POLS 1101 American Government
Exam Study Guide Answers
Chapter 5: Federalism
1. In a federal system, the power is shared.
2. Judicial Review is the right of the supreme court to rule something unconstitutional. 3. 10th amendment states any power not decided by federal gov. is left to states. - Enumerated powers are listed not listed specifically in the constitution.
- The necessary and proper clause is implied powers. We also discuss several other topics like What is the psychological triad?
- Reserved powers are powers only for the states.
4. Police power is that the state gov. makes laws and regulations to promote health, safety, welfare and morals of the people not the federal gov.
5. Not needed
6. Not needed
7. The authority of the gov. has decreased.
8. 16 amendment states congress has the authority to tax income. 17th amendment states the senate is chosen by the people. 18th amendment states people are not allowed to buy or sell alcohol. 19th amendment gave women the right to vote.
9. Not needed
10. Not needed
11. Cooperative fed is national gov. expanding powers into state and is referred as marble cake because the powers are spread out or mixed. Dual federalism is the different governments (local, state, federal) are separate and is referred as layer cake because the power is not mixed or shared. - Categorical grants are restrictions and the ability to spend money is in one category. Block
If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of a single unit torso?
grants is money that must be spent in a certain area and is up to the state to decide how they want to spend it in the area.
12. Not needed
13. Not needed
14. Not needed
15. Principled federalism is a preference on what the federal gov. should do and what the state gov. should do.
16. Not needed
Chapter 6: Civil Liberties
- No the constitution don’t protect civil liberties by private individuals or businesses. - No civil liberties did not apply to the states prior civil war. Yes civil liberties did apply to the federal gov. prior civil war.
- Judicial Review is the right of the supreme court to rule something unconstitutional and helped enforce civil liberties bc courts were allowed to rule in cases that violated civil liberties and make laws.
- Incorporation happens when laws are applied to the states and the due process clause limits the power of the national gov. so they cannot prohibit anyone of their rights/liberties. Selective incorporation is certain rights and freedoms of the bill of rights are selectively applied to the states through the due process clause of the 14th amendment and total incorporation requires the states to uphold all freedoms in the Bill of Rights.
- Incorporation requires the state and local to guarantee the bill of rights and unenumerated constitutional is rights not listed specifically in the constitution.
2. Religious freedom is one’s freedom to practice their religion. We also discuss several other topics like What are the four economic policy criteria?
- Liberals support “separation of church & state”
- Strict scrutiny must make sure gov. decision is fair and just. (Sherbert test makes sure gov. doesn’t violate the free exercise of religion.
- Not needed
- Obscenity, fighting words, defamation, student speech, speech that incite “lawless action” are entitled to less 1st amendment protection Don't forget about the age old question of What is marketing research?
4. Conservatives are more likely to be for gun rights than gun control.
The 2nd amendment protect the right for people to have firearms for selfdefense and in a well regulated militia.
No the second amendment is not under the due process clause of the 14th amendment.
5. Liberals are against long sentences and harsh treatment while most conservatives support long sentences and harsh treatment. If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between the retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia?
6. 4th amendment protects against unreasonable searches.
Exclusionary rule makes evidence that is obtained through violation is inadmissible.
7. Miranda rights are certain rights you have read to you during an arrest. (right to remain silent. Right to a lawyer, warning that anything you say can be used against you, and they must ask do you understand your rights) Don't forget about the age old question of What pyramid in egypt has the tallest structure for 4,500 years?
Court case: Miranda v. Arizona
8. The 6th amendment states right to speedy trial by jury and right to a lawyer.
Gideon v. Wainwright declared if you can’t afford a lawyer, one would be appointed to you. 9. Not needed
10. Rights to privacy is an automatic right you have as a citizen.
Rights to privacy are not listed in the constitution (enumerated) BUT they are still rights you have. Chapter 7: Civil Rights
1. Civil Rights are legal rights to protect equality for all and civil liberties protects you from gov. 2. Public discrimination is discrimination from Gov. (local, state & federal) but is prevented (ex: whites only) under the equal protection clause and private discrimination is discrimination from Individuals & private business.
3. Race discrimination was outlawed by the Civil Rights Act of
4. Blacks and whites had separate everything, but they were “equal”
5. Poll tax required you to pay to vote but most African Americans were poor, White Primaries allowed whites to choose who would run for office, and the literacy test had to be passed to vote but most African Americans were illiterate due to slavery.
6. KKK terrorized blacks by lynching.
7. Brown v. B.O.E declared separate but equal unconstitutional.
8. Title 2 of the civil rights act of 1964 sought to outlaw discrimination against race, color, religion, and national origin in public places.
- Title 1: eliminated voting qualifications.
- Title 4: desegregated schools
- Title 7: stop discrimination regarding gender in the work place.
9. De jure facto is unintentional separation of racial groups and de jure segregation is laws intentionally enforced to encourage segregation.
10. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 got rid of poll tax and the literacy test.
11. Not needed
12. The Equal rights amendment stated equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex but the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from threefourths of the state legislatures.
13. Tile 7, Title 4, … refer to question 8 answers.
14. “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy prohibited homosexuality in the military.
15. Not needed
Chapter 8: Political Participation
1. Conventional (ex: voting) and Unconventional (ex: protesting)
2. Political resources provide information about politics. (ex: social media)
3. Voter turnout in the U.S is lower compared to other countries.
4. Voter turnout rate has declined since 1960.
5. Based off factors like age, race, income, etc.
6. Criminal record has been a barrier for minorities regarding voting.
7. Voting turnout comparison:
- Younger people have a lower rate compared to older.
- More educated people have a higher rate compared to less educated
- Those with a higher income have a higher rate compared to lower income people. - Men have a higher rate compared to women.
8. Interest, motivation, and resources can influence a person’s decision to vote. Some people don’t vote bc of dissatisfaction with the choices available, decline in efficacy, loss of social capital, etc.
9. Extraordinary participation is when you communicate what you believe but not through established institutions (ex: protesting). A movement that has used this is the Civil Rights Movement.
Chapter 9: Public Opinion
1. Public opinion is the population collective attitudes and beliefs about politics and the government.
2. Not needed
3. Not needed
4. Attitude refers to a feeling towards an issue given, values is a person's principles or standards of behavior, beliefs is what someone believe.
5. Political Socialization is the process in which individuals acquire their political opinion. 6. Socioeconomics influence us by
7. Low political efficacy is the sense that citizens have low capacity to understand and influence political events. Political Tolerance is the willingness to extend basic rights and civil liberties to persons and groups whose viewpoints differ from one's own.
8. Scientific polling uses the scientific method and is more accurate than unscientific polling. 9. Nonresponse bias is bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sampled fail to respond. Random sample is random selection of individuals. A doublebarreled question is a single survey question that actual ask two questions but allows only one answer. Priming is the process in which the media attend to some issues and not others.
Chapter 10: Political Parties not needed until next unit.
Chapter 11: Interests Groups not needed until next unit.