History 110A Study Guide for Quiz 1
Ancient and Modern Dating Systems (BC/AD—BCE/CE) Dionysius Exiguus= Dionysius is best know as the inventor of the Anno Domini era, which is used to number the years of both the gregorian and Julian calendar.
Archaeological dating methods= carbon dating 14, tree ring dating, and electron dating
“Material Culture” = archaeology is the study of material culture which are ancient things
Stratigraphy/Soil Horizons = archaeologists study stratigraphy. Each level of soil you dig down to is older the farther you go down. Levels have soil horizons that are different colors.
Artificial Mounds (tels/huyuks) = people tend to build new places on top of ruins instead of relocating, this creates an artificial mound.
Paleolithic Age (2.6 Million-10,000 BCE) = began with the first stone tools, the people were mimetic, lived only 15 to 20 years.
Paleolithic Gender Relations = men hunted and women gathered, women breastfed until she died, women were in charge when the men went hunting Hunting/Gathering Societies = In 10,000 BCE the lack of big animals such as mammoths led to some people following them to the north where their society was only hunting. Those who stayed in the south had a gathering society and invented agriculture.
Cave Paintings = Humans couldn’t write so they drew on the cave walls (usually animals)
Lascaux = a Paleolithic cave in southwestern France. It has some of the most famous cave paintings. There are about 600 inside.
Four Evolutions of Cognitive Mode = sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational
Mimetic Modeling of the World = 2.6 to 1.6 million BCE they mimicked what they saw in nature
We also discuss several other topics like Who struggle initially with syntax, but understands meaning?
Conceptual-Meaning Modeling = 1.9 to 500,000 BCE tools have conceptual design with a purpose in mind. People are able to conceptualize ideas. Abstract Idea Modeling = 500,000 to 30,000 BCE, shapes such as triangles, symbols that represent concepts Don't forget about the age old question of What are the terms used to analyze social class?
Mythic and Linguistic Modeling = 40,000 to 10,000 BCE, human jaws become more fine tuned and able to say words, language is forming
Ancestor Veneration = the custom of venerating dead ancestors who are still considered a part of the family and have power to intervene in the affairs of the living
Sacred Mountains = people would climb mountains because they were as close as they could get to sky gods, they were sacred, rituals and prayers performed here. Sacred Trees = they worshipped trees to link the sky and earth. Thought life began with a tree
Red Ochre Paint = used to paint cave walls and skulls/ bones
Mother goddesses/Hunter gods = figurines show pregnant women and male hunters, thought worshiping these gods would give them fertility and good hunting trips that would bring plenty of meat for everyone
Mother Goddess figurines—importance?= thought the earth gives life to everything on it such as the plants and women give birth to babies so there was a connection between women and earth. Believed worshiping pregnant goddess would mean the earth would give them bountiful plants and animals. We also discuss several other topics like What is wien's law?
Sacred Mounds & Sacred Caves= worshiped sky gods on the sacred mountains and worshiped the earth by going inside sacred caves
Dog domestication = 13,000 to 10,000 BCE, they protected the humans as well Mammoth Hunters = people ate mostly meat, mammoth was good because it was huge and able to feed the whole village. When they migrated the people followed them north
Ice Age retreat
Younger Dryas Catastrophe (10,900-9600 BCE) = meteorite hit earth and changed the environment, earth gets very cold and everything freezes, animals such as saber tooth tigers and mammoths go extinct
Formation of Patriarchy = formed in 9000 BCE when humans followed the mammoth north and relied on hunting. The women were of lesser status because they didn’t gather.
Jomon Culture (14,500-300 BCE)
Natufians (13,000—9000 BCE) = lived in Palestine, Jordan, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jericho. They built huge stone tower to communicate with the sky gods Jericho = where the Natufians built their stone towerWe also discuss several other topics like What is sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks?
Skull Cult = their houses had a lowered podium that was painted red that held the skull of the most recently deceased relative. Surrounding the podium were headless skeletons
Neolithic Age = (10,200—4500 BCE)
The Advent of Agriculture = Started when the mammoth left. In Mesopotamia they had two harvests and crop rotation.
Starchy food introduction from the Near East, Africa and East Asia to the Americas Three Sisters = 9000 we had wheat and barley. 8000 we had yams and okra. 7000 we had soybeans and rice.Mezzo America came up with the three sisters: corn, beans, and squash. They also gave us tomatoes and chiles. In 3000 South America cultivated potatoes and peanuts.
Origins of the Potato and Tomato = see above
Gobekli Tepe (10,000-9000 BCE) = giant stones that looked like “T” were found in a circle. They represented people, sites for sacrificial rituals
Early farming cities = Catalhoyuk, Mesopotamia
Three craft industries—pottery, metallurgy, and textile = pottery was used to store agricultural extras, humans were buried in them. Metallurgy= they would model copper into jewelry. Textile= they would breed plants and animals to make long strong fibers to make clothes out of.
Animal domestication = 7500 we tried goats but they ate almost all the grass in the Mediterranean. 7000 we tried sheep it was successful. 6500 pigs, successful in cool climates only. 6000 was had cows Don't forget about the age old question of Who is skowronek?
Gazelles = first animal we tried to domesticate. Took 4000 years to realize we couldn’t domesticate them.
Catalhoyuk (6500-3500 BCE): = farming community in Anatolia. Houses had murals, burial under floors
Bull Cult = worshiped bulls because they represented male potency Excarnation = practice of removing flesh and organs from dead bodies before burial Chalcolithic Age =(4300-3300 BCE)
Standing Stone Culture in Europe/Stonehenge Neolithic villages in the Balkans (symbolic layouts) Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent = between Tigris and Euphrates. Life was never good, hot, dry, sandy winds, unexpected floods, thought the gods hated themWe also discuss several other topics like What is a freudian theory?
Tigris & Euphrates = where ancient Mesopotamia was located
Goat domestication = see above, we had goats as pets for 500 years and some places in the Middle East are still a desert from it.
Sheep in the Ancient East (all purposes) = clip the grass instead of pulling out the roots, gave humans milk, wool, and meat.
Pig domestication see above, pigs eat everything including the rotten food in the desert, they got sick then got the human who ate the pig sick. Prohibition of pork in desert areas, coastal regions have healthy pigs.
Irrigation in Mesopotamia = they would cut a channel from a river to their houses Multiple crop productions = came up with two harvests, one in may and autumn Trade in Mesopotamia = traded food with marauders in the mountains in return for metal
Mesopotamia and the Wheel = to get up to the mountains to trade, they invented the wheel so they could make wagons to drag their crops to marauders Shipbuilding in Mesopotamia
Magic/Medicine in Mesopotamia = magic not allowed without supervision, medicine women
General Characteristics of Deities of Mesopotamia Commoners and Clients = all Mesopotamian gods were like humans except they were all powerful immortal and invisible. Clients were free but depended on nobility because they worked for them and got good land in return. Commoners owned own land but it was bad land, can’t grow much
Stratified Patriarchal Society in Mesopotamia Ziggurats
Sargon the Great = 2300- 2279, in charge of Akkadians, established Babylon Enheduanna
Namburbu Ritual = has to do with everything (health wealth harvests) transfer your evil into a goat, kill the goat, they took a bath, had a beer. Actually helped because they bathed.
“Evil Eye” =powers that attract, bewitch, or enchant by a motionless glance. Associated with female goddesses such as Isis and Ishtar
Invention of Writing/Cuneiform/primary early purpose Epic of Gilgamesh = writing first started because they were keeping business transactions. Cuneiform means
wedge form. Combined symbols and made sounds to accompany them. Gilgamesh is like Noah’s arc.
Flood Story = told in many different religions example= epic of Gilgamesh Utnapishtim = character in epic of Gilgamesh. Had eternal life because he was like Noah in the story of Noah’s arc. He took the animals and was at sea for 40 days 40 nights etc
“The Righteous Sufferer” = a story about a Mesopotamian man who had everything and then lost it all, the story of Job from the Christian Bible
Code of Hammurabi = first laws of meso. Eye for an eye but if you are higher up you get a lighter punishment
Mesopotamia & the Environment = hostile environment, dry, hot, random floods from rain
Innana/Ishtar = goddess of war and sexual love
Semites = includes Arabs, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Canaanites Akkadians = semantic, Sargon was the leader, became Babylonians Ebla Archive = collection of thousands of clay tablets found in the palace archives of the ancient city of Ebla, Syria
Bronze Metallurgy = crafting metal with bronze
Iron Metallurgy = crafting metal with iron, a lesser metal than bronze Women in Mesopotamia = more fair in meso. than later on, were awarded compensation after divorce, could keep the house if husband died Pharaoh/God-King = thought the Pharaoh became the Pharaoh because Horus possesses him
Menes = king, United upper and lower Egypt, moved capitol to Memphis Upper/Lower Egypt = lower worshipped Seth, upper worshiped Horus, thought upper was better
The Nile—significance = floods every September, leaves behind rich silt, easy to farm, soil automatically replenished
Egypt and the Environment = great environment, life was easy Natural Resources in Egypt = stone, clay, gold from the Nile, silver, copper, turquoise
Egyptian gods and their perception by the Egyptians = their life was easy so they thought the gods loved them
Amon-Ra = Amon created the universe while Ra created all life in the world. They were combined into one god, Amon- Ra
Ra and his journey about the world/underworld = pulls sun on his chariot, goes to the underworld and fights all the monsters every night and brings the light back up the next morning (sunrise)
Osiris and Isis = Osiris is fertility goddess Isis is the god of life/death/regeneration. Their kid is Horus
Horus and Pharaoh = see above
Book of the Dead = same as the coffin texts but in an actual book for commoners, tells how to get through underworld once you’ve died.
The Weighing of Hearts = Osiris weighs your heart against a feather, if you are lighthearted you go into the food afterlife
Anubis = god of embalming and the dead
Pyramids—purpose? = tombs for Pharaohs
Khufu = 2589-2566, built pyramid in Giza, 481 feet tall took 20 years to build Giza = where the popular pyramids are located
Cats in Egypt/Bast = loves cats, thought they had powers, kept them healthy by eating the rats in their homes and helped crops by eating rats in the fields. Mummification/Embalming techniques = removed organs that dealt w food and put them in a jar, took out brain through nose, wrap body with resin and wrappings, cover body in natron.
Canopic jars = used to preserve organs
Valley of the Kings
Egyptian Society = women were equal to men, lots of male and female Pharaohs Hieroglyphs = holy writing, consonants only, no vowels
Slavery in Egypt = none until there was foreign rule by the Hyksos in the new Kingdom, never about race
Egyptian Culture/Wigs/Make-up/Cleanliness = bathed daily, wore makeup as protection
Egyptian Jewelry (meaning)
Amulet = everlasting life
Wedjat = eye of Horus, resurrection
Ankh = sanctuary
Djed-pillar = resurrection
Scarab = protection
Egyptians and the idea of Resurrection/Immortality/Afterlife Mesopotamian deities and Egyptian deities = Egyptians wanted afterlife to be just like their real life, loved their gods, opposite for Mesopotamians
Women in Egypt = could own/manage/sell property, can initiate legal settlements, could sue
Archaic/Pre-Dynastic period = (3100-2660 BCE)
Old Kingdom = (2660-2160 BCE)
Harkhuf’s Expedition into Nubia (before 2300 BCE) = first intermediate period Middle Kingdom = (2040-1640 BCE)
“The Satire of the Trades”
Hyksos = took over Egypt during new Kingdom
New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) – second intermediate period between middle and new Kingdom
Hatshepsut = pharaoh in new Kingdom, rebuilt infrastructure, creates new belief system, builds roads
Thutmose III = adopted son of Hatshepsut. Takes over the Middle East using the king’s highway
Egyptian conquest of Palestine = done easily by Tutmose III. The road he used took him to several places that he was able to gain control of.
Akhenaten/Monotheistic Reforms = first case of monotheism, said all other gods beside Aton are fake, wanted peace and wanted nudity to be normal, had weird body proportions
Nefertiti= Akhenaten’s wife, co ruler of Egypt, becomes pharaoh after he dies. Aten/“Great Hymn to Aten”
Tutankhamen = ends monotheism, moves capitol back to Thebes, return to tradition Tutankhamen’s Tomb = discovered in 1922, his body had serious damage at time of death
Ay and Horemheb = Tutankhamen’s advisers
Ramesses II = reigned 1279-1213, moved capitol to pi-Rameses Peace of Kadesh (1258) = big battle between Egyptians and Hittites, first peace treaty ever
Hittites = constantly fought the Egyptians, took over trade in Cyprus Fall of the Bronze Age (causes) = Hittites treated Luwians bad, Egyptians and Hittites hire mercenaries to fight, after peace the mercenaries destroy everything Merneptah Stele
Luwians = mercenaries hired by Hittites and Egyptians
Sea People = the Luwians, they settled down in Philistine
Early Bronze Age Canaan (3300–2100 BCE): Rise of cities = urbanization, some cities have 10,000 ppl
Middle Bronze Age Canaan (2100-1550 BCE): Canaanite Independent Power = jar burials of infants, famous archives in Ebla and Vgarit
Late Bronze Age Canaan (1550-1200 BCE): Egyptian Domination = Hyksos take Egypt
Canaanite Religion: El, Baal, Asherah = El is sky god, dad of all gods. The two others are Baal and Asherah
Worship at Masseboth Sites = thought El shouldn’t have an image so they made standing stones (masseboth) to know where to worship
The Early Hebrews = were in Egypt but made as slaves
Abraham = from Ur, in the Christian Bible
Isaac = second son of Abraham, father of Hebrews
Ishmael = first son of Abraham, gets sent to Paran, father of Arabs Hagar = Abraham’s second wife, Ishmael’s mom
Joseph = son of Jacob, sold into slavery by his brothers because they were jealous Habiru = name for people in the Fertile Crescent, describes as outlaws and rebels Migrations and Settlements in Palestine
Israelites in Canaan (c.1200 BCE):
Moses = receives Ten Commandments at mount Sinai
Ten Commandments = rules to live by
Jewish Monotheism = daily recitation of the shema said three times a day Shema = Jewish prayer
Circumcision = men and women were getting sick since the men didn’t bathe and it was a hot environment, every Jewish boy is circumcised on the 8th day of being born Torah, Tradition and Scripture = Torah means instruction, told stories orally, didn’t write much down
Dietary Rules = no pork, crab, lobster, shellfish
Oral versus Written Cultures = thought writing down the Torah was a graven image of god’s words
Chosen People = believed god chose them to be saved, sabbath on Saturday Holy War
Judges of Israel
Kings of Israel: Saul, David and Solomon = king Solomon builds Jewish temple in Jerusalem, divides Jerusalem into Israel and Judaea
Divided Monarchy: Judaea and Israel and their destruction = Assyrians destroy the northern kingdom and then the southern Kingdom is captured.
Babylonian Captivity = the Jews decide to follow the big 5 after this Jerusalem = where Jewish temple is
Israel & the “Presence of God”
Tabernacle = portable earthly dwelling place of god
Ark of the Covenant = contains the Ten Commandments
Jewish Temple in Jerusalem/Holy of Holies = reserved for the presence of god, could only be entered by the high priest on day of atonement
Historical Importance of Temple Mount
The Golden Gate
Mount Moriah = location of the sacrifice of Isaac in the Bible
The Dome of the Rock = Islamic shrine in the Temple Mount
Indo-Europeans/Migrations East, West, and South/Aryans Mohenjo-daro Harappa =lived in the Indus Valley civilization
Mundas/Dravidians = Mundas settled in the eastern part of India, dravidians settled in south central India and built the Indus valley civilization
Aryans/Indo-Europeans in India = by the time they show up almost everything I’d destroyed
Brahmanism/Aryan Religion = religion in India, caste system, problematic Ritual Sacrifice = had to go through Brahman priests, only rich could Agni = burns offerings so the gods could eat it
Indra = god of thunder, destroys a dragon
Ushas = goddess of dawn
Blending of Aryan and Dravidian values
Brahman and the Universal Soul
Samsara= the idea that life is like a wheel. if you’re good you move up in the next life
Karma = good or bad actions
Atman = everyone has a unique soul
Moksha = when you are released out of the material world
Hinduism = caste system, controlling, yoga
Brahma and Sarasvati = Brahma creates the material and Sarasvati molds it Vishnu and Laxshmi = Vishnu keeps the world preserved, wife is Laxshmi she makes universe bountiful
Shiva and Paravati = Shiva destroys with fire
Avatars/Krishna = Vishnu assumes the flesh as avatars Rama and Krishna Caste system = you were born at a rank and couldn’t move up
Varna = each of the four Hindu castes
Bhagavad Gita = 700 verse Hindu scripture
Axial Age = 700-500, big reaction against brahmanism, traveling gurus