the Note was not organized than I thought and I feel like for some of the parts, you're misunderstanding the materials
AAS 160 (LEC)
Professor Cindy L. Cheng
***Keep in mind that only proper terms (ones that are capitalize) do not need examples
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act:
Definition: a Federal act to exclude all immigration of Chinese laborers
Significance: First federally enforced act in U.S. Legislative History to name against one particular race/group for the purpose of exclusion
1852 Foreign Miners Tax:
Definition: “Foreign” miners required to pay $3/month for a license to work in gold fields
Significance: Explicitly targeted the Chinese and was intended to drive them out of mining to open it up more for white American miners. One of the first racist legislations against the Chinese. Also became a major revenue source for state and country governments
Became a social marker of difference**
Needed this money for transportation, cities, resources like water, etc.
Definition: Nativism was used as a political strategy, it was the fear of immigrants and the desire to restrict their entry into the country or curtail their rights (or both)
Nativism=Know Nothing party
Nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s. It was primarily anti-Catholic, xenophobic, and hostile to immigration, starting originally as a secret society. The wave of immigrants (Germans and Irish) posed a threat to economic and political security of native-born Protestant Americans. Don't forget about the age old question of . When is a tort committed?
Significance: called for restrictions on immigration, exclusion for foreign-born voting rights and holding office, and a 21 year residency in order to obtain a citizenship. It was mainly to exclude the Chinese
and other Asians from industrial employment (Created political parties and limited rights)
Example: Ethnic whites/Anglo Saxons were the pure and ideal race. That they were the true “native” Americans despite being descendants from immigrants themselves.
Asian settler colonialism:
Definition: A strategy of colonial takeover of a territory, the process of people, an interchange, and depopulation and de-authorization of the native people.
Significance: Unlike the general way of colonialism that is used by military/war/forced. The U.S. took over Hawaii by encouraging the importation of workers
It marks of Asian immigration of color that persisted, complicated, and supported the colonialization and that they contributed to the erasure of native Hawaiians.
Example: The importation of Japanese immigrants who initially switched their decision from being a sojourner to a settler. Don't forget about the age old question of How can we reduce prejudicial attitudes toward people who
are Mentally ill?
Definition: The lowest class of labor that requires little to no skill and is paid the smallest amount of money to make the company earn more profit.
Significance: It was a mechanism of racial hierarchy because there was a need for it. Certain races are pushed into this labor force as it demonstrates how economic needs to lower labor cost are shaped by racism, sexism, and nationalism to structure certain groups to be cheap labor.
Example: The Chinese laborers in contract labors like building the transcontinental railroad or cane field labor is a clear example of races not being given that many options than a cheap laborer occupation. They were paid little and easy to replace. We also discuss several other topics like How to set up the constitution?
Definition: Wives (Korean and Japanese) were matched up with men as “picture brides”. Literally took a photo communicated through letters and gave it to their future husbandsonly knew them through this
Significance: Based on historical practices and their storiesbecause of U.S. Anti-miscegenation (interracial couples) laws towards the Japanese and Korean immigrant laborers and there was few womencraved the intimacy/sex/ and wanted to started a family because of the laws prohibited it. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of Garveyism?
Example: The film Picture Bride Riyo and Matsuji
Definition: One racial group takes the unmerited blame for the problems of the nation, suffer the consequences, putting blame on a particular racial or ethnic group taking blame from government and putting it on a specific racial or ethnic group to make everyone feel better about the issue.
Significance: Emergence of categories that we want to exclude to fix and tease @ hierarchy. It kept certain races at the bottom of the racial hierarchy by spurring public opinions against that certain race and made everyone think they are the source of the problem and used it against them.
Example: Chinese immigrants were blamed for the economic issues that occurred in the financial crisis in California. They took a lot of the jobs away, were cheap, and threw people out of employment. If you want to learn more check out Political party elected by Palestinians in Gaza.
Definition: incapable of assimilating to norms of Anglo Saxon culture
Significance: Separated the Chinese immigrants (races in general), saw only certain “bad” characteristics that was pointed out, and didn’t believe that the Chinese could ever adapt to American culture. That the Chinese were so foreign and too different and that they didn’t even attempt to change these foreign features.
Example: The Chinese were unassimilable because they did not conform to American culture and their ways. They retained their culture style like their long hair, baggy clothing, and eating rice. They also didn’t want to stay or obtain a citizenship, men did female work, no family or wives and they kept to themselves.
divide and rule:
Definition: A strategy that employers employed on the plantations where they hired as many nationality as possible on each plantation to
offset, diminish, and minimize power of any one nationality. As we kept each group separated in their own housing and different wages…
Significance: Prevent them from coming together, striking, and realizing their power in numbers
Groups themselves had prejudice against each other which prevented them from seeing class unity We also discuss several other topics like What is social loafing?
Example: Oahu Plantation Planters used this tactic to create mistrust between the Japanese and Filipinos from following through with their strike
Definition: general belief that God wants the U.S. to take all the territory because it belongs to the states/U.S.
U.S. territorial westward expansionGod ordain rightSuperiority of Anglo-Saxons over MexicansSpreading of U.S. democracy and capitalism the desire to connect the nation from east coast to west coast
Significance: This ideology showed the superiority of Anglo Saxons. Indians and Mexicans were not given their claims to the land as they were pushed off. Without this belief there might have not been California or Asian immigration. The ideology of the superiority of Anglo Saxons whites also leads to nativism and a role to excluding immigration after.
paper sons and daughters:
Definition: Many travelers created and sold “slots” allowing for future immigration
“slots” = paper sons and paper daughters
A form of legal and illegal immigration
Significance: significant amount of immigration to America
1 in 4 who came were “women” (young girls)Family Unification Resist against an unjust and inhumane immigration policy
Profitable business in venture (very limited)
Travel because they were separated permanently after the strict exclusion laws
Example: the estimation showed that if every citizenship claim was valid, then each Chinese women in San Francisco before 1906 would had to have 800 children.
1924 Immigration Act:
Definition: Also known as Johnson Reed Act, National Origins Act, Asian Exclusion Act
It is an extension the 1921 act but added more criteriaunequal quotas to smaller % which limited immigration (mainly southeast Europe because they wanted only northen and western European immigrants)established the National origins quota and racial restrictions which barred immigration of Aliens ineligible for citizenship, descendants of slaves, and America Aborigines(indigenous people)
1921 Act: First numerical restrictions of Europeused the 1910 census (resident population) and decreased the quotas
Significance: Marked the beginning of Modern U.S. stateRise in Anti immigrant Semanticgrowth of Asian exclusionused immigration to divide the world by race, nationality, and distinguished European countries from others End of open immigration and ultimately fulfilled the legacy of Chinese exclusion and led to total encroachment upon ethnic whites
Short Essay Questions:
Types of people they sought to exclude:
What: They sought to exclude political and religious people who did not conform to the Protestant Christian ideal. For example, Quakers, Catholics, criminals, paupers, free blacks, and unorthodox/certain political views like the French Missionaries.
Why: Quakers and Catholics were barred because their religious beliefs did not tie in with the Protestant Christian ideal. They couldn’t tolerate Quakers and Catholics doctrine, practices, and beliefs. Criminals were kept out because the colonies used to be punishments for the criminals, but the colonies gained independence. Paupers were too poor to contribute to the economy and would not help it grow and develop. Free blacks in the south were not allowed because at this
period of time states were still proslavery and did not want to influence the blacks of freedom. French missionaries were excluded because it would disrupt the development of democracy and threaten with revolution that is counterintuitive to their system.
1864 Act to Encourage Immigration:
What: Beginning of comprehensive immigration laws try to encourage immigrants to come over with contract laborsthis help to dissuade the immigrants from leaving early or going westward/being part of the frontier. They encouraged immigrants because they needed to close the job shortage caused by the civil war.
Significance: Created a blue print system for future private labor recruiting agencies which started this huge European immigration even though the act was repealed.
First U.S. Immigration Bureau who regulated and monitored immigration Xenophobia starts rising from these waves of immigrants
Three major Countries:
Germany & Ireland & United Kingdom –Mainly Catholics that fed fear to the Protestants because they thought it would take over the U.S. Government.
Three types that the Chinese engaged in, why, and the conditions:
Three major trades that the Chinese engaged in were mining, laundry, and building railroads. Mining there was a lot of competition and legislation against them, lot of racism. It was hard and tedious work to do but many of them came to the lure of the gold dream. They wanted to get rich quick and leave back to China but that wasn’t possible. Mining gold wasn’t easy and a long process. Many were unsuccessful and left because of the establishment of the foreigner miner’s tax which targeted them specially. With California’s population of gender imbalance and value of work, majority of them were men. So there was a high demand for laundry positions which the Chinese immigrants took up and it was the quickest way to make money. It was the main business during the exclusion because they were shut out from other jobs. Laundry was still rough and physically punishing. For railroads, they were very efficient at building and the transcontinental railroad would not have happened without them. However, it was very dangerous and there was no safety equipment. They worked in harsh weather to explosives to high terrain. Lots of Chinese immigrants got injured and even died from this failure of caution.
Three ways in which the development of Chinatown has shaped the lives of Chinese immigration in the U.S.:
Chinatown represented home, what they were familiar with. They didn’t have to worry about racial discrimination so they could speak their language and eat their favorite foods, and stock up on Chinese supplies, visit families, villagers, and news from home. It was a community they could interact with without fear. Another way they shaped the lives of Chinese immigrants was that they were among their relatives and friends versus strangers. Chinatown was relaxing and allowed them to have a social life and feel human. Chinatown offers a revealing look at how a group of people bound geographically, culturally, linguistically and economically during hostile times has flourished to become a vibrant, courageous and proud community for Chinese Americans.
Historical context of the asexual and feminized Asian male:
During the early development of mining in California, it was heavily skewed for men. They were driven out of business because of the 1852 Foreign Miners Tax. They need to make a living, so they turned to businesses like laundry and restaurants (and there was a demand). Which was consider and labeled as woman’s work and led people to call the Chinese men feminine. At the same time, laws and Chinese culture did not allow women to immigrate so there was a huge gender imbalance. Interracial marriage was also not allowed and they did not engage in family formation, so this made the Chinese men look asexual.
Historical context of the hypersexualized Asian female:
In the same period, there was a need for prostitution/sex workers in this industry because of the abundance of men in the mining lands and barely no women, they craved sex. In addition, early immigration, there was European women who involve themselves in prostitution/sex work. Because of that, Chinese women came (forced) and worked in that industry. Chinese women were just seen as sexually available and that it was their natural ability to service.
How Gender and Sexuality work to stigmatize:
Male labor work is valued more because of society decision to devaluing women work. Since the Chinese men engage in a females work, it makes them less of a man and less desirable because they do not follow these gender norms. They are also marked as deviant too because they are a single bachelor with no family, making them a nonideal worker.
For the Asian females, they engage in two big taboos that causes people to stigmatize all Asian females. The first being that they have sex outside of marriage. Women are supposed to save themselves or act their proper role but they don’t. The second taboo is that they engage in interracial sex which is illegal to do. Overall, they were seen as immoral and would ruin the moral health of the nation.
Biggest difference between white and Chinese prostitutes in San Francisco?
America’s opportunities encouraged women from different parts of the world. They wanted access to the easy wealth and knew that there was a scarcity of women there. Many of them turned to prostitution for survival and profit. The biggest difference in Whites and Chinese
prostitutes were that white prostitutes came to San Francisco as independent professionals and worked for wages in Brothels. Whereas Chinese prostitutes were almost always imported as unfree labor and enslaved. Majority of them were kidnapped, lured, or purchased from poor parents and resold.
Work in parlor houses vs cribs?
Parlor houses were luxurious rooms on the upper floors of Chinatown and were furnished with teakwood and bamboo, Chinese paintings, and cushions of embroidered silk. This was where the rich clientele were and the women were richly dressed to please. There was an exotic atmosphere and even brought in white clientele. Other parlor houses had women who can sing, drink, and converse well with the clients. The women prostitutes were also given jewelry and expensive gifts which would contribute to their makings.
In comparison, cribs were small shacks and usually in dim light alleys. Prostitutes would advertise and go around asking poor clienteles if they were interested. They made little to no money. The shacks had a washbowl, some bamboo chairs, and a hard bed. They were also treated with no respect and harsh but accepted anyone who was interested. Often, women obtained diseases from the poor conditions. If they caught one, they were thrown out and left to die.
What factors accounted for why a high % of Chinese Women in prostitution?
There was a high demand for women since there was a gender imbalance and men craved sex. They were kidnapped, lured, and bought and sold constantly. They had contracts similar to contract laborers where they had to fulfill this contract before being able to leave and have their freedom. However, it was usually impossible because they long and penalized which added extensions. In addition, they didn’t have any political rights or access to legal recourse within or outside the community so resistance was difficult. These brothels were also paid to protect this prostitution business like immigration officials and policemen.
“escape avenues” for Chinese Prostitution?
If you worked in parlor houses, women could have use the expensive jewelry and gifts to buy back their freedom. They could be redeemed and married if the Chinese Laborers who had saved enough money to afford a wife. Some ran away with their lovers regardless of the large bounty on the man’s head. Others escaped reality by insanity or suicide and used raw opium or
drowning. Few went to the police for protection and women’s missionary organizations who sought to save these women and convert them to Christianity.
1906 Waipahu Plantation Strike:
∙ Workers tried methods such as setting things on fire, uncooperative behavior, and being drunk on the job
∙ Trying to show resistance against the planters but when the strike wasn’t working, people started to leave and the planters gained control.
∙ Japanese striking for better wages
∙ Emphasized the importance of collective labor action/ resistance is better together ∙ It’s more effective if they work together transformation of the plantation structure ∙ Help the workers gain a deeper understanding of themselves as laborers and develop as a working class identity and consciousness
∙ Comes to the realization that the strike tactic is going to work
Japanese Strike of 1909:
∙ Most important manifestation of “blood unionism”
∙ Protested against the differential wage system based on ethnicity Demanded higher wages and equal pay for equal work Fair wage will encourage laborers to be more productive
∙ 7,000 Japanese plantation workers on Oahu protested for 4 long monthsOther Japanese workers on different Islands supported them along with two organizations with money, food, and medical aid
∙ A strong sense of Japanese ethnicity solidarity inspired them
∙ Reflected a new consciousness among the workers and transformed their thoughts from being a sojourner (resides in a temporally place) to settlers (decides to stay permanent).
∙ Portuguese were paid $22 per month while the Japanese were paid $18 and they both had the same job
∙ Japanese Federation of Labor and Filipino Federation of Labor both submitted separate demands but wanted similar things such as higher wages, eight hour day, insurance for retirement, and paid maternity leave
∙ Both were rejected led the Japanese and Filipino to join together as a partnership (but weren’t on the same page)
∙ Filipino strike first and urged the Japanese to do so too Hawaii Hochi also advise the Japanese because they both experience similar problems
∙ The plantation on Oahu8,300 Filipino and Japanese strikers equal to 77% of the work force and brought the plantation to a stop.
∙ However they called off the strike because of the 48 hour eviction and many people died Significance:
∙ Learned a valuable lesson, Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, and Portuguese laborers all participated in the first major interethnic working class struggle in Hawaii. ∙ Common goals, similar experiences and situations, all led them to understand their contribution they made to develop this industry.
∙ Visionthe basis for a new unionNeeded to build a “big, powerful, and nonracial labor organization” that could take on the capitalistWould bring together laborers of all nationalities
∙ First interethnic union
Why Trask rejects “nation of immigrants”? What is the real reason why the Japanese Americans work to undermine the Hawaiian sovereignty movement?
Trask rejects this sentiment because it ignores the natives prior to those arrivals and hides/discredits the other version of history of indigenous peoples.
The real reason why the Japanese Americans work to undermine the Hawaii sovereignty movement is because they are afraid of native nationalism. They enjoy their dominance. They sense a political threat and the costs in the Hawaiian sovereignty initiatives. They say they support the Hawaiians, but they attack the Hawaiian leaders.
What are two key ways that indigenous peoples differ from minorities?
The indigenous peoples have different rights because they are first nation peoples. They are not considered ethnic minority because they are native and have a different relationship to the land.
Regarding rights to selfdetermination is a right of indigenous people and not minorities. And selfdetermination is tied to land rights and restitution….
What is Ka Lahui Hawai’I and what is one principle goal of the KLH Master Plan?
Ka Lahui Hawai’i is the frontline organization of Hawaiian sovereignty. It serves as the indigenous party representing Native, as opposed to settler interests. One of the principle goals of the KLH master plan was to reject American nationality and to assert their selfdetermination means over lands, territories, and internal and external relationships. In short, they wanted full control over everything such as the power to determine membership, police powers, power to exclude persons from national territory, the power of sovereignty, and so on and forth. They wanted to be able to manage their land.
Two paths Chinese immigrants take to subvert Chinese exclusion
One path they took to subvert Chinese exclusion was to protest. The Chinese began to understand the unjust ways of them being excluded while no other group was. They also engage in fierce battles and challenged the legality of the laws and the ways they were enforced. They turned to Chinese organizations to open up additional immigrant categories within the restrictions of exclusion laws. They hired lawyers and used courts to affirm their rights as merchants and their family, returning laborers, and U.S. citizens of Chinese descent.
Angel Island and its significance
Angel Island was the main port of entry for Chinese and other Asian immigrants. It singled out Asians for exclusion. Compared to Ellis Island, it wasn’t there to make immigrants feel safe or welcomed. Instead, it was much like a detainment/prison like center. Families and friends were separated, they weren’t allowed freedom to move around or interact with their families/friends. They were also subjected to lots of examinations and tests. It was a long process and they could
have hold you in Angel Island for a year. The tests were difficult and specific to their history, relationships, everyday life, etc. which was believed by the officials that it was common knowledge. If anything was off, they were not allowed to immigrate. They wrote poems to express how they felt at the time of imprisonment. Angel Island was symbolized as America’s clear rejection of Asian and other immigrants. It became known as a gatekeeping nation designed to restrict immigration, monitor and abuse, and deport those who were undesirable or a threat. It became known for a place that shattered dreams.
Two ways in which Chinese Exclusion policies in the U.S. influenced the immigration policies of Canada
Nativism, xenophobia, and racial animosity was spreading and rising internationally. The world was watching what was happening. Like Canada, because it is so close to the U.S., they were afraid of looking weak and it was easier to fight a weak and outcast group. There was debates about Chinese immigration that led to similar exclusion policies. Canada wanted to keep itself a white man’s province which is similar to the notion of nativism in the Know Nothing party. They even picked up slogans from the U.S. and studied their tactics and methods on how to exclude. They wanted a way to target the Chinese immigrants even though they couldn’t explicitly exclude because of their relationship with China. Just like the Foreigners miner tax, they applied something similar called the head tax fee for landing in Canada. It continually rose to dissuade the immigrants. Eventually they started modeling after all the Chinese exclusion laws that the U.S. implemented.
Three Key Fallacies of Chinese Immigration:
Undermines or endangers labor in the economy:
Baldwin’s counterargument is that the Chinese are contributing to the taxes and are instrumental/essential/crucial in certain businesses. That they are not financially better or worse than any other immigrant and are harder working plus they take lowskill jobs.
Undermines or endangers the morality and the health of the nation:
Baldwin’s counterargument is that we should be blaming the overcrowded steamships when importing immigrants as it became contagious that way. That they already appointed health examinations, so they can no longer bring diseases or illnesses. The authorities are really at fault as they are not thoroughly not taking any precautions. And really most diseases/illnesses came from Europe itself and that blaming the Chinese is absurd. Europeans are not healthier than the Chinese.
As for the Chinese bringing opium and teaching its use, is a joke. The Americans don’t need to follow anyone who’s trying to teach them if they don’t like it. In addition, China installed a prohibition act on opium and punish if used wrongly. And that really other areas such as Portugal, were the ones smuggling in opium. The Chinese government seek to destroy the opium. But no one praised them for their solutions, instead war came because of what they did. So it’s really not the Chinese endangering their health. Lastly, Baldwin thinks it’s hilarious that
this would even be an argument because the Chinese have great morals. The Chinese women had no choice, no say, in the prostitution industry compared to the white prostitutes who do it because they can. It is hypocritical as we see other races engage in the same thing, but they chose to degrade the Chinese women who are forced into it.
Shows that the Chinese have no desire to settle or assimilate in the U.S. and even when/if they do, it threatens the nation:
The Chinese immigrants only come here to make a earning because they are struggling over in China to support their family. So of course they chose to come here to seek the opportunities. Survival for one in America is already hard enough so bringing their family would only make it worse. In addition, they can’t even bring wives or families over because of the strict laws implemented against them. Furthermore, the Chinese immigrants don’t assimilate because they are planning to go back to China and their culture has their own set of principles that distinguishes a worthy Chinese man. The lies of them eating animals isn’t even true but just paired to dehumanize them. Lastly, the most absurd argument ever, is that they won’t become citizens. Supposedly, people did not know about the national law set in place to not allow the Chinese to become a citizen. So there was many reasons why Chinese seemed to not want to assimilate or settle in the U.S.
How does Eithne Luibheid answer the question “why target the Chinese prostitution in particular?”
The Page Law of 1875 established the undesirable immigrant that prohibited convicts, contract laborers, and Asian women coming to work in prostitution. This highlights the sexual regulation of immigrants intersects with other systems of social hierarchy. In short, it did not want interracial sex to occur and typically, Chinese prostitutes were involve in a lot of that because they were cheap compared to European prostitutes. Eithne Luibheid answers with that the exclusionists’ are not trying to prevent the spread of prostitution or help prevent forced prostitution. That their main concerns lie with their fate of white men, families, and their nationality as whites. And this is why they target specifically at the Chinese women. We can see this as a white male, the head of the household, is praise for his hard work and supporting the family. Whereas compared to the Chinese male who has no wife or family, is seen as weak, not masculine, and thus not worthy of being a man. And that the Chinese women don’t fight back so they must cause immorality and disease. They fail to conform to these sexual arrangements.
Two major techniques that the immigration officials developed to distinguish real wives from prostitution
Because the Page Law was enacted, officials had to figure ways to separate who was a wife and who was a prostitute. However, it was really difficult for them, so they decided to implement harsh strict laws that it basically barred all Chinese women from coming. Overall, the law wasn’t really focused on differentiation between the two, it was more focused on a racial bias. They used really racist, sexist, and classist to determine the difference. A major technique they used to distinguish was social relations of power. They don’t really pay attention to behavior or moral traits involved but a big signifier is if a women is a streetwalker. Streetwalkers were the lowest socioeconomic group and were assumed to be prostitutes since they were the lowest class. In short, they were believed to be prostitutes because they were poor.
Another major technique they used was what tier they were in for sex industry. There was some cultural complications that included domestic service (like concubinage, prostitution) that one sale led to another. But Mui tsai were not resold and some could be freed through marriage. All of this led to one big confusion which made it had to differentiate the sales and officials to just assume girls traveling in groups were prostitutes. They couldn’t comprehend the culture system and this just further pushed them to believe in that all Chinese women were enslaved.
The significance about the strategies that were developed to control the immigration of Chinese women
Prior to emigration, there was morality questions asked after Chinese women sent an official declaration of their purpose in emigration. After passing that, there was intense interrogation where she was questioned again and if they passed, they were certificated with “good moral
character” which they needed to have if they wanted to land. The consuls either wrote a confirmation of a good moral women or urged them to suspect the women further. If they also failed to answer the same exact way, they were detained.
This led to biological data photography and the creation of case files to monitor and regulate the Chinese women immigrants. This further subjects to how sexualized, racialize, gendered, and classist the U.S. was. This was the first time ever that a women had to provide details of her life to prove her identity in immigration control. In addition, women had to provide details of her sex virtue that was analyzed. This was used to control and dominate women.
Gender and class dimensions were important to defining a good women versus a bad women. While their individual histories matter, their fathers and husbands matter more. They believed that the tie to telling a real wife and a prostitute lied in their family background and husbands’ occupation. They needed to that women came from respectful families and were joining their husbands. They ignore the scam, the lure of women believing they are being united with their
husbands as it is more important that a males intentions and actions is more likely to determine a women’s sexual future. Overall, they weren’t concern about these other factors that played a role.
Biographical data was subjected to a photograph. Photographs provided one of the earliest methods for officially recording a person’s identity and used to control their mobility. The
Chinese women were the first group to be tested on. Officials used this to confirm the women coming in. They also used photography as a means to anchor a body to a specific biography in ways to ensured official control. For example, measuring the different parts of a body and recording in to ensure it was the same Chinese women returning.
Fingerprint also came to provide an unchangeable physical mark that officials used to tie individuals to specific biographies to control them further more.
And dental and bone xrays were another way to determine the process of people who arrived at airports without documents.
They also used the significance of bound fee to determine if a women was likely to be a prostitute or not. They judged from the body, looks, her walk, and the way she dressed. There was a distinction to how prostitutes dress as they wore certain attire to advertise, were required to, or express class aspirations.
Dominate ways to determine is philosophical paradigm and the scientific studies Question #10:
How did Chinese Exclusion impact Mexican and European immigration?
Chinese exclusion impacted Mexican and European immigrants because of their inability to assimilate and they also exposed certain characteristics that were not desirable. This led the U.S. to create a state bureaucracy to enforce laws and to protect the nation’s geographic borders and its internal borders of citizenship.
The Chinese were the country’s first significant laws to exclude a certain group based on their race, nationality, and class. This provided a powerful framework for other groups of immigrants to racialize, threaten, and exclude undesirable aliens. After the exclusion of Chinese, there was a rise in demands to exclude other immigrants quickly by enacting similar laws, tactics, and methods they used to take to fully bar out the Chinese. Some examples are the class arguments on contract laborers once again, the genderbased exclusions from the Page Act were duplicated to screen out women who were immoral with sexual misdeeds. This affected the Mexican and southern/eastern Europeans because of the influx of them. They were closely racialized along the Chinese immigrants and thus were extended the same treatment and immigration restriction.
Mexicans were considered as cheap laborers and easy to replace. Nativists used similar arguments to target the Mexicans as they were racially inferior and racially unassimilable. The only main difference was that the Chinese were considered as biological inferior because of their status and inability to conform compared to the Mexicans, they were considered as ignorant “hybrid race” because of their Spanish and Native American origin.
Race and class based theories and arguments were also applied to the southern and eastern Europeans. However, it was difficult to pinpoint physical differences, so they came up with racial difference that marked them inferior and a threat to the nation. Most of the time, they were considered as the Chinese version in Europe. The link to this was because they were considered as cheap laborer, coolies, inability to assimilate, and did not bother to settle at all.
How did Chinese immigration shape definitions of “illegal immigration” as a criminal offense?
The concepts of race and undesirable person was developed out of the Chinese immigrants that provided the structure of Immigration regulation such as bureaus and documents that led to illegal immigration. The Chinese Exclusion Act ushered in drastic changes in immigration regulation and set the foundation in policies we see today. The use of this isn’t only just to inspect but to control the potential of dangerous immigrants. The use of inspecting, processing, admitting, tracking, punishing, and deportation would be enforced and followed by all immigrants. It set up the country’s first federal immigrant inspectors. Second, the acts/laws established the first time a Government has to identity and record the movements, occupations, and familial relationships of immigrants, returning residents, and nativeborn citizens. However, the laws were complex and the government was worried about fraud that they input a tracking system of registration documents and certificates of identity and voluminous interviews with individuals and their families. The certificates were to list your name, age, occupation, residence, and personal description of the Chinese laborers. This certificate allowed the Chinese immigrants the ability to return and reenter the U.S. upon delivering this certificate as proof. It served as a passport. The Chinese immigrants were the only ones who had to have this type of documents on their identity. More certificates were established like the certificate of residence which served as proof they were legal and lawfully right to remain in the country (referred to green cards now). Green cards were used to register with the federal government. Anyone without this, was deemed unlawfully in the U.S. and thus illegally entering in the U.S and would be deported. This also led the exempt class (merchants, teachers, students) to require identity documents/ certificates. But there was no protection for legal immigrants and residents from government harassment.
Basically, if you did not have any documents to support your legal status, it was deemed as a criminal offense. If they secured any falsified documents or impersonation, they were guilty and succumbed to fines, prison, and deportation. If they came illegally with no proper documentation or verification the same was afflicted upon them. This led to establish deportation laws that we see currently today.
Three ways in which immigration inspectors relied on presumed class differences to differentiate a merchant and a coolie
A class hierarchy was already built into the exclusion laws that prohibited Chinese laborers but allowed some of the most privileged Chinese to enter the U.S. First class was less likely to claim they were in the exempt classes. Nevertheless, exempt class (Merchants, teachers, students, officials, and travelers) weren’t always automatically admitted. They relied on to distinguish a merchant and a coolie was through the lens of race and race through the lens of class status. Usually, if applying for admission, they were viewed as merchants, students, or officials. Sometimes class provided protection from racial discrimination but often times it did not. They assumed that the merchant class should be wealthy, educated, and refined into gentlemen who posed no threat to white labor or American society in general. First way to differentiate was that they were expected to be highly literate, and they were required to take a literate test. These tests were hard and they denied entry if you didn’t answer or show your knowledge in depth. Second, they were also expected to look like merchants. However, this was extremely subjective, but officials believed that wealth would be apparent in their dress and appearance. Lastly, they measured the merchant’s status by whether or not they performed physical labor. They were tested to not have engage in manual labor for one year and did not have common labor skills. Another way they used to identify, was physical examinations to uncover any evidence of labor work. Regardless, racial issues got in the way and officials just started believing the Chinese were professional liars and testimony along were no longer deemed fit to distinguish.
How did Chinese exclusion work to stigmatize the citizenship status of Chinese Americans?
Although the laws were used to regulate and restrict immigrants, it was enforced on all the Chinese. The whites agreed that these laws should be directed to Americans of Chinese descent because of their ideology of race and citizenship. This really showed that they supported a full exclusion of the Chinese immigrants and the worries of fraudulent claims of native birth to earn citizenship. Again, the characteristic that was associated with Chinese were that they were professional liars and thus can’t be trusted and or worthy of having a citizenship. As if this given trait was inherited in these Chinese Americans, or passed along because of their Chinese descent. That they were uncomprehensive to any form of government except for their own. So, they wanted to make sure they were secured from this and believed it was necessary measure for the good of the public. Once again, they believed that second generation of Chinese children would inherit these undesirable traits and qualities.
Look Ting Song and Wong Kim Ark and how exclusionists sought to challenge the citizenship status of Chinese Americans
An example of this effect, is the case of Look Ting Song and Wong Kim Ark. Look Ting Song was 14 years old and a U.S. born citizen in California. He tried to reenter in the U.S. after studying in China. U.S. born citizen was not classified as an exempt class and he had no other documentation to prove his membership, so he was denied entry. Look sent an appeal and the U.S. District court for the Northern District of California reversed the decision and ruled in his
favor because of the 14th amendment that stated all person born here in the U.S. were citizens. Because of this 14th amendment, the Exclusion laws did not apply to Look Ting Song.
But the antiChinese exclusionists were angered by this decision and attempted to reverse it and the citizenship granted to the nativeborn Chinese. They used Wong Kim Ark’s case to appeal. Wong Kim Ark was also native born in the U.S. and he was returning from a visit to China. His parents ran a mercantile/trade store, so his traveled with his family to China. Timothy Phelps readmitted Wong back in as a citizen however, when he tried to come back from a second trip, he was denied. He had no citizenship and that the Exclusions laws applied to him too. That he had a right to citizenship because he did everything a citizen would do and his parents would never be able to obtain one anyways.
However, Henry S. Foote disagreed. Birth in the U.S. did not equaled citizenship because Wong was still unassimilable and unfit for it. Wong’s education and political affiliations aren’t with the U.S. and thus only for China considering his parents beliefs must be his too since they raised him. This proved his wasn’t loyal and he couldn’t maintain being Chinese and American. In addition, he didn’t even attempt to look like a citizen as he retained the Chinese dress style further proving he wasn’t fit for citizenship. And that accepting this behavior would be costly and dangerous as it could influence others to do the same. But Foote’s challenge remarks of a Chinese American was rejected. This case sent up legal parameters in citizenship cases but immigration officials still had a huge influence in the processing of returning U.S. citizens because they established their own definition of a U.S. citizen.
Why was assimilation so important to the Japanese?
They saw what was happening with the Chinese immigrants and didn’t want to be treated the same way. So they make a conscious effort to assimilate to avoid that. They also had the mindset of settling down so assimilation was very important if they wanted to make a permanent living in the U.S.
Gaimenteki doka vs Naimenteki doka
There was two options to assimilate: Gaimenteki doka and naimenteki doka. Gaimenteki doka focuses mainly on outward appearance. Such as the Japanese immigrants swapped their traditional clothing for American clothing. They also started eating American foods and decorating their houses with an Americanize theme. Another important thing they did was also attend American events to show their American spirit. Their tactic was to attack their visible differential markers and close that difference. Majority of immigrants took this option to showcase their assimilation.
Compared to naimenteki doka, it fully extended that ideology of outward appearance and focused more on inward appearances. They thought it was important to not only change their
appearance but their mindset to a more American culture mindset. They adapted Christian beliefs, political views, democracy, and protestant morality. Naimenteki doka was at first a miniority position, but it eventually became the majority that Japanese immigrants took.
For example, they started to go to church more and celebrated church holidays, not honoring their emperor, and adapting to the English language.
Debate among the Issei over the Nisei?
First and foremost, Issei were the immigrants while the Nisei were the Chinese born in America. The Issei struggled on how to run these educational schools for the Nisei Japanese children. They debated on how much they should be teaching the Nisei about Japanese education and American education. They had to consider the possibility if the Nisei wanted to go back to Japan.
Otherwise, they would prepare the Nisei for how to live and work in America. The schools weren’t unified as one system either so figuring out what was too much or what was fine was even harder. And nativist raises questions about their education system because they believed that they were instilling Japanese morals and thus further proved that they couldn’t assimilate. Another big issue among them was the dual citizenship they had. Dual citizenship gave off that they had divided loyalties. It wasn’t helpful and interfered with their intent on settling down.
Did assimilation help them overcome the colorline?
No it did not work, the Japanese were still lumped as Asians regardless of their efforts to assimilate. It led to full exclusion and idealize the AngloSaxon superiority. Let’s take Ozawa’s case for example. He was ideally what the Japanese wanted to achieved. He had an American wife, spoke English, and had completely conformed to American ideals and culture. However, he was still rejected as it was a technical disclosure of naturalization not possible based on the reason as America is sole definitely as AngloSaxon.
The significance of the Gentlemen’s Agreement
The Gentlemen’s agreement was an informal treaty/exchange for both sides. The U.S. decided that they would give the opportunity for families to reunite in exchange for a restriction on immigration in Japan. Wives of merchant classes would be able to form families again, something the Chinese immigrants did not get the opportunity, and if they did, it was a long tedious process. In return, Japan agreed to deny passports to laborers seeking to immigrant. The U.S. did not at the time decide to fully exclude them because of Japan winning against Russia, a huge power force. In this way, it showed Japan as stable and strong to defend its country. They were worried about other countries trying to take over, so Japan had to defend itself and show
that they are worthy. Another important exchange they allowed was that Japanese students can go to nonsegregated schools because Japan was also worried about the discriminatory laws against them. So they repealed that law to appeal to Japan’s concerns.
The significance of this treaty was an attempts to diffuse war tensions, end segregation order, and thus get what they were hoping for, limiting the immigration process. The U.S. did not want to get on the wrong side of Japan after Japan defeated Russia.
The significance of the Alien land laws
Japanese immigrants were using intensive farming techniques to produce 10% of California produce while owning only 1% of land. They passed this law to preclude Japanese land ownership by only allowing aliens who are eligible to citizenship could only own land by inheritance, acquiring, and transmitting. This law followed up with the naturalization act of 1870 which denied Asians the right to become citizens which led the Japanese immigrants to lease land under their Japanese American children to get around this law. They couldn’t halt or fully exclude all immigrants so they used this to make life very difficult for them to live and survive so that they would give up and leave. They were sending a clear message that they were not wanted and trying to close the loop of alien and naturalization loop. This had a negative impact on the immigrants as they could no longer really turn to this as a means of profit and survival.
The significance of this law was to discourage immigrants from coming and create an inhospitable environment for the immigrants already living there.
The significance of the 1917 immigration act
Because of the influx of southern and eastern Europeans and Filipinos and Indians coming in, it amped up the racial nativism and antiCatholicism. They sought to exclude criminals, feeble minded, alcoholics, beggars, persons mentally and physically defective, polygamists, and anarchists. The immigrants could not read or write and understood little so it further angered the whites and led them to create a literacy test and a law to bar out certain countries and more categories of undesirable people. It was known as the Asiatic barred zone or Asia Pacific Triangle and it extended Chinese exclusion laws to all other Asians. This act basically declared inadmissible all Asian immigrants except teachers, merchants, and students. However, it could not bar out the Filipinos because they were under U.S. control so it did not apply to them. The significance of this act is that you can see how the growth of Asian exclusion is rising and that they are selecting places where they see unfit and undesirable to live in the U.S. and excluding them from it. This was closer to excluding all Asians from immigrating.