction even when the person is aware the arousal did not come directly from the lover

- Cultural Norms about Sexuality

o norms for expressing sexual feelings vary across cultures

o subcultural groups also influence sexual attraction

Establishing Family Bonds

- Attachment Style

o the deep attachments that may be fundamental to human condition  are secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent

o any danger to relationships themselves is the threat that is most  critical for sparking the need for togetherness  

- Exchange / Communal Orientation

o in exchange orientation, costs and benefits are accounted carefully o in communal orientation, benefits are given free according to the  partner’s needs

- Jealousy and Same-Sex Competitors

o men are more upset by a partner’s sexual relationship than by a deep  emotional bond

o women tend to be more troubled if their partners form a deep  emotional bond with someone else

- Relationships Change Personality  

o marriage itself is a situation that can affect personal traits  

o the process of attitude alignment is strongest in well-adjusted couples  Gaining Resources and Social Status

- Gender and Sexual Orientation

o women are more motivated to seek a mate high in social dominance or status  

o in a man’s perspective age and physical attractiveness are cues to a  women’s health and reproductive potential

o same-sex attraction is not simply an inverted form of heterosexuality  - Social Exchange  

o both sexes seek long-term partners whose status and market value are similar to their own

- Dominance  

o it is only attractive in combination with kindness  

Breaking Up  

- Factors for Breaking Up or Staying Together  

o economic hardships

o societal excess of available mates

o societal norms  

o communication and insecurities  

o commitment  

o handling arguments  

∙ passion – factor on love scales composed of items tapping romantic attraction and sexual desire

∙ intimacy – factor on love scales composed of items tapping feelings of close  bonding with another

∙ decision/commitment – factor on love scales composed of items tapping  decision that one is in love with and committed to another

∙ factor analysis – a statistical technique for sorting test items or behaviors into conceptually similar groupings  

∙ compassionate love – affection and tenderness felt for those whom lives are  entwined with our own

∙ passionate love – a state of intense longing for union with another  ∙ nurturant love – feelings of tenderness and concern, central to parents caring  for their children

∙ attachment love – desire to be cared for, and protected by, another person  ∙ sociosexual orientation – individual differences in the tendency to prefer  either unrestricted sex (without necessity of love) or restricted sex (only in  the context of a long-term, loving relationship)

∙ two-factor theory of love – the theory that love consists of general arousal  which is attributed to the presence of an attractive person and labeled as  love

∙ need to belong – the human need to form and maintain strong, stable  interpersonal relationships

∙ secure base – comfort provided by an attachment figure, which allows the  person to venture forth more confidently to explore the environment ∙ secure attachment style – attachments marked by trust that the other person will continue to provide love and support

∙ anxious/ambivalent attachment style – attachments marked by fear of  abandonment and the feeling that one’s needs are not being met ∙ avoidant attachment style – attachments marked by defensive detachment  from the other  

∙ erotomania – a disorder involving the fixed (but incorrect) belief that one is  loved by another, which persists in the face of strong evidence to the  contrary  

∙ monogamy – marital custom in which one man marries on woman ∙ polygamy – marital custom in which either one man marries more than one  woman, or a woman marries more than one man

∙ polyandry – marital arrangement involving one woman and more than one  husband

∙ polygyny – marital arrangement involving one man and more than one wife ∙ equity rule – each person’s benefits and costs in a social relationship should  be matched to the benefits and costs of the other

∙ need-based rule – each person in a social relationship provides benefits as  the other needs them, without keeping account of individual costs and  benefits

∙ androgynous – demonstrating a combination of masculine and feminine  characteristics in one’s behaviors

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