Marine Biology Guide 1
Marine Biology Guide 1 BIOL 518
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Graham on Monday August 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 518 at Truman State University taught by Dr. George Schulte in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Marine Biology Guide 1 I WHY STUDY MARINE BIOLOGY i 05 ppt is considered marine brakish z35ppt measured by parts practical salinity unit by conductivity ii Proportion of salts never appreciably change chloride 55 sodium 30 sulfate 8 of salinity iii Scienti c method 1 Make an observation 2 Form a hypothesis 3 Test it using inductive amp deductive reasoning theory is an overarching explanation b 1St ife believed to have started in sea and provides us clues about early life c Many products come from sea medicine food ect i Agar from algae culture bacteria carrageenan thicken dairy d Support recreation and tourism world wide e Marine organisms produce 50 of oxygen used by aerobic organisms f Regulates climate slows change in temp keeps coastal land more stable responsible for weather g Impact human life and property i Power plants use water as coolant organisms clock and cause to shut down ii Directly affect human health eat shell sh eat pollution II History a Paci c Islanders earIy exploration HOW i Studied currents and used to navigate to Eater Island Aristotle ancient father of everything i Gills are breathing apparatus Leif Eriksson Viking voyage to Vinland 995 Columbus sailed 1492 Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the world 1519 James Cook began including a naturalist on voyage 1768 i 3 voyages covering all oceans ii Rediscovered upper USA Hawaii Polynesia Tahiti Artic elds amp New Zealand iii Crew did extensive mapping and brought back preserved species iv First to use chronometer to pinpoint islands longitude v Killed at battle in Kealakekua Bay Hawaii 1779 g Charles Darwin sailed around world on HMS Beagle 1831 i 5 year trip fascinated by barnaces ii Main mission to map coastline iii CeoIicant iving fossiI coast of South America amp Indian Ocean pp ate them iv Explained formation of atos rings of coral reefs h Lt Charles Wilkes of the US Navy 18381842 i Included 11 naturalist amp 1 artist quotclam diggersquot ii More about projecting American in uence than discovery iii Vain amp cruel promoted self to captain court martialed for ogging his crew to excess iv Only 2 of 6 ships made it home v Charted Antarctic coastline con rm as continent Paci c NW of NA 280 islands vi 2000 previously unknown specimens laid foundation for govn39t funding to science i Edward Forbes extensive trawling of sea oor around British Isles Aegean Sea 1840 s amp 1850 s i Discovered life varies depending on depth there is life on oor Pquot rhme j Charles Whyville Thompson rst RV HMS Challenger was to study marine organisms Dec 1872 i Light warship of British Navy ii 3 12 year voyage 19 years to publish 50 volumes more info than all previous records lll Research Vessels a Zonation presence of organisms in a particular range or zone b Famous lab stations i Woods Hole Marine Biological Lab MA 1 Arctic ocean is some of most nutrient rich devoted entire budget to study ii Hopkins Marine Station Paci c Grove CA iii Scripps Institute of oceanography La Jolla CA iv Friday Harbor Marine Labs WA c Remote sensing satellites are used to view large expanses of ocean surface d Sonar sound navigation ranging used to map sea oor depths and formations i Causes whales and others that use sound to become disoriented and ultimately beached ii Made marine biology study of echolocating animals a national security matter e ROV remote operated vehicle allows for direct exploration of marine environment can be manned or unmanned i AUV autonomous underwater vehicle f Emile Gagnan amp Jacques Cousteau modi ed compressed gas tank into SCUBA self contained underwater breathing apparatus lV Early Earth a Earth is 45 billion years old b Heavier metals settled deep into center gt iron core c Mantle middle semiplastic composition i Swirling motion of outer core contributes to earth39s magnetic eld ii Lithosphere crust and upper mantle broken into tectonic plates 60ml thick 1 Destroyed at trenches subduction zone iii Asthenosphere denser more plastic mantle layer d Crust outermost thinnest layer i Oceanic crust dark mineral basalt denser than continental younger 200 million years old ii Continental crust lighter granite construction 58 billion years old e Alfred Wegner proposed continental drift of Pangea 180 million years ago 1912 i Panthalassa paci c ocean ancestor ii Laurasia NA amp Europe iii Gondwana SA Africa Antarctica India Australia f Sea levels fall during ice age periods and rise during interglacial periods i Icebergs are 100 fresh water salt excluded in freezing V PLATE TECTONICS a Ocean oors constantly moving and being regenerated convection currents beneath plates i Heat from mantle drives currents and contributes to earth heating b Transform faults where plates move together amp regress c Marine sediments i Lithogenous sediments derived from the breakdown of rocks weathering 1 Course sediment closer to continent ne sediment red clay carried to open ocean 2 Little sediments at trenches farther out the deeper sediment dead animals particles junk lters out and accumulates over bedrock ii Biogeneous sediments derived from the skeletons of microorganisms 1 Age determined by carbon dating 2 Ocean temp time determined by ratio of magnesium to calcium amp oxygen isotopes 3 Also test C02 levels time atmosphere 4 Calcareous ooze calcium carbonate siliceous ooze silica d Ocean plate can lift edge of continent Farallon plate slid under west coast explains shallow sea e Himalayas created by fusion of continental plates Rockies created like box pushing on rug g Boundary between continental and oceanic crust i Shelf 8 ocean surface biologically rich ii Slope 39edge39 of a continent iii Rise formed by sediments that have been pushed down underwater delta iv Passive margin relatively inactive geologically at wide coastal plains East coast of USA v Active margin more intense geological activity earthquakes volcanos trenches steep rocky shoreline narrow shelf steep slope West coast of USA h Shear boundary San Andreas Fault slide along each other create many earthquakes i Hydrothermal vents weak spot in the crust water heats and released as steam infused with minerals i Environment for microorganisms amp bacteria that are the base of a unique food chain deep in the ocean j MidAtlantic ridge iron magnetic pulls running parallel i Iceland formed from thicker volcanos building up ii Abyssal plains rise gentle slope toward midAtlantic ridge 1 Seamounts volcanic islands amp submarine volcanos 2 Guyots sunken attopped islands k Island arc chain of volcanic islands VI The Sea a Ocean covers 71 of globe i 80 SH 61 NH covered by ocean b 4 large basins i Paci c ii Atlantic iii Indian iv Arctic c Water affected by two bonds 2 covalent 2 hydrogen i Sealevel has 48mL dissolved oxygenL salt water 1 Less available to marine life terrestrial life need a moist membrane due to desiccation 2 Colder water has more dissolved oxygen amp nutrients d Blue light penetrates to 60m red light 10m gt photosynthetic organisms generally be very shallow Pressure increases 1atm10m Niskin bottles breakable thermometer cylinder with mechanism to close both ends measure temp amp salinity at particular depth g Everything starts with sunlight winds currents circulation h Coriolis Effect arcing occurs because of earth39s spin i Solar energy heats Equator less dense air rises adjacent air lls void WIND bent by coriolis effect 1 Winds push currents 45 angle trade winds approach equator at 45 h th 2 Westerlies move opposite trade winds more variable 3 Polar eaterlies are most variable ii Ekman spiral effect decrease with depth whole thing at 90 parallel to equator iii Gyres circular system of surface currents transport heat from tropical to polar regions affect geographic distribution of organisms 1 Combine effect of coriolis and Ekman Strati ed water column i Surface layer 100200m mix layer 1 Spring and summer less mixing occurs amp upper surface heated by sun sharp temp transition gt seasonal thermocline ii Intermediate layer 10001500m main thermocline in open ocean iii Deepbottom layer iv Downwelling occurs when water columns are unstable due to dense surface water 1 Usually in winter when polar amp temperate surface cools 2 Minimum oxygen zone z500m prob going along water column v Thermohaline circulation driven by change in density due to temp amp salinity Great ocean conveyor mixes over 4000 years brings dissolved oxygen to depths Wave terminology i Crest highest trough lowest wavelength height period ii Fetch span of open water iii Settles into swells iv Surf when they pile up fall amp break v Rogue lt10 stories tall wave reinforcement cause for many lost ships Tides moons gravitational force amp centrifugal force i Centrifugal force combined center of mass causes wobble ii Full tide cycle 24hrs 50min iii Spring tide when sun amp moon line up iv Neap tide moon amp sun at 90 1St and 3rd quarter v Semidiurnal tide 2 high tides amp 2 low tidesday vi Diurnal tides 1 high tide amp 1 low tideday uncommon Antarctic Gulf Caribbean amp paci c Organic compounds carbon hydrogen amp usually oxygen Carbohydrates contain organic molecules i Glucose starches chitin structural carbohydrates like cellulose Protein contain nitrogen organic molecules i Amino acid subunit enzymes antifreeze to blood some hormones Lipids repel water fur and feathers dry wax coating to keep from drying out some hormones Nucleic acids nucleotide subunit simple sugarjoined at nitrogen base of nitrogen and phosphorus i Genome organisms complete genetic makeup Diffusion move from high concentration to low concentration i Osmosis diffusion across cell membrane Osmoconformers do not attempt to regulate water do so by regulating volume i pump ions amp water ows oysters have bivalves ii require narrow salinity range open ocean Osmoregulators tolerate larger salinity changes i Adjust concentration of solutes in body sharks increase urea in blood ii More dilute than seawater drink to hydrate conserve by producing little urine excess salt secreted through gills iii Freshwater sh have increased concentration of salt iv Marine plants rigid cell wall decreases swelling 3 42593 Anaerobic respiration gycoysis i 4 ATPglucose molecule use 2 gt net 2 ATP ii ATP adenosine triphosphate iii Metabolic rate 2x as fast with 10 C increase in temp Cells acquire nutrients amp rid waste through extracellular uid must have proper waternutrient i Fish allow ammonia NH3 to ow across gills ii Freshwater sh increase water content by 13 to decrease osmoregulation needed 1 Developed better transport and enzyme mechanisms 2 When returned to fresh water out preformed current saltwater sh reversed their ion transport mechanism in gills 3 z14 salinity Primary production net increase in organic matter used in growth and reproduction i Needs nitrogen phosphorus silica and iron Osmole mole of ideal nonionized substance i 1 osmolar concentration 35ppt will ow across with pure water at 224 atm Every bony sh traces ancestry through freshwater kidneys i Evolved scales to keep hypotonic solution out Planktonic oating organism Benthic bottom dweers Nekton strong swimming organisms marine vertebrates seagulls amp turtles have sat glands ectotherms generate body heat metabolically but lost to environment 39cold blooded39 poikilotherms body temp mimics surroundings sh amp reptiles i some by behavior 39feed forward mechanism ii tuna regulate with muscle contractions fast swimmers iii surface area to volume ratio determines rate endotherms generate body heat metabolically amptemp does not match environment i homeotherms retain metabolic heat amp can control to maintain constant internal temp most ef cient at it asexual reproduction mitosis i ssion ii budding iii vegetative reproduction sexual reproduction meiosis of germ cell i broadcast spawning eggs and sperm released into water usually with moon
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