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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 7

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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 7

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB 2264
Description: These notes cover all the content in the power-points as well as in class examples.
Uploaded: 10/16/2018
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background image LOWER EXTREMITY ANATOMY  I. Pelvic Girdle:        A. Bones        1. Ilium                     1-3 are called "os coxa".         2. Ischium                 Acetabulum is formed from portions of these 
three bones.
       3. Pubis                              4. Sacrum (+ coccyx)      B. Articulations:         1. Sacroiliac : slight movement (6 degrees of freedom)        2. Pubic Symphysis: Symphysis        3. Lumbosacral: Gliding and Symphysis C. Movements:  Occur at Lumbosacral and Lumbar intervertebral joints.        1. Flexion        2. Extension         3. Lateral Tilts - "Hip hiking"       D. Muscles         1. Rectus Abdominus:         2. Quadratus Lumborum: }
background image II. Hip Joint       A. Bones         1. Femur (Femoral head)        2. Acetabulum       B. Articulation          1. Ball-and-socket         2. Stabilizing characteristics include:                    a. Acetabular labrum – rim of fibrocartilage surrounding  acetabulum, deepens socket.                       b. Iliofemoral ligament – limits hyperextension, 
adduction and internal rotation of hip.
            c. Bulk of surrounding muscles and strong articular  capsule (with more ligaments)      C. Movements        1. Flexion-Extension        3. Circumduction        2. ABduction-ADduction 4. Rotation (Internal-External) D. Muscles      Action at  hip joint        1. Psoas Major:  flex        2. Gluteus Medius: abduct, int. rotation
background image        3. Gluteus Minimus:  abduct, int. rotation        4. Gluteus Maximus:  extend, lat. rotation        5. Adductors  adduct       *6. Rectus Femoris  flex        7. Hamstrings extend hip (flexes knee)           *Semitendinosus:           *Semimembranosus:           *Biceps Femoris (Long Head):      *8. Sartorius  flex, abduct, ext. rotation III. Knee Joint  (6 degrees of freedom)     A. Bones           1. Femur: Femoral Condyles     2. Tibia:  Tibial Condyles     3.  Patella:  “kneecap” B. Articulations:          1. "3 joints in 1" - all share same capsule:
background image Knee joint is anatomically a double-condyloid joint; often  called “modified hinge”.  It is NOT a uniaxial, simple hinge like the 
elbow!
a. Medial condyles of femur and tibia          b. Lateral condyles of femur and tibia          c. Patellar       2. Special articular features of knee joint                       a. Menisci – fibrocartilage, “shape” tibial condyles to  better fit to femoral condyles. Compression pad             b. Cruciate Ligaments – prevent antero-posterior  dislocation of knee.      Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); Posterior cruciate 
ligament (PCL)
           c. Collateral Ligaments – prevent lateral/medial  dislocation of knee.            d. Other ligaments – many, reinforce joint.            e. Bursae – prevent heat buildup; including  suprapatellar bursa.            f. Fat pads – protection         3. Patella            a. Patellar Ligament = quadriceps tendon inferior to  patella – broadens into ligament.            b. Functions of patella: Protection Mechanical advantage for knee extension:  Improves angle of 
insertion of patella quadriceps tendon (patellar ligament) 
where it inserts onto tibial tuberosity; which increases force of 
knee extension by quadriceps contraction.

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB 2264
Description: These notes cover all the content in the power-points as well as in class examples.
Uploaded: 10/16/2018
14 Pages 115 Views 92 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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