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CAL STATE FULLERTON / History / HIST 110 / What are the characteristics of material culture?

What are the characteristics of material culture?

What are the characteristics of material culture?

Description

School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan chrissanthos
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: History 110 A study guide 1
Description: This study guide goes over and explains the ID’s that Professor Rietveld gave us for the quiz on October 22.
Uploaded: 10/18/2018
10 Pages 140 Views 10 Unlocks
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History 110A Study Guide for Quiz 1


Material culture



Ancient and Modern Dating Systems (BC/AD—BCE/CE) Dionysius Exiguus=  Dionysius is best know as the inventor of the Anno Domini era, which is used to  number the years of both the gregorian and Julian calendar.

Archaeological dating methods= carbon dating 14, tree ring dating, and electron  dating  

“Material Culture” = archaeology is the study of material culture which are ancient  things

Stratigraphy/Soil Horizons = archaeologists study stratigraphy. Each level of soil you dig down to is older the farther you go down. Levels have soil horizons that are  different colors.  

Artificial Mounds (tels/huyuks) = people tend to build new places on top of ruins  instead of relocating, this creates an artificial mound.  

Paleolithic Age (2.6 Million-10,000 BCE) = began with the first stone tools, the  people were mimetic, lived only 15 to 20 years.  


Stratigraphy/soil horizons



Paleolithic Gender Relations = men hunted and women gathered, women breastfed  until she died, women were in charge when the men went hunting Hunting/Gathering Societies = In 10,000 BCE the lack of big animals such as  mammoths led to some people following them to the north where their society was  only hunting. Those who stayed in the south had a gathering society and invented  agriculture.  

Cave Paintings = Humans couldn’t write so they drew on the cave walls (usually  animals)

Lascaux = a Paleolithic cave in southwestern France. It has some of the most  famous cave paintings. There are about 600 inside.

Four Evolutions of Cognitive Mode = sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete  operational, formal operational

Mimetic Modeling of the World = 2.6 to 1.6 million BCE they mimicked what they  saw in nature  


Paleolithic gender relations



We also discuss several other topics like Who struggle initially with syntax, but understands meaning?

Conceptual-Meaning Modeling = 1.9 to 500,000 BCE tools have conceptual design  with a purpose in mind. People are able to conceptualize ideas.  Abstract Idea Modeling = 500,000 to 30,000 BCE, shapes such as triangles, symbols that represent concepts Don't forget about the age old question of What are the terms used to analyze social class?

Mythic and Linguistic Modeling = 40,000 to 10,000 BCE, human jaws become more  fine tuned and able to say words, language is forming

Ancestor Veneration = the custom of venerating dead ancestors who are still  considered a part of the family and have power to intervene in the affairs of the  living

Sacred Mountains = people would climb mountains because they were as close as  they could get to sky gods, they were sacred, rituals and prayers performed here. Sacred Trees = they worshipped trees to link the sky and earth. Thought life began  with a tree

Red Ochre Paint = used to paint cave walls and skulls/ bones

Mother goddesses/Hunter gods = figurines show pregnant women and male  hunters, thought worshiping these gods would give them fertility and good hunting  trips that would bring plenty of meat for everyone

Mother Goddess figurines—importance?= thought the earth gives life to everything  on it such as the plants and women give birth to babies so there was a connection  between women and earth. Believed worshiping pregnant goddess would mean the  earth would give them bountiful plants and animals. We also discuss several other topics like What is wien's law?

Sacred Mounds & Sacred Caves= worshiped sky gods on the sacred mountains and  worshiped the earth by going inside sacred caves  

Dog domestication = 13,000 to 10,000 BCE, they protected the humans as well Mammoth Hunters = people ate mostly meat, mammoth was good because it was  huge and able to feed the whole village. When they migrated the people followed  them north  

Ice Age retreat 

Younger Dryas Catastrophe (10,900-9600 BCE) = meteorite hit earth and changed  the environment, earth gets very cold and everything freezes, animals such as  saber tooth tigers and mammoths go extinct  

Formation of Patriarchy = formed in 9000 BCE when humans followed the mammoth north and relied on hunting. The women were of lesser status because they didn’t  gather.  

Jomon Culture (14,500-300 BCE) 

Natufians (13,000—9000 BCE) = lived in Palestine, Jordan, Turkey, Syria, Iraq,  Lebanon, Jericho. They built huge stone tower to communicate with the sky gods Jericho = where the Natufians built their stone towerWe also discuss several other topics like What is sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks?

Skull Cult = their houses had a lowered podium that was painted red that held the  skull of the most recently deceased relative. Surrounding the podium were headless  skeletons  

Neolithic Age = (10,200—4500 BCE)

Neolithic Revolution 

The Advent of Agriculture = Started when the mammoth left. In Mesopotamia they  had two harvests and crop rotation.  

Starchy food introduction from the Near East, Africa and East Asia to the Americas  Three Sisters = 9000 we had wheat and barley. 8000 we had yams and okra. 7000  we had soybeans and rice.Mezzo America came up with the three sisters: corn,  beans, and squash. They also gave us tomatoes and chiles. In 3000 South America  cultivated potatoes and peanuts.  

Origins of the Potato and Tomato = see above  

Gobekli Tepe (10,000-9000 BCE) = giant stones that looked like “T” were found in a  circle. They represented people, sites for sacrificial rituals  

Early farming cities = Catalhoyuk, Mesopotamia  

Three craft industries—pottery, metallurgy, and textile = pottery was used to store  agricultural extras, humans were buried in them. Metallurgy= they would model  copper into jewelry. Textile= they would breed plants and animals to make long  strong fibers to make clothes out of.  

Animal domestication = 7500 we tried goats but they ate almost all the grass in the Mediterranean. 7000 we tried sheep it was successful. 6500 pigs, successful in cool  climates only. 6000 was had cows  Don't forget about the age old question of Who is skowronek?

Gazelles = first animal we tried to domesticate. Took 4000 years to realize we  couldn’t domesticate them.  

Catalhoyuk (6500-3500 BCE): = farming community in Anatolia. Houses had murals, burial under floors

Bull Cult = worshiped bulls because they represented male potency  Excarnation = practice of removing flesh and organs from dead bodies before burial  Chalcolithic Age =(4300-3300 BCE)

Standing Stone Culture in Europe/Stonehenge Neolithic villages in the Balkans  (symbolic layouts) Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent = between Tigris and Euphrates.  Life was never good, hot, dry, sandy winds, unexpected floods, thought the gods  hated themWe also discuss several other topics like What is a freudian theory?

Tigris & Euphrates = where ancient Mesopotamia was located  

Goat domestication = see above, we had goats as pets for 500 years and some  places in the Middle East are still a desert from it.  

Sheep in the Ancient East (all purposes) = clip the grass instead of pulling out the  roots, gave humans milk, wool, and meat.  

Pig domestication see above, pigs eat everything including the rotten food in the  desert, they got sick then got the human who ate the pig sick. Prohibition of pork in  desert areas, coastal regions have healthy pigs.  

Irrigation in Mesopotamia = they would cut a channel from a river to their houses  Multiple crop productions = came up with two harvests, one in may and autumn  Trade in Mesopotamia = traded food with marauders in the mountains in return for  metal

Mesopotamia and the Wheel = to get up to the mountains to trade, they invented  the wheel so they could make wagons to drag their crops to marauders  Shipbuilding in Mesopotamia 

Magic/Medicine in Mesopotamia = magic not allowed without supervision, medicine  women

General Characteristics of Deities of Mesopotamia Commoners and Clients = all  Mesopotamian gods were like humans except they were all powerful immortal and  invisible. Clients were free but depended on nobility because they worked for them  and got good land in return. Commoners owned own land but it was bad land, can’t  grow much

Stratified Patriarchal Society in Mesopotamia Ziggurats 

Sargon the Great = 2300- 2279, in charge of Akkadians, established Babylon Enheduanna 

Soothsayers/diviners 

Namburbu Ritual = has to do with everything (health wealth harvests) transfer your  evil into a goat, kill the goat, they took a bath, had a beer. Actually helped because  they bathed.  

“Evil Eye” =powers that attract, bewitch, or enchant by a motionless glance.  Associated with female goddesses such as Isis and Ishtar

Invention of Writing/Cuneiform/primary early purpose Epic of Gilgamesh = writing  first started because they were keeping business transactions. Cuneiform means

wedge form. Combined symbols and made sounds to accompany them. Gilgamesh  is like Noah’s arc.  

Flood Story = told in many different religions example= epic of Gilgamesh  Utnapishtim = character in epic of Gilgamesh. Had eternal life because he was like  Noah in the story of Noah’s arc. He took the animals and was at sea for 40 days 40  nights etc

“The Righteous Sufferer” = a story about a Mesopotamian man who had everything  and then lost it all, the story of Job from the Christian Bible  

Code of Hammurabi = first laws of meso. Eye for an eye but if you are higher up you get a lighter punishment  

Mesopotamia & the Environment = hostile environment, dry, hot, random floods  from rain

Innana/Ishtar = goddess of war and sexual love  

Semites = includes Arabs, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Canaanites  Akkadians = semantic, Sargon was the leader, became Babylonians  Ebla Archive = collection of thousands of clay tablets found in the palace archives of the ancient city of Ebla, Syria  

Bronze Metallurgy = crafting metal with bronze  

Iron Metallurgy = crafting metal with iron, a lesser metal than bronze Women in Mesopotamia = more fair in meso. than later on, were awarded  compensation after divorce, could keep the house if husband died  Pharaoh/God-King = thought the Pharaoh became the Pharaoh because Horus  possesses him  

Menes = king, United upper and lower Egypt, moved capitol to Memphis  Upper/Lower Egypt = lower worshipped Seth, upper worshiped Horus, thought  upper was better

The Nile—significance = floods every September, leaves behind rich silt, easy to  farm, soil automatically replenished  

Egypt and the Environment = great environment, life was easy  Natural Resources in Egypt = stone, clay, gold from the Nile, silver, copper,  turquoise  

Egyptian gods and their perception by the Egyptians = their life was easy so they  thought the gods loved them

Amon-Ra = Amon created the universe while Ra created all life in the world. They  were combined into one god, Amon- Ra

Ra and his journey about the world/underworld = pulls sun on his chariot, goes to  the underworld and fights all the monsters every night and brings the light back up  the next morning (sunrise)  

Apophis 

Osiris and Isis = Osiris is fertility goddess Isis is the god of life/death/regeneration.  Their kid is Horus  

Horus and Pharaoh = see above  

Book of the Dead = same as the coffin texts but in an actual book for commoners,  tells how to get through underworld once you’ve died.  

The Weighing of Hearts = Osiris weighs your heart against a feather, if you are  lighthearted you go into the food afterlife  

Ma'at 

Ammit 

Anubis = god of embalming and the dead

Pyramids—purpose? = tombs for Pharaohs  

Khufu = 2589-2566, built pyramid in Giza, 481 feet tall took 20 years to build  Giza = where the popular pyramids are located  

Cats in Egypt/Bast = loves cats, thought they had powers, kept them healthy by  eating the rats in their homes and helped crops by eating rats in the fields.  Mummification/Embalming techniques = removed organs that dealt w food and put  them in a jar, took out brain through nose, wrap body with resin and wrappings,  cover body in natron.  

Shawabtis 

Canopic jars = used to preserve organs  

Valley of the Kings 

Egyptian Society = women were equal to men, lots of male and female Pharaohs Hieroglyphs = holy writing, consonants only, no vowels  

Slavery in Egypt = none until there was foreign rule by the Hyksos in the new  Kingdom, never about race

Egyptian Culture/Wigs/Make-up/Cleanliness = bathed daily, wore makeup as  protection  

Egyptian Jewelry (meaning)

Amulet = everlasting life

Wedjat = eye of Horus, resurrection  

Ankh = sanctuary  

Djed-pillar = resurrection  

Scarab = protection  

Egyptians and the idea of Resurrection/Immortality/Afterlife Mesopotamian deities  and Egyptian deities = Egyptians wanted afterlife to be just like their real life, loved  their gods, opposite for Mesopotamians

Women in Egypt = could own/manage/sell property, can initiate legal settlements,  could sue

Archaic/Pre-Dynastic period = (3100-2660 BCE)

Old Kingdom = (2660-2160 BCE)

Harkhuf’s Expedition into Nubia (before 2300 BCE) = first intermediate period  Middle Kingdom = (2040-1640 BCE)  

“The Satire of the Trades” 

Hyksos = took over Egypt during new Kingdom  

New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) – second intermediate period between middle and  new Kingdom  

Hatshepsut = pharaoh in new Kingdom, rebuilt infrastructure, creates new belief  system, builds roads  

Thutmose III = adopted son of Hatshepsut. Takes over the Middle East using the  king’s highway

Megiddo 

Egyptian conquest of Palestine = done easily by Tutmose III. The road he used took  him to several places that he was able to gain control of.  

Akhenaten/Monotheistic Reforms = first case of monotheism, said all other gods  beside Aton are fake, wanted peace and wanted nudity to be normal, had weird  body proportions  

Nefertiti= Akhenaten’s wife, co ruler of Egypt, becomes pharaoh after he dies.  Aten/“Great Hymn to Aten” 

Tutankhamen = ends monotheism, moves capitol back to Thebes, return to tradition Tutankhamen’s Tomb = discovered in 1922, his body had serious damage at time of  death

Ay and Horemheb = Tutankhamen’s advisers

Ramesses II = reigned 1279-1213, moved capitol to pi-Rameses  Peace of Kadesh (1258) = big battle between Egyptians and Hittites, first peace  treaty ever  

Hittites = constantly fought the Egyptians, took over trade in Cyprus  Fall of the Bronze Age (causes) = Hittites treated Luwians bad, Egyptians and  Hittites hire mercenaries to fight, after peace the mercenaries destroy everything  Merneptah Stele 

Luwians = mercenaries hired by Hittites and Egyptians  

Sea People = the Luwians, they settled down in Philistine

Early Bronze Age Canaan (3300–2100 BCE): Rise of cities = urbanization, some  cities have 10,000 ppl

Middle Bronze Age Canaan (2100-1550 BCE): Canaanite Independent Power = jar  burials of infants, famous archives in Ebla and Vgarit

 Late Bronze Age Canaan (1550-1200 BCE): Egyptian Domination = Hyksos take  Egypt  

Canaanite Religion: El, Baal, Asherah = El is sky god, dad of all gods. The two others are Baal and Asherah

Worship at Masseboth Sites = thought El shouldn’t have an image so they made  standing stones (masseboth) to know where to worship

The Early Hebrews = were in Egypt but made as slaves

Abraham = from Ur, in the Christian Bible  

Isaac = second son of Abraham, father of Hebrews

Ishmael = first son of Abraham, gets sent to Paran, father of Arabs Hagar = Abraham’s second wife, Ishmael’s mom

Joseph = son of Jacob, sold into slavery by his brothers because they were jealous  Habiru = name for people in the Fertile Crescent, describes as outlaws and rebels Migrations and Settlements in Palestine 

Israelites in Canaan (c.1200 BCE): 

Ancient Judaism 

Moses = receives Ten Commandments at mount Sinai

Ten Commandments = rules to live by  

Jewish Monotheism = daily recitation of the shema said three times a day  Shema = Jewish prayer

Circumcision = men and women were getting sick since the men didn’t bathe and it  was a hot environment, every Jewish boy is circumcised on the 8th day of being born Torah, Tradition and Scripture = Torah means instruction, told stories orally, didn’t  write much down

Dietary Rules = no pork, crab, lobster, shellfish  

Oral versus Written Cultures = thought writing down the Torah was a graven image  of god’s words

Chosen People = believed god chose them to be saved, sabbath on Saturday  Holy War 

Judges of Israel 

Kings of Israel: Saul, David and Solomon = king Solomon builds Jewish temple in  Jerusalem, divides Jerusalem into Israel and Judaea  

Divided Monarchy: Judaea and Israel and their destruction = Assyrians destroy the  northern kingdom and then the southern Kingdom is captured.  

Babylonian Captivity = the Jews decide to follow the big 5 after this  Jerusalem = where Jewish temple is  

Israel & the “Presence of God” 

Tabernacle = portable earthly dwelling place of god  

Ark of the Covenant = contains the Ten Commandments  

Jewish Temple in Jerusalem/Holy of Holies = reserved for the presence of god, could  only be entered by the high priest on day of atonement  

Historical Importance of Temple Mount 

The Golden Gate 

Mount Moriah = location of the sacrifice of Isaac in the Bible  

The Dome of the Rock = Islamic shrine in the Temple Mount  

Indo-Europeans/Migrations East, West, and South/Aryans Mohenjo-daro Harappa =lived in the Indus Valley civilization  

Mundas/Dravidians = Mundas settled in the eastern part of India, dravidians settled  in south central India and built the Indus valley civilization  

Aryans/Indo-Europeans in India = by the time they show up almost everything I’d  destroyed  

Brahmanism/Aryan Religion = religion in India, caste system, problematic  Ritual Sacrifice = had to go through Brahman priests, only rich could  Agni = burns offerings so the gods could eat it

Indra = god of thunder, destroys a dragon

Ushas = goddess of dawn

Vedic Age/Vedas 

Blending of Aryan and Dravidian values 

Upanishads 

Brahman and the Universal Soul 

Samsara= the idea that life is like a wheel. if you’re good you move up in the next  life

Karma = good or bad actions  

Atman = everyone has a unique soul  

Moksha = when you are released out of the material world  

Asceticism 

Hinduism = caste system, controlling, yoga  

Dharma 

Brahma and Sarasvati = Brahma creates the material and Sarasvati molds it Vishnu and Laxshmi = Vishnu keeps the world preserved, wife is Laxshmi she makes universe bountiful  

Shiva and Paravati = Shiva destroys with fire

Avatars/Krishna = Vishnu assumes the flesh as avatars Rama and Krishna  Caste system = you were born at a rank and couldn’t move up  

Varna = each of the four Hindu castes

Bhagavad Gita = 700 verse Hindu scripture  

Axial Age = 700-500, big reaction against brahmanism, traveling gurus

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