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UB / Psychology / PSY 101 / What are the four components of emotion?

What are the four components of emotion?

What are the four components of emotion?

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School: University at Buffalo
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Larry hawk
Term: Fall 2018
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Name: Psy 101, Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These notes will cover all the materials need to learn for exam 3.
Uploaded: 10/17/2018
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Study Guide


What are the four components of emotion?



Psychology 101 Exam 3

1. Emotion I

A. Four Components of Emotion

a. Emotion

b. Physiological Processes

c. Expressive Behavior

d. Cognitive Appraisal

a. The Physiological Component

i. The Autonomic Nervous System

• “Fight or Flight” response

ii. Polygraph Tests as Lie Detectors

• Assumes that lying leaves distinctive physiological clues

• Empirical support is weak and conflicting

• Test is inadmissible in most courts

• It is illegal to use for most job screening

• False Positive: people who were found guilty is actually innocent

b. The Expressive Component


What are the theories of emotion?



i. Facial EMG Studies of Emotion

• Electrodes placed on the face record activity in various muscles

• Positive emotions: increase activity in cheeks

• Negative emotions: increase activity in forehead and brow area

c. The Cognitive Component

i. Counterfactual Component

• Imagining what could have been

• Examined pictures of Olympic medal winners

• Happier when they won bronze then silver

B. Theories of Emotion

a. Cannon­Bard Theory of Emotion

• Emotion originates in the thalamus

• “Body” (physiological systems) & “Mind” (emotional experience) are  independently activated at the same time

b. James­Lange Theory of Emotion


What is emotional leakage?



• Emotion arises from physiological arousal

• Happiness: comes from smiling

• Sadness: comes from crying

c. Sensory feedback

• Facial­ Feedback Hypothesis

• Changes in facial expression produce corresponding changes in emotion d. Facial Feedback (Strack)

• Hold Pencil in mouth while doing task We also discuss several other topics like What is retroactive interference?
If you want to learn more check out What is monetary policy?

• Mimic frowning or smiling

• Measure mood

e. Two­factor Theory of Emotion

• Physiological arousal

­ Sweaty palms

­ Increased heart rate 

­ rapid breathing

• Cognitive Label

­ Attribute source of arousal to a cause

• Both factors are required for emotion

­ Event

­ Physiological arousal Cognitive interpretation If you want to learn more check out What are the different definitions of family?

­ Emotional experience

f. Dutton and Aron’s study

• Attractive experimenter met participants at end of bridge or before

• Recorded whether participants asked her out or not

• Recorded sexual imagery in TAT

• Rickety bridge = more attraction

• Misattribution of arousal

2. Emotion II

A. Emotion: A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation,  

cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action 

B. The Biology of Emotions

• Amygdala and insula

­ Amygdala: responsible for assessing threat

­ Damage: results in abnormally in processing fear

• Cingulate cortex and basal ganglia

• Cerebral cortex: reactions to pain

a. Hormones and Emotions

• When experiencing an intense emotion, two hormones are released ­ Epinephrine

­ Norepinephrine

• Results in increased alertness and arousal

• At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control

emotionally

b. Facial Expressions

• The same facial expressions of basic emotions are found across cultures and in totally blind and deaf children

c. Basic Emotions

• Fear We also discuss several other topics like What is child abuse?

• Anger

• Disgust

• Surprise

• Happiness

• Sadness

• Contempt

d. Culture and Emotional Variation

• Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about

• Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to  others.

• Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures C. Emotional Leakage

a. Facial Expressions

b. Gaze

• Look at interaction partner in face 70­75% of the time

• Less conveys negative emotions

• More conveys positive emotions

c. Gesture

• self­touching actions (e.g. touching face, gripping hands) indicate intense

emotions: depression, elation, anxiety

d. Touch

• Affection, love

• Fear

• Power and status

D. Gender and Emotion

a. Physiology and intensity

• Women: recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men • Men: experience emotional events more intensely than do women • Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women • Possible reasons

­ Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than female If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between astrology and astronomy?

­ Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains

anger

­ Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression

b. Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions

• influence one’s ability to “read” emotional signals

­ The sex of the receiver

­ How well the sender and receiver know each other

­ How expressive the sender is

­ Who has the power

­ Stereotypes and expectations

c. Cognitions

• Men and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that  If you want to learn more check out What is marketing?

provoke their anger

­ Women become angry over issues related to their   p  a  r t  n  er’s 

disregard

­ Men become angry over damage to property or problems with 

  s  tr  a  n  g  ers 

d. Expressiveness

• North America women

­ Smile more than men

­ Gaze at listeners more

­ more emotionally expressive faces

­ more expressive body movements

­ Touch others more

­ Acknowledge weakness and emotions more

• men only express anger to strangers more

e. Emotion Work

• Women: work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are

happy

• Men: work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and  unemotional

• Reason: Gender roles and status

E. Happiness

a. Age

• Only minor differences in age

• No gender differences

b. Marriage

• Married people are happier than others

• Reason

­ Two­way street

­ Marriage reduces loneliness

­ Only true for happy marriages

­ 3 out of 4 Americans – spouse is best friend

­ 4 in 5 would marry them again

F. Mood and Cognition

• Encoding and recall better for mood congruent information • mood induction, list of words, memory for words, depressed people a. Mood Congruency Bias

• E.g. given products to rate

­ Half given cookies and juice

­ Rated products better

• E.g. All things considered, how happy are you with your life? ­ “found” money in Xerox machine

­ Rated self as happier in general

b. Mood and use of Heuristics

• Happy: all is good, can coast

• Sad: something is wrong, must focus

• E.g. mood induction (happy, sad, neutral)

• Use more stereotype when happy

3. Developmental Psychology

A. The Nature­Nurture Debate

• The debate over the extent to which behavior is determined by genetics and the environment

• Studying adopted children allows researchers to compare

correlations between the traits of adopted children and those of  their biological and adoptive relatives

• If identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins, then the increased similarity must be due to genetic differences

­ Compare identical twins with fraternal twins

­ Investigators have also studied twins who were

separated early in life and reared apart

­ Any similarities in traits between them should be

primarily genetic

B. Genetic Building Blocks

a. Chromosomes

• Rod­like structures, found in all biological cells, that contain  DNA molecules

b. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

• The complex molecular structure that carries genetic 

information

c. Genes

• biochemical units of heredity that govern the development of an individual life

C. Prenatal Development: Nature and Nurture from the start

• Egg and sperm: only 23 chromosomes (not 23 pairs)

• Egg biggest cell in Body (pinprick)

• Life: sperm meeting egg

• Many sperm enter vagina. Only one can reach egg

­ Natural Selection

­ Nature/Nurture

• Egg changes to be impenetrable

D. Human Reproduction II

• XX female XY male

a. Zygote

• Has 23 pairs of   almo  st identical chromosomes

• One from mom, one from dad. Each with genetic code

• Gene Dominance: When a person possesses differing genes for the same trait, one is often dominant over the other

b. Blastocyst

• Once formed, cell begins to divide

• After 3 days, 60­70 cells

c. Prenatal development divided into trimesters

• First: Zygote, Embryo, Fetus

• Second: body parts and neurons in place

• Third: growth

d. Early development mirrors evolution

• The developing fetus (20 weeks)

­ begins light sensitive

­ will move to avoid bright light

• 6 months

­ sensitive to external stimulation

­ boys move more than girls

• Prenatal

­ Zygote, embryo, fetus

• Can the fetus learn?

­ Habituation: When an animal gets used to something

­ Sandman: buzzing instrument to measure heartbeat

­ Heartbeat would speed up

­ Habituation occurred

­ Change of frequency caused increase in heartbeat to return ­ Able to discriminate and learn

e. Teratogens: When the environment hurts

• Substances

­ Alcohol

­ Cigarettes

• Diseases

­ AIDS

­ Rubella (German measles)

• Mom’s stress level

­ Babies with attention difficulties

­ Anxiety

­ Unusual social behavior

­ Reason: Flight or flight response draws blood away from fetus • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

­ When pregnant women have too much alcohol intake

f. The newborn: a work in progress

• Human babies much less developed than other animals

• Can’t walk, little muscle control

• Brains are not developed (size of birth canal)

• Need care for a long time

• Humans attracted to babies

• The Developing Brain

­ At birth, neurons are in place, but few connections

­ During first year, axons grow, dendrites multiply, connections form ­ Over next few years, active connections strengthen

• Sensory Capacities

­ Born sensitive to range of female voices

­ Like smell of lactating women (even if bottle fed)

g. The Newborn

• Reflexes

­ Permanent: Swallowing, breathing, coughing, blinking

­ Temporary: Palmar Grasp, Babinski, sucking, rooting

o Palmar Grasp

 By pressing just one of baby’s palms, fingers should 

grasp the object

o Babinski

 Baby’s foot is stroked from heel toward the toes. 

The big toe should lift up, while the others fan out

o Sucking

 A finger or nipple placed in baby’s mouth will elicit

rhythmical sucking

o Rooting 

 When baby’s cheek is stroked at the corner of her 

mouth, her head will turn toward finger and she will

make sucking motions

• Temperament

­ Characteristic ways of responding to the environment that vary

from infant to infant

­ Some babies “approach” and some “avoid”

­ Fast prenatal heartbeat – more fearful as kid

­ Extraversion – highly heritable

­ Happiness “good disposition”

­ Tend to last a lifetime

h. Milestones in Motor Development

• Perceptual development

­ 2­3 months’ depth

­ 2­3 months’ whole objects

­ Hearing comes quicker – right away

• Piaget’s Theory

­ Assimilation

o Fitting new objects, events, etc. into an existing schema

­ Accommodation

o Modifying a schema to fit new events, objects, etc.

• Changing Schemas of the Earth

­ From preschool through about the 5th grade, children gradually assimilate and then accommodate the spherical­earth concept

into their thinking

• Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Stages

­ Sensorimotor (0­2 years)

o Infant learns through concrete actions: looking, touching, 

putting things in the mouth, sucking, grasping

o “Thinking” consists of coordinating sensory information 

with bodily movements

o Major accomplishment is object permanence

­ Preoperations (2-7 years)

o Language and symbolic thought develop

o Still lack the cognitive abilities necessary for 

understanding abstract principles and mental operations

o Egocentric

o Cannot grasp   con  s  e  r  v  ation 

­ Concrete Operations (7­12 years)

o Thinking is still grounded in concrete experiences and 

concepts, but children can now understand:

 Conservation

 Reversibility

 Cause and effect

o “Conservation of Liquid” Task

­ Formal Operations (12 and up)

o Beginning of abstract reasoning

o reason about situations not personally experienced

o think about the future

o search systematically for solutions

o draw logical conclusions

­ Can infants add and subtract?

o Show the baby the same array many times

o Show the array with an element missing (shown) or one 

added

o Surprise indicates that her or his expectations were violated ­ Speed of Information Processing

o Response times decrease from 7­12 years of age

 Consistent across several different types of tasks

o This may be due to the biological maturation of the brain

 Increased myelination of axons

i. Social and Emotional Development

• Touching

­ Touched newborns grow and develop faster

­ Reduced right frontal EEG activity – associated with depression ­ Better immune functioning

­ E.g. touched preemies 15 min/ 3 X a day

o Grew 15% faster

o Were more alert

o Discharged faster

• Visual Preferences in Newborns

­ Infants spend more time looking at patterns than solid ­ Infants spend the most time looking at a drawing of a human face • Newborns and Human Faces

­ Infants were shown blank shape, a proper face, or scrambled facial  features

­ Infants looked more intensely at the proper face

• Social Development

­ Attachment

o A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker

­ Primary Drives Theory

o Attachment results from associating the satisfaction of  primary drives with the being who satisfies them

­ Harlow’s Study

o Tested primary drives theory in Rhesus

o monkeys 2 surrogate mothers

 a wire surrogate that fed the infant

 a cloth surrogate that did not feed the infant

o Results

 Despite the wire surrogate being a source of food, 

the infant monkeys attached to the cloth surrogate

mother

­ Separation Anxiety

o Separation anxiety is a fear reaction when the primary caregiver is absent

o Seen in all cultures

o Corresponds with development of object permanence

­   Er i  k  son’s Eight Stages – I

o Trust vs. Mistrust 

 Baby’s first year (0­1 year)

 Challenge: Baby depends on others to provide

necessities

 If needs are not met, child may never develop 

essential trust of others

o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

 Toddler (1­2 year)

 Challenge: Young child must learn to be

independent without feeling too ashamed or 

uncertain about his or her actions

o Initiative vs. Guilt

 Preschool age (3­5 years)

 Challenge: Child acquires new physical and mental  skills, but must also learn to control impulses

 Danger lies in developing too strong a sense of guilt  over his or her wishes and fantasies

o Industry vs. Inferiority

 School age (6­12 years)

 Challenge: Child learns to make things, use tools,  acquire the skills for adult life

 Children who fail lessons of mastery and 

competence may come out of this stage feeling 

inadequate and inferior

­ Styles of attachment

o Strange Situation Test

 A parent­infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a

child’s attachment (separation anxiety)

o Secure Attachment

 baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed  by separation, and delighted by reunion

­ Ainsworth’s View

o Securely attached kids use caretaker as a secure base o Anxious ­ Ambivalent infants first seek and then avoid  caretaker. Cry and cling

o Avoidant infants are not attached at all

o Parental responsiveness highest in securely attached kids,  lowest in avoidant kids, and inconsistent in ambivalent kids ­ Day Care Providers

o Majority of kids are not take cared by parents but other  family members

­ Day Care Effects

o Hard to study because of confounds

o Most research: reasonable­quality day care does not  significantly harm kids

o The positive effects of day care that do occur appear to be social

o Some positive cognitive effects for very low income kids in  high quality day care

­ Gender

o Boys more active than girls

o More active play with boys; gentler with girls

o Nature/nurture interaction

o Case of John/Joan

 Sex hormones in womb

o Kids learn gender roles before they learn gender stability

­ Gender Segregation at Playtime

o Four­year­olds spend three times as much time with same

sex playmates as opposite­sex playmates

o By age six, children spend 11 times as much time with 

same­sex playmates

­ Parenting Styles

o Authoritative

 High parental control& High parental involvement

o Authoritarian

 High parental control low parental involvement

o Permissive

 Low Parental control High Parental Involvement

o Uninvolved 

 Low Parental Control Low Parental Involvement 

o Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes

 Anti­social behavior

 High parental control

j. Adolescence

• Adolescence vs. Puberty

­ Adolescence

o From the Latin "Adolescere," meaning "to grow up"

o The culturally­determined state between childhood and 

adulthood

o Definition

 The transition from childhood to adulthood

 Has become longer over time

 Earlier onset of puberty

 Extended education and training

­ Puberty

o From the Latin "Pubescere," meaning "to grow hairy"

o The onset of sexual maturity

o Girls 7­14

o Boy 9­16

k. Milestones

• Menarche

­ A girl’s first menstrual period

­ Girls begin to store more fat

­ Girls get bigger in hips than shoulders

• Spermarche

­ A boy’s first ejaculation

­ Boys hearts grow bigger

­ Boys get bigger in shoulders than hips

• Adolescent Growth Spurt

­ Girls: age 13

­ Boys: age 16

­ final maturational growth spurt in height

• Physical Development: The Brain

­ Amygdala

­ Frontal Lobes: not well developed in adolescents 

• Puberty and Body Image

­ Girls: mature earlier than their peers are usually less satisfied with  their size, weight, and figure

­ Boys: mature later than their peers have only temporary decreases

in body image

• Erikson’s Eight Stages – II

­ Identity vs. Role Confusion 

o Adolescence (13­19 years)

o Challenge: Identity crisis

 Teenagers must decide who they are, what they are

going to do, and what they hope to make of their 

lives

 Those who resolve the crisis will emerge with a

strong identity, ready to plan for the future

 Those who do not will sink into confusion, unable to

make decisions

o Problems

 Conflicts with parents

 Frequency: early adolescence

 Intensity: mid­adolescence

 Most often with moms and daughters

 Mood Swings

 By mid­teen years 1/3 are depressed

 Often report feeling lonely or nervous

 Risky Behavior (late adolescence)

­ Adolescent Disengagement

o The proportion of time spent with the family decreases almost 3% per year

o Not true for time spent alone with parents

­ Adolescent Transformation

o Boys feel worse while in family settings from grades 5­8,  then improve

o Girls feel worse while in family settings

from grades 5­10, improvement later

­ Imaginary Audience

o The strong focus on self leads adolescents to 

feel that everyone else is focused on them as 

well

­ Personal Fable

o Adolescents assume their thoughts and feelings are

unique (no one has ever loved so deeply, etc.)

l. BIOLOGY and the Teen Brain

• Changes in the adolescent brain

­ Pruning of synapses, primarily in prefrontal cortex

­ Myelinization

­ Neurological changes may not be complete until 

early 20s

­ May help explain why strong emotions of adolescent years can overwhelm rational decision making

• Realistic view of adolescence

­ Rate of violent crimes committed by adolescents has

been dropping steadily since 1993

­ Feelings self­esteem do not suddenly plummet after the age of  13 for either sex

­ Very little change in narcissism

levels over the decades

­ Survey: Today’s teenagers are more sexually conservative than  their parents were

j. Adulthood and Aging

­ The Continuously Changing Self

• Subjective Age

­ Younger people tend to feel older than they are

­ Older people tend to feel younger than they are

­ This effect is most pronounced in

the oldest and youngest

• Physical Changes

­ 20­50 no huge changes in physical self

­ Metabolism progressively slows down

­ Eyes progressively deteriorate

­ After 50 changes begin in organ functioning

­ Reason

o some changes inevitable – cells dividing a little like a photocopy

o Lack of exercise, bad diet, lack of meaningful activity ­ Exercise slows physical decline dramatically

­ Continued sexual activity common among those over 80 • Menopause

­ Menopause: The end of menstruation and fertility

­ Can be difficult physically – less female hormones

­ Can be hard psychologically

­ Some women – new lease on life

• Cognition in adulthood

­ Stable until 50

­ At 50 loss of connections in brain starts to catch up with people ­ By 60 most people slower on cognitive tasks

­ Dramatic drop right before death terminal decline

• Intelligence and Age

­ Measures of fluid intelligence decline steadily through middle and  late adulthood

o Inductive reasoning

o Spatial ability

­ Measures of crystallized intelligence remain stable into the 70’s o Verbal ability

o Numeric ability

• Perception in Adulthood

­ 50% of 65 and older have cataracts – clouding of lens ­ By 50 high pitch sounds are hard to hear

­ By 50 background sounds are hard to block out

­ Taste buds survive, but smell is affected (which affects taste) • How Good is Your Memory?

­ Older people are consistently less confident of their memory than younger people

• Erickson’s Stages

­ Intimacy vs. Isolation

o Young adulthood

o Challenge: The young adult must share himself or herself  with another and learn to make commitments

o People are not complete until they are capable of intimacy ­ Generativity vs. Stagnation

o Middle years

o Challenge: Will the adults sink into complacency and  selfishness, or experience generativity­ creativity and 

renewal?

­ Ego Integrity vs. Despair

o Late adulthood and old age

o Challenge: As a person ages, he or she strives to reach the ultimate goals of wisdom, spiritual tranquility, and 

acceptance of his or her life

• Levinson's ”Seasons" of the Life Cycle

­ Periods of change interspersed with periods of relative calm • Life Course in Women

1) No children phase

2) Starting a family­preschool phase

3) School­age phase

4) Adolescent phase

5) Launching phase

6) Postparental phase

• The Myth of a” Midlife Crisis"

­ 10,000 adults filled out a questionnaire that measured emotional  instability

­ Neither males nor females showed increased instability during the 40’s or early 50’s

­ There is a shift in thinking about life: distance from birth versus from death: reevaluation

• Self and Relationships

­ Personality stable throughout the life course

­ Have fewer, but more intimate relationships

• Parenthood

­ Marital satisfaction declines after the birth of the first child, esp. for women

­ Role strain, inequitable division of labor are factors

­

• Later Adulthood

­ Only 13% of those over 65 are below the poverty line ­ The majority of people view

retirement positively

­ Losing a spouse increases both mortality and suicide rates • The Kübler­Ross Stages of Dying

1) Denial and Isolation

2) Anger

3) Bargaining

4) Depression

5) Acceptance

• Dealing with the death of others

­ Grief: distress following death of a loved one

­ Bereavement: missing a loved one and longing for his or her 

company

­ Stages of grieving

o Shock (3 weeks)

o Emotional upheaval (1 year) anger, loneliness, guilt

o Lessening of grief (after a year)

4. Intelligence

a. Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence

• Spearman theorized that individuals differ in general ability (g)

• Spearman’s “g” Factor

­ Spearman proposed a General Intelligence (g)

o All­purpose ability

o Underlies all mental ability

­ Specific Abilities (s)

o Abilities particularly relevant to this task or some part of it

­ g and one or more s’s contribute to performing

any particular task

b. Modern Forms of Assessing Intelligence

• Stanford­Binet

• Wechsler Intelligence Scales

­ These are examples of nonverbal/visual tasks.

­ Also include verbal/language tasks

c. Neural Speed and Intelligence

• Recorded time required for brain to react to visual stimuli

• Ordered subjects from slowest (1) to fastest (5)

• Subjects with higher conduction speed also had higher scores on an  intelligence test

d. IQ Scores

• Original Formula= Mental Age/ Chronological Age X100

• Now calculated by deviation method

• Performance is compared to others of the same age

• Range of IQ

­ 95% people IQ 75­130 

­ 68% IQ 85­150 

­ Extremes of Intelligence

­ Mental Giftedness

o Substantially above average

o 130­135

­ Intellectual Disability

o Mild (IQ between 56­70) (6th grade level)

o Moderate (IQ between 41­55) (2nd grade level)

o Severe (IQ 40 and below) (cannot do basic life functioning) e. Making a Diagnosis

• Mental health professionals look for three criteria before making a diagnosis of intellectual disability in an adult

­ An IQ below 70. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The tests measure a person's ability to solve problems using both verbal and  nonverbal information. For instance

o Asking a person to identify what's wrong or absurd 

in a picture, like a calendar with no Sundays.

o Can a person put a series of pictures

in a sequence to tell a logical story?

o How well can a person recite a series

of numbers forward and backward?

­ Poor adaptive behavior skills. Psychologists look to see how well  a person gets along in the world: how a person interacts socially and his ability to take care of himself. For instance

o Can a person prepare a complete meal

or make a new meal out of leftovers?

o Socialization, communication, daily living skills (motor 

skills)

­ Evidence of intellectual disability before the age of 18. 

Investigators look through school and medical records and talk  with school teachers, past employers, friends and family in a search for proof that mental retardation existed in a person as a child

• IQ tests predict

­ School performance

­ Occupational success

• Nature’s Influence on IQ Scores

­ greater genetic similarity = more similar IQ scores

o suggests a genetic component

­ two individuals raised together = similar IQ scores

o suggests the environment shapes intelligence

f. Changing IQ

• Effects of Schooling

­ Children from comparable schools

o One with 180­day year

o One with 210­day year

­ Children began study performing similarly

­ At end of study, extended­year children performed better

• Explaining Group Differences

­ Within a group with all treated exactly the same, differences may reflect genetics

­ When one group differs from another, the differences may reflect  environmental differences

­ 20 point IQ difference between low and high SES (Social  Economic Status) White kids

• Self­Fulfilling Prophecy

­ Rosenthal told teachers half of kids were “late bloomers” ­ Those kids ended up doing better at the end of the year ­ person’s expectation can lead to its own fulfillment ­ Teachers with low expectations may settle for less

• Stereotype Threat

­ African American students are aware of negative stereotypes ­ Vulnerability to stereotype undermines performance

• Flynn Effect

­ IQ scores rise about 3 points every ten years

o Daily life becomes more complicated

o Nutrition is better

o Technology such as TV and video games

o Intermarriage

• Intelligence Types (Gardner)

­ Linguistic – 

o use language well

­ Logical­mathematical – 

o manipulate abstract symbols

­ Musical

­ Spatial

o reason well about spatial relations (surgery, 

architecture) 

­ Bodily­kinesthetic

­ Interpersonal 

o understand others and social relationships

­ Interpersonal 

o understand yourself

• Triarchic Theory (Sternberg)

­ Creative Intelligence

­ Analytic Intelligence

­ Practical Intelligence 

• Emotional Intelligence

­ the ability to understand and regulate emotions effectively

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