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TULANE / Public Health / SPHU 2150 / What do organophosphates do to the body?

What do organophosphates do to the body?

What do organophosphates do to the body?

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Foundations of Environmental Health: Midterm 1 Study Guide  Medieval London  


What do organophosphates do to the body?



• Huge influx of people into one area  

• Human waste  

• Animal waste  

• Animal entrails  

• 14th century  

• Trade and commerce were becoming more important  

• Soil was made of: mud/dirt, animal feces, animal entrails, or human feces  • Professions were built off of this  

• Lack of proper sanitation and lack of education  

• Sanitation and hygiene crisis- rats!  

Environment Influence  

• pollution/smog  

• Lower life expectancy depending location  

• Birth defects  Don't forget about the age old question of What do animal cells have for protection of their cell?

• Climate change  

• Use for cows to make meat  

• droughts/ natural disasters  

• Lack of clean water  


What are some long term health consequences of arsenic exposure?



• lead/ asbestos  

• Extreme temperatures  

• Extinction  

• pesticides/ herbicides  

• Waste management  

The 3 Ps  

• Pollution

• Population  

• Poverty  

Causes of Population Growth  

• Increase in fertility  

• Reductions in mortality  

• Migration  

Prevalence- number of existing case of death  

 # ill/ # population  

Point prevalence- all causes of death at specific point in time  

 # ill/ # population @ certain time  

Incidence- number of new diseases  

Incidence rate-  

 (# new cases/ average population) x multiplier (100,000)  


What are the three forms of mercury and why is it toxic for human health?



Case Fertility Rate- (# deaths/ # cases) x 100  We also discuss several other topics like How our thoughts, feelings and behaviours are shaped by our social environment?

Low birth weight- less than 2500g  

Odds Ratio

Yes (outcome)

No (outcome)

Total

Yes (exposure)

A

B

A+B

No (exposure)

C

D

C+D

Epidemiological Risk Transition- more chronic diseases than acute diseases  

Bubonic plague- caused by yersinia pestis,  

Pneumoniac plague- higher case fatality rate, nearly always fatal

Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Diseases  

Zoonosis- an infection or infectious disease transmissible under natural conditions from  vertebrate animals to humans  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between metazoa parazoa & eumetazoa?

Vector- an insect or any living carrier that transports an infectious agent from an infected  individual or its wastes to a susceptible individual or its food or immediate surroundings  • Rodents- mice and rats  

• Arthropods- mosquitoes, ticks, sand flies, biting midges  

Vector- Borne Infection- determined by interaction between infectious agent and human host,  transmission of infectious agent to susceptible host by bite of blood feeding vector  

Zika  

• Adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women who become infected  • Capable of producing microcephaly and abnormalities of brain among infants born to infected  pregnant women  

• Vectors- mosquitoes & arthropods  

• Agent- virus  

• Zoonotic disease because it was first found in moneys then spread by mosquitoes to humans  • Chikungunya & dengue are possible risk along with Zika in US  

Re-emergence and Spread of Zoonotic Diseases  

-> ecological changes, migration and human movement, animal husbandry practices, changes in  climatic conditions  

Dengue  

• Vector- aedes albopictus & aedes aegypti  

• Mildest form- causes low level illness with nonspecific fever  

• Classic dengue fever- benign, self limited, high fever, severe headache, eye pain, muscle pain,  joint pain rash, bleeding

• Dengue hemorrhagic fever- life threatening illness with fever (2-7 days), abdominal pain,  bleeding phenomena  We also discuss several other topics like What are the causes of adhd?

• Dengue Shock Syndrome- includes symptoms of DHF and is associated with shock,  potentially fatal condition  

• Vector- domestic day biting mosquito, prefers to feed on human hosts  

• Spread of vector was linked to transport ships during WWll  

Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever  

• dramatic, highly fatal, and acute disease associated with infection with Ebola virus  • symptoms: fever, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, external/internal bleeding  • Largest outbreak in history was Africa 2014  

Rabies- acute and fatal disease of central nervous system caused by virus transmitted most often  through saliva from bites of infected animals (mostly dogs), symptoms: paralysis of respiratory  system, hallucination, swallowing difficult, fear of water, hosts: wild animals  

USEPA regulates: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particle pollution, sulfur  dioxide  

World Health Organization- responsible for environmental health at the global level  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act- regulates hazardous waste  We also discuss several other topics like How social status has a powerful effect on people?

Food and Drug Administration- responsible for safety and health of bottled and vended water  

Isotope- each of two or more forms of same element that contain equal numbers of protons but  different numbers of neutrons  

• Influenza A- wild and aquatic birds are main reservoir, infect humans, and a lot of animals,  typically infect and transmit among one animal species sometimes can cross over and cause  illness in another species  

• Influenza B- confined to humans, who form the primary reservoir for viruses  • Influenza C- cause of mild illnesses and sporadic outbreaks among humans, not considered to  be responsible for widespread epidemics

Toxicology  

Dose Response  

• Establish causality  Don't forget about the age old question of What does universal suffrage mean?

• Informs the mechanisms of actions of chemicals and effects (harmful effects)  • Provides foundation for experimental testing of chemicals (minimums and maximums)  

• Toxicologist- study of effects of poisons, toxins, investigate adverse chemicals in living  organisms and assess probability of occurrence  

• Field within Toxicology  

• regulatory, forensic, clinical, environmental, reproductive, developmental  • Environmental Toxicology- study of inputs of pollutants upon structure and function of  ecological systems  

• Poison- any agent capable of producing deleterious response in a biological system (spider  venom, snake venom, ethanol)  

• Toxic agent- material or factor that can be harmful to biological systems  • Toxic substance- material that has toxic properties  

• Toxicity- degree to which something’s poisonous (bottle of Advil dosage)  • Toxicants (unnatural)- toxic substances that are human made or results from human activity  (fart, waste, plastic)  

• Toxins- usually refer to a toxic substance made by living organisms (poisonous mushrooms,  venom from snakes)  

Factors that Affect Responses to a Toxic Chemical  

• Innate toxicity of chemical  

• Sufficient concentration of chemical  

• How it impinges on a somatic location  

• Route of entry into body  

• Received dosage of chemical  

• Duration of exposure

• Interactions that transpire among multiple chemicals  

• Individual sensitivity  

Frequent Sites of Exposure- GI tract, respiration system, skin  

Routes of Exposure  

• Intravenous  

• Inhalation  

• Injection  

• Ingestion  

• Gastrointestinal  

• Skin contact  

• Intentional or unintentional  

• Intranasal  

• Intramuscular  

• Transdermal  

Synergism- effects of 2 or more chemicals are greater than sum of individual effects  Additive- effects of 2 or more chemicals are sum of individual effects  Antagonism- effects of 2 or more chemicals are less than sum of individual effects  Potentiation- non toxic chemicals makes another chemical toxic or more toxic  

Exposure to Toxicants  

1. Genetics  

2. Gender  

3. Age  

4. Underlying health status  

5. Use of medications  

6. Diet or lifestyle behaviors

Duration of Exposure  

• Acute- usually a single exposure for less than 24 hours  

• Subacute- exposure for 1 month or less  

• Sub chronic- exposure for 1 to 3 months  

• Chronic- repeated exposure for more than 3 weeks  

Epidemiology- study of distribution and determinants of health related state or events and  application of this study to control of diseases and other health problems  

Morbidity- refers to infirmity or illness  

Mortality- refers to death  

Two classes of Epidemiological Studies  

• Descriptive  

• Depiction of occurrence of disease in populations according to person, place, and time  • Analytic  

• Examines casual hypothesis regarding association between exposures and heath conditions  

The Policy Cycle  

• Problem formulation- define problems and alternatives  

• Agenda setting- set priorities, involve stakeholders  

• Policy Establishment- formally adopt policy  

• Policy implementation- put policy into practice  

• Assessment- evaluate policy effectiveness  

Can be an iterative process  

Routes of Exposure  

• Lungs (inhalation)

• Skin (contact)  

• Oral (ingestion)  

• Clinical  

• Acute poisoning  

• Symptoms- rapid onset, few mins to an hour  

• Gastrointestinal effects, neurological effects (dramatic and severe)  

• Foodstuffs, introducing metals into area where food is being prepared  

Pesticides and Other Organic Chemicals  

Arsenic- crystalline metalloid intermediate between metal and nonmetal  

 can remove arsenic from drinking water, can’t remove it from ground water.  Chromium- naturally occurring element in earth’s crust  

Lead- leaded gasoline, tap water from soldered pipes, painted surfaces in old buildings  Mercury- naturally occurring metal that is highly toxic  

 3 forms of mercury that are known to cause human health problems   -> elemental mercury, inorganic mercury as salts, organic mercury   3 places to find elemental mercury?  

 -> glass thermometers, dental fillings, fluorescent light bulbs  

 3 places to find inorganic mercury?  

 -> folk remedies, some disinfectants, batteries  

 3 places to find organic mercury?  

 -> fish, fumes from burning coal, antiseptics or germ killers  

long term exposure to organic mercury -> difficulty walking, memory problems, numbers or pain  in skin, blindness/ vision problems  

 Types of cancer associated with exposure to arsenic via ingestion -> skin cancer, bladder  cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer  

*most abundant metal in body- calcium*

Pesticides- any substance or mature of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling,  or mitigating pests  

• Pest control- application pesticides that are derived from organic chemicals  • Golden Age of Discovery  

• Vital input in today’s agriculture, protecting food and fiber from damage by insects, weeds,  diseases, nematodes, and rowens  

• Pests- insects, rodents, weeds, and a host of other unwanted organisms  • insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, and fungicides  

• Application: spraying from tractors and widespread broadcasting by aerial spraying  

Organophosphates- phosphate is unifying feature, agricultural purposes  

• Inhibit enzyme acetylcholinesterase  

• Inhibit neurotransmitter regulation resulting in hyper-neurostimulation  • Organophosphate Poisoning- irreversible because compounds bind tightly to enzyme system  Organocarbamates- dissipate quickly from environment to break down substance  Organochlorines- compound containing chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen  

 Organochlorides- chlorines is unifying feature  

Dioxin- family of chemical compounds that are unintentional byproducts of certain industrial,  non industrial and natural processes, usually involving combustion  

Polychlorinated Biphenyls- a single chemical that is stable, not flammable, low cost, and  properly insulatable  

Solvent- liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances  

Plant Incorporated Protectants (GMOs)- type of biopesticide  

Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation  

Ionizing radiation- radiation that has so much energy it can known electrons out of atoms  (ionization)

Non ionizing radiation- form of radiation on left hand of electromagnetic spectrum which  contains extremely low frequency, radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet  

Radiation- propagation of energy through space or some other medium in form of  electromagnetic waves or particles, UV radiation exposure- cancer, damage to eyes   gamma- wave energy, photonics  

 electrons- beta particles  

 alpha- 2 protons, 2 neutrons  

 exposure to radiation outcomes- amount of radioactivity, duration of exposure, distance  from radioactivity source, shielding  

Isotope- each of two or more forms of same element that contain equal numbers of protons but  different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei  

Nuclide- any species of atom that exists for a measurable length of time  

Radioisotope (radionuclide)- unstable isotope of an element that decays or disintegrates  spontaneously, emitting radiation  

Sources of Environmental Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Ionizing radiation causes increases in background radiation levels in some geographic areas  

Natural radiation- cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, radionuclides in body, radon gas  Uranium- common element in earth’s crust, present in soil and geologic formations almost  universally  

Radon- inert, colorless, and extremely toxic gas that is produced by decay of radium and  uranium  

Nuclear Bomb Explosions  

• Atomic bombs- fission reaction, splitting apart of uranium or plutonium atoms  • Hydrogen bombs- exploit fusion reaction of hydrogen

Health effects that have been observed in large cohort studies of Japanese atomic bomb  survivors- cancer, cataracts, developmental effects following exposure during gestation  

Dirty Bomb- disperses radioactive materials, which is caused by conventional explosive and not  by nuclear fission or fusion, combination of explosives with radioactive materials  

Medical Uses of Ionizing Radiation  

• X-rays and Fluoroscopy  

• Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine  

• Radiation Therapy  

Microwave radiation- produced by radar, used to heat food  

Ultraviolet radiation- form of non ionizing radiation in optical range, lamps used for tanning  beds, flood lamps…  

Dermal Effects- erythema, inflammation, pain, swelling, tanning, photosensitization, photo toxicity (denotes severe reaction to sunlight that occurs sometimes in conjunction with drugs),  and photo allergic reactions (intense itching rash that is activated by sun)  

SPF- sun protection factor, relative measure of how long a sunscreen will protect you from UV  rays

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