Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UB - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UB - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

UB / Psychology / PSY 101 / What are the four components of emotion?

What are the four components of emotion?

What are the four components of emotion?


School: University at Buffalo
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Larry hawk
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 50
Name: Psy 101, Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These notes will cover all the materials need to learn for exam 3.
Uploaded: 10/17/2018
25 Pages 80 Views 17 Unlocks

Victoria Hyde (Rating: )

fmo3 (Rating: )

mjverost (Rating: )

jennakoc (Rating: )

321062106 (Rating: )

jmmazure (Rating: )

Richard Jia (Rating: )


Study Guide

What are the four components of emotion?

Psychology 101 Exam 3

1. Emotion I

A. Four Components of Emotion

a. Emotion

b. Physiological Processes

c. Expressive Behavior

d. Cognitive Appraisal

a. The Physiological Component

i. The Autonomic Nervous System

• “Fight or Flight” response

ii. Polygraph Tests as Lie Detectors

• Assumes that lying leaves distinctive physiological clues

• Empirical support is weak and conflicting

• Test is inadmissible in most courts

• It is illegal to use for most job screening

• False Positive: people who were found guilty is actually innocent

b. The Expressive Component

What are the theories of emotion?

i. Facial EMG Studies of Emotion

• Electrodes placed on the face record activity in various muscles

• Positive emotions: increase activity in cheeks Don't forget about the age old question of What are the forms of classical conditioning?
If you want to learn more check out What is monetary policy?

• Negative emotions: increase activity in forehead and brow area

c. The Cognitive Component

i. Counterfactual Component

• Imagining what could have been

• Examined pictures of Olympic medal winners

• Happier when they won bronze then silver

B. Theories of Emotion

a. Cannon­Bard Theory of Emotion

• Emotion originates in the thalamus

• “Body” (physiological systems) & “Mind” (emotional experience) are  independently activated at the same time

b. James­Lange Theory of Emotion

What is emotional leakage?

• Emotion arises from physiological arousal Don't forget about the age old question of What are the different definitions of family?

• Happiness: comes from smiling

• Sadness: comes from crying

c. Sensory feedback

• Facial­ Feedback Hypothesis

• Changes in facial expression produce corresponding changes in emotion d. Facial Feedback (Strack)

• Hold Pencil in mouth while doing task

• Mimic frowning or smiling

• Measure mood

e. Two­factor Theory of Emotion

• Physiological arousal

­ Sweaty palms

­ Increased heart rate 

­ rapid breathing

• Cognitive Label

­ Attribute source of arousal to a cause Don't forget about the age old question of What is a parasympathetic nervous system?

• Both factors are required for emotion

­ Event

­ Physiological arousal Cognitive interpretation We also discuss several other topics like What is illustrated by a scale model?

­ Emotional experience

f. Dutton and Aron’s study

• Attractive experimenter met participants at end of bridge or before

• Recorded whether participants asked her out or not

• Recorded sexual imagery in TAT

• Rickety bridge = more attraction We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by strategic marketing process?

• Misattribution of arousal

2. Emotion II

A. Emotion: A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation,  

cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action 

B. The Biology of Emotions

• Amygdala and insula

­ Amygdala: responsible for assessing threat

­ Damage: results in abnormally in processing fear

• Cingulate cortex and basal ganglia

• Cerebral cortex: reactions to pain

a. Hormones and Emotions

• When experiencing an intense emotion, two hormones are released ­ Epinephrine

­ Norepinephrine

• Results in increased alertness and arousal

• At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control


b. Facial Expressions

• The same facial expressions of basic emotions are found across cultures and in totally blind and deaf children

c. Basic Emotions

• Fear

• Anger

• Disgust

• Surprise

• Happiness

• Sadness

• Contempt

d. Culture and Emotional Variation

• Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about

• Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to  others.

• Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures C. Emotional Leakage

a. Facial Expressions

b. Gaze

• Look at interaction partner in face 70­75% of the time

• Less conveys negative emotions

• More conveys positive emotions

c. Gesture

• self­touching actions (e.g. touching face, gripping hands) indicate intense

emotions: depression, elation, anxiety

d. Touch

• Affection, love

• Fear

• Power and status

D. Gender and Emotion

a. Physiology and intensity

• Women: recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men • Men: experience emotional events more intensely than do women • Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women • Possible reasons

­ Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than female

­ Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains


­ Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression

b. Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions

• influence one’s ability to “read” emotional signals

­ The sex of the receiver

­ How well the sender and receiver know each other

­ How expressive the sender is

­ Who has the power

­ Stereotypes and expectations

c. Cognitions

• Men and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that 

provoke their anger

­ Women become angry over issues related to their   p  a  r t  n  er’s 


­ Men become angry over damage to property or problems with 

  s  tr  a  n  g  ers 

d. Expressiveness

• North America women

­ Smile more than men

­ Gaze at listeners more

­ more emotionally expressive faces

­ more expressive body movements

­ Touch others more

­ Acknowledge weakness and emotions more

• men only express anger to strangers more

e. Emotion Work

• Women: work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are


• Men: work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and  unemotional

• Reason: Gender roles and status

E. Happiness

a. Age

• Only minor differences in age

• No gender differences

b. Marriage

• Married people are happier than others

• Reason

­ Two­way street

­ Marriage reduces loneliness

­ Only true for happy marriages

­ 3 out of 4 Americans – spouse is best friend

­ 4 in 5 would marry them again

F. Mood and Cognition

• Encoding and recall better for mood congruent information • mood induction, list of words, memory for words, depressed people a. Mood Congruency Bias

• E.g. given products to rate

­ Half given cookies and juice

­ Rated products better

• E.g. All things considered, how happy are you with your life? ­ “found” money in Xerox machine

­ Rated self as happier in general

b. Mood and use of Heuristics

• Happy: all is good, can coast

• Sad: something is wrong, must focus

• E.g. mood induction (happy, sad, neutral)

• Use more stereotype when happy

3. Developmental Psychology

A. The Nature­Nurture Debate

• The debate over the extent to which behavior is determined by genetics and the environment

• Studying adopted children allows researchers to compare

correlations between the traits of adopted children and those of  their biological and adoptive relatives

• If identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins, then the increased similarity must be due to genetic differences

­ Compare identical twins with fraternal twins

­ Investigators have also studied twins who were

separated early in life and reared apart

­ Any similarities in traits between them should be

primarily genetic

B. Genetic Building Blocks

a. Chromosomes

• Rod­like structures, found in all biological cells, that contain  DNA molecules

b. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

• The complex molecular structure that carries genetic 


c. Genes

• biochemical units of heredity that govern the development of an individual life

C. Prenatal Development: Nature and Nurture from the start

• Egg and sperm: only 23 chromosomes (not 23 pairs)

• Egg biggest cell in Body (pinprick)

• Life: sperm meeting egg

• Many sperm enter vagina. Only one can reach egg

­ Natural Selection

­ Nature/Nurture

• Egg changes to be impenetrable

D. Human Reproduction II

• XX female XY male

a. Zygote

• Has 23 pairs of   almo  st identical chromosomes

• One from mom, one from dad. Each with genetic code

• Gene Dominance: When a person possesses differing genes for the same trait, one is often dominant over the other

b. Blastocyst

• Once formed, cell begins to divide

• After 3 days, 60­70 cells

c. Prenatal development divided into trimesters

• First: Zygote, Embryo, Fetus

• Second: body parts and neurons in place

• Third: growth

d. Early development mirrors evolution

• The developing fetus (20 weeks)

­ begins light sensitive

­ will move to avoid bright light

• 6 months

­ sensitive to external stimulation

­ boys move more than girls

• Prenatal

­ Zygote, embryo, fetus

• Can the fetus learn?

­ Habituation: When an animal gets used to something

­ Sandman: buzzing instrument to measure heartbeat

­ Heartbeat would speed up

­ Habituation occurred

­ Change of frequency caused increase in heartbeat to return ­ Able to discriminate and learn

e. Teratogens: When the environment hurts

• Substances

­ Alcohol

­ Cigarettes

• Diseases


­ Rubella (German measles)

• Mom’s stress level

­ Babies with attention difficulties

­ Anxiety

­ Unusual social behavior

­ Reason: Flight or flight response draws blood away from fetus • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

­ When pregnant women have too much alcohol intake

f. The newborn: a work in progress

• Human babies much less developed than other animals

• Can’t walk, little muscle control

• Brains are not developed (size of birth canal)

• Need care for a long time

• Humans attracted to babies

• The Developing Brain

­ At birth, neurons are in place, but few connections

­ During first year, axons grow, dendrites multiply, connections form ­ Over next few years, active connections strengthen

• Sensory Capacities

­ Born sensitive to range of female voices

­ Like smell of lactating women (even if bottle fed)

g. The Newborn

• Reflexes

­ Permanent: Swallowing, breathing, coughing, blinking

­ Temporary: Palmar Grasp, Babinski, sucking, rooting

o Palmar Grasp

 By pressing just one of baby’s palms, fingers should 

grasp the object

o Babinski

 Baby’s foot is stroked from heel toward the toes. 

The big toe should lift up, while the others fan out

o Sucking

 A finger or nipple placed in baby’s mouth will elicit

rhythmical sucking

o Rooting 

 When baby’s cheek is stroked at the corner of her 

mouth, her head will turn toward finger and she will

make sucking motions

• Temperament

­ Characteristic ways of responding to the environment that vary

from infant to infant

­ Some babies “approach” and some “avoid”

­ Fast prenatal heartbeat – more fearful as kid

­ Extraversion – highly heritable

­ Happiness “good disposition”

­ Tend to last a lifetime

h. Milestones in Motor Development

• Perceptual development

­ 2­3 months’ depth

­ 2­3 months’ whole objects

­ Hearing comes quicker – right away

• Piaget’s Theory

­ Assimilation

o Fitting new objects, events, etc. into an existing schema

­ Accommodation

o Modifying a schema to fit new events, objects, etc.

• Changing Schemas of the Earth

­ From preschool through about the 5th grade, children gradually assimilate and then accommodate the spherical­earth concept

into their thinking

• Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Stages

­ Sensorimotor (0­2 years)

o Infant learns through concrete actions: looking, touching, 

putting things in the mouth, sucking, grasping

o “Thinking” consists of coordinating sensory information 

with bodily movements

o Major accomplishment is object permanence

­ Preoperations (2-7 years)

o Language and symbolic thought develop

o Still lack the cognitive abilities necessary for 

understanding abstract principles and mental operations

o Egocentric

o Cannot grasp   con  s  e  r  v  ation 

­ Concrete Operations (7­12 years)

o Thinking is still grounded in concrete experiences and 

concepts, but children can now understand:

 Conservation

 Reversibility

 Cause and effect

o “Conservation of Liquid” Task

­ Formal Operations (12 and up)

o Beginning of abstract reasoning

o reason about situations not personally experienced

o think about the future

o search systematically for solutions

o draw logical conclusions

­ Can infants add and subtract?

o Show the baby the same array many times

o Show the array with an element missing (shown) or one 


o Surprise indicates that her or his expectations were violated ­ Speed of Information Processing

o Response times decrease from 7­12 years of age

 Consistent across several different types of tasks

o This may be due to the biological maturation of the brain

 Increased myelination of axons

i. Social and Emotional Development

• Touching

­ Touched newborns grow and develop faster

­ Reduced right frontal EEG activity – associated with depression ­ Better immune functioning

­ E.g. touched preemies 15 min/ 3 X a day

o Grew 15% faster

o Were more alert

o Discharged faster

• Visual Preferences in Newborns

­ Infants spend more time looking at patterns than solid ­ Infants spend the most time looking at a drawing of a human face • Newborns and Human Faces

­ Infants were shown blank shape, a proper face, or scrambled facial  features

­ Infants looked more intensely at the proper face

• Social Development

­ Attachment

o A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker

­ Primary Drives Theory

o Attachment results from associating the satisfaction of  primary drives with the being who satisfies them

­ Harlow’s Study

o Tested primary drives theory in Rhesus

o monkeys 2 surrogate mothers

 a wire surrogate that fed the infant

 a cloth surrogate that did not feed the infant

o Results

 Despite the wire surrogate being a source of food, 

the infant monkeys attached to the cloth surrogate


­ Separation Anxiety

o Separation anxiety is a fear reaction when the primary caregiver is absent

o Seen in all cultures

o Corresponds with development of object permanence

­   Er i  k  son’s Eight Stages – I

o Trust vs. Mistrust 

 Baby’s first year (0­1 year)

 Challenge: Baby depends on others to provide


 If needs are not met, child may never develop 

essential trust of others

o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

 Toddler (1­2 year)

 Challenge: Young child must learn to be

independent without feeling too ashamed or 

uncertain about his or her actions

o Initiative vs. Guilt

 Preschool age (3­5 years)

 Challenge: Child acquires new physical and mental  skills, but must also learn to control impulses

 Danger lies in developing too strong a sense of guilt  over his or her wishes and fantasies

o Industry vs. Inferiority

 School age (6­12 years)

 Challenge: Child learns to make things, use tools,  acquire the skills for adult life

 Children who fail lessons of mastery and 

competence may come out of this stage feeling 

inadequate and inferior

­ Styles of attachment

o Strange Situation Test

 A parent­infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a

child’s attachment (separation anxiety)

o Secure Attachment

 baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed  by separation, and delighted by reunion

­ Ainsworth’s View

o Securely attached kids use caretaker as a secure base o Anxious ­ Ambivalent infants first seek and then avoid  caretaker. Cry and cling

o Avoidant infants are not attached at all

o Parental responsiveness highest in securely attached kids,  lowest in avoidant kids, and inconsistent in ambivalent kids ­ Day Care Providers

o Majority of kids are not take cared by parents but other  family members

­ Day Care Effects

o Hard to study because of confounds

o Most research: reasonable­quality day care does not  significantly harm kids

o The positive effects of day care that do occur appear to be social

o Some positive cognitive effects for very low income kids in  high quality day care

­ Gender

o Boys more active than girls

o More active play with boys; gentler with girls

o Nature/nurture interaction

o Case of John/Joan

 Sex hormones in womb

o Kids learn gender roles before they learn gender stability

­ Gender Segregation at Playtime

o Four­year­olds spend three times as much time with same

sex playmates as opposite­sex playmates

o By age six, children spend 11 times as much time with 

same­sex playmates

­ Parenting Styles

o Authoritative

 High parental control& High parental involvement

o Authoritarian

 High parental control low parental involvement

o Permissive

 Low Parental control High Parental Involvement

o Uninvolved 

 Low Parental Control Low Parental Involvement 

o Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes

 Anti­social behavior

 High parental control

j. Adolescence

• Adolescence vs. Puberty

­ Adolescence

o From the Latin "Adolescere," meaning "to grow up"

o The culturally­determined state between childhood and 


o Definition

 The transition from childhood to adulthood

 Has become longer over time

 Earlier onset of puberty

 Extended education and training

­ Puberty

o From the Latin "Pubescere," meaning "to grow hairy"

o The onset of sexual maturity

o Girls 7­14

o Boy 9­16

k. Milestones

• Menarche

­ A girl’s first menstrual period

­ Girls begin to store more fat

­ Girls get bigger in hips than shoulders

• Spermarche

­ A boy’s first ejaculation

­ Boys hearts grow bigger

­ Boys get bigger in shoulders than hips

• Adolescent Growth Spurt

­ Girls: age 13

­ Boys: age 16

­ final maturational growth spurt in height

• Physical Development: The Brain

­ Amygdala

­ Frontal Lobes: not well developed in adolescents 

• Puberty and Body Image

­ Girls: mature earlier than their peers are usually less satisfied with  their size, weight, and figure

­ Boys: mature later than their peers have only temporary decreases

in body image

• Erikson’s Eight Stages – II

­ Identity vs. Role Confusion 

o Adolescence (13­19 years)

o Challenge: Identity crisis

 Teenagers must decide who they are, what they are

going to do, and what they hope to make of their 


 Those who resolve the crisis will emerge with a

strong identity, ready to plan for the future

 Those who do not will sink into confusion, unable to

make decisions

o Problems

 Conflicts with parents

 Frequency: early adolescence

 Intensity: mid­adolescence

 Most often with moms and daughters

 Mood Swings

 By mid­teen years 1/3 are depressed

 Often report feeling lonely or nervous

 Risky Behavior (late adolescence)

­ Adolescent Disengagement

o The proportion of time spent with the family decreases almost 3% per year

o Not true for time spent alone with parents

­ Adolescent Transformation

o Boys feel worse while in family settings from grades 5­8,  then improve

o Girls feel worse while in family settings

from grades 5­10, improvement later

­ Imaginary Audience

o The strong focus on self leads adolescents to 

feel that everyone else is focused on them as 


­ Personal Fable

o Adolescents assume their thoughts and feelings are

unique (no one has ever loved so deeply, etc.)

l. BIOLOGY and the Teen Brain

• Changes in the adolescent brain

­ Pruning of synapses, primarily in prefrontal cortex

­ Myelinization

­ Neurological changes may not be complete until 

early 20s

­ May help explain why strong emotions of adolescent years can overwhelm rational decision making

• Realistic view of adolescence

­ Rate of violent crimes committed by adolescents has

been dropping steadily since 1993

­ Feelings self­esteem do not suddenly plummet after the age of  13 for either sex

­ Very little change in narcissism

levels over the decades

­ Survey: Today’s teenagers are more sexually conservative than  their parents were

j. Adulthood and Aging

­ The Continuously Changing Self

• Subjective Age

­ Younger people tend to feel older than they are

­ Older people tend to feel younger than they are

­ This effect is most pronounced in

the oldest and youngest

• Physical Changes

­ 20­50 no huge changes in physical self

­ Metabolism progressively slows down

­ Eyes progressively deteriorate

­ After 50 changes begin in organ functioning

­ Reason

o some changes inevitable – cells dividing a little like a photocopy

o Lack of exercise, bad diet, lack of meaningful activity ­ Exercise slows physical decline dramatically

­ Continued sexual activity common among those over 80 • Menopause

­ Menopause: The end of menstruation and fertility

­ Can be difficult physically – less female hormones

­ Can be hard psychologically

­ Some women – new lease on life

• Cognition in adulthood

­ Stable until 50

­ At 50 loss of connections in brain starts to catch up with people ­ By 60 most people slower on cognitive tasks

­ Dramatic drop right before death terminal decline

• Intelligence and Age

­ Measures of fluid intelligence decline steadily through middle and  late adulthood

o Inductive reasoning

o Spatial ability

­ Measures of crystallized intelligence remain stable into the 70’s o Verbal ability

o Numeric ability

• Perception in Adulthood

­ 50% of 65 and older have cataracts – clouding of lens ­ By 50 high pitch sounds are hard to hear

­ By 50 background sounds are hard to block out

­ Taste buds survive, but smell is affected (which affects taste) • How Good is Your Memory?

­ Older people are consistently less confident of their memory than younger people

• Erickson’s Stages

­ Intimacy vs. Isolation

o Young adulthood

o Challenge: The young adult must share himself or herself  with another and learn to make commitments

o People are not complete until they are capable of intimacy ­ Generativity vs. Stagnation

o Middle years

o Challenge: Will the adults sink into complacency and  selfishness, or experience generativity­ creativity and 


­ Ego Integrity vs. Despair

o Late adulthood and old age

o Challenge: As a person ages, he or she strives to reach the ultimate goals of wisdom, spiritual tranquility, and 

acceptance of his or her life

• Levinson's ”Seasons" of the Life Cycle

­ Periods of change interspersed with periods of relative calm • Life Course in Women

1) No children phase

2) Starting a family­preschool phase

3) School­age phase

4) Adolescent phase

5) Launching phase

6) Postparental phase

• The Myth of a” Midlife Crisis"

­ 10,000 adults filled out a questionnaire that measured emotional  instability

­ Neither males nor females showed increased instability during the 40’s or early 50’s

­ There is a shift in thinking about life: distance from birth versus from death: reevaluation

• Self and Relationships

­ Personality stable throughout the life course

­ Have fewer, but more intimate relationships

• Parenthood

­ Marital satisfaction declines after the birth of the first child, esp. for women

­ Role strain, inequitable division of labor are factors


• Later Adulthood

­ Only 13% of those over 65 are below the poverty line ­ The majority of people view

retirement positively

­ Losing a spouse increases both mortality and suicide rates • The Kübler­Ross Stages of Dying

1) Denial and Isolation

2) Anger

3) Bargaining

4) Depression

5) Acceptance

• Dealing with the death of others

­ Grief: distress following death of a loved one

­ Bereavement: missing a loved one and longing for his or her 


­ Stages of grieving

o Shock (3 weeks)

o Emotional upheaval (1 year) anger, loneliness, guilt

o Lessening of grief (after a year)

4. Intelligence

a. Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence

• Spearman theorized that individuals differ in general ability (g)

• Spearman’s “g” Factor

­ Spearman proposed a General Intelligence (g)

o All­purpose ability

o Underlies all mental ability

­ Specific Abilities (s)

o Abilities particularly relevant to this task or some part of it

­ g and one or more s’s contribute to performing

any particular task

b. Modern Forms of Assessing Intelligence

• Stanford­Binet

• Wechsler Intelligence Scales

­ These are examples of nonverbal/visual tasks.

­ Also include verbal/language tasks

c. Neural Speed and Intelligence

• Recorded time required for brain to react to visual stimuli

• Ordered subjects from slowest (1) to fastest (5)

• Subjects with higher conduction speed also had higher scores on an  intelligence test

d. IQ Scores

• Original Formula= Mental Age/ Chronological Age X100

• Now calculated by deviation method

• Performance is compared to others of the same age

• Range of IQ

­ 95% people IQ 75­130 

­ 68% IQ 85­150 

­ Extremes of Intelligence

­ Mental Giftedness

o Substantially above average

o 130­135

­ Intellectual Disability

o Mild (IQ between 56­70) (6th grade level)

o Moderate (IQ between 41­55) (2nd grade level)

o Severe (IQ 40 and below) (cannot do basic life functioning) e. Making a Diagnosis

• Mental health professionals look for three criteria before making a diagnosis of intellectual disability in an adult

­ An IQ below 70. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The tests measure a person's ability to solve problems using both verbal and  nonverbal information. For instance

o Asking a person to identify what's wrong or absurd 

in a picture, like a calendar with no Sundays.

o Can a person put a series of pictures

in a sequence to tell a logical story?

o How well can a person recite a series

of numbers forward and backward?

­ Poor adaptive behavior skills. Psychologists look to see how well  a person gets along in the world: how a person interacts socially and his ability to take care of himself. For instance

o Can a person prepare a complete meal

or make a new meal out of leftovers?

o Socialization, communication, daily living skills (motor 


­ Evidence of intellectual disability before the age of 18. 

Investigators look through school and medical records and talk  with school teachers, past employers, friends and family in a search for proof that mental retardation existed in a person as a child

• IQ tests predict

­ School performance

­ Occupational success

• Nature’s Influence on IQ Scores

­ greater genetic similarity = more similar IQ scores

o suggests a genetic component

­ two individuals raised together = similar IQ scores

o suggests the environment shapes intelligence

f. Changing IQ

• Effects of Schooling

­ Children from comparable schools

o One with 180­day year

o One with 210­day year

­ Children began study performing similarly

­ At end of study, extended­year children performed better

• Explaining Group Differences

­ Within a group with all treated exactly the same, differences may reflect genetics

­ When one group differs from another, the differences may reflect  environmental differences

­ 20 point IQ difference between low and high SES (Social  Economic Status) White kids

• Self­Fulfilling Prophecy

­ Rosenthal told teachers half of kids were “late bloomers” ­ Those kids ended up doing better at the end of the year ­ person’s expectation can lead to its own fulfillment ­ Teachers with low expectations may settle for less

• Stereotype Threat

­ African American students are aware of negative stereotypes ­ Vulnerability to stereotype undermines performance

• Flynn Effect

­ IQ scores rise about 3 points every ten years

o Daily life becomes more complicated

o Nutrition is better

o Technology such as TV and video games

o Intermarriage

• Intelligence Types (Gardner)

­ Linguistic – 

o use language well

­ Logical­mathematical – 

o manipulate abstract symbols

­ Musical

­ Spatial

o reason well about spatial relations (surgery, 


­ Bodily­kinesthetic

­ Interpersonal 

o understand others and social relationships

­ Interpersonal 

o understand yourself

• Triarchic Theory (Sternberg)

­ Creative Intelligence

­ Analytic Intelligence

­ Practical Intelligence 

• Emotional Intelligence

­ the ability to understand and regulate emotions effectively

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here