Marine Biology Guide 2
Marine Biology Guide 2 BIOL 518
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Graham on Monday August 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 518 at Truman State University taught by Dr. George Schulte in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
VI VII VIII Test 2 Study guide a Noncellular b Require host to reproduce c Retrovirus RNA d Lysogenic virus insert DNA into host DNA e Bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria Archea a Extreme environments Bacteria a Semirigid cell wall b Cyanobacteria photosynthetic bacteria c Stromalites massive calcareous mounds Protozoa a Foraminiferans marine sandy roclq bottoms shell calcium carbonate pseudopods b Radiolarins planktonic shell of silica pseudopods c Ciliates some build test surface or planktonic Marine Algae a Thallus body of a macroalgae i Blade leaf ii Stipe stem iii Holdfast root b Pnematocysts gas lled bladders to keep blades near surface more light c Alternation of generations or vegetative growth Brown Algae a Align emulsi er in dairy products b 1500 species almost all marine i Kelp giant kelp forest ii Sargassum Atlantic and Gulf massive oating mats provide habitats Most macroscopic up to 300ft largest of all algaes Shallow cold waters Chlorophyll A amp C and fucoxanthin Zooxanthellae dino agellates that live in animal tissue Red Algae Carrageenan thicken dairy products Agar cultures microbes thickener and filler canned meat 4000 species almost all marine Deep or shallow water Some are coralline produce calcium carbonate Chlorophyll A amp phycobilins Green Algae a Ancestor of land plants i Chlorophylls A amp B and carotenoids ii Store excess energy as starch iii Cellulose in cell walls b 7000 species lt1000 are marine c Some are coralline produce calcium carbonate Angiosperm true plants a Few marine b Seagrasses i 60 species ii Temperate or mainly tropical iii Pollen carried by water currents c Mangrove trees i 80 species rhme rhrDonom y 6 ill Most Important Characteristics of Seaweeds and Marine Plants ii Tropical and subtropical iii Germinate on parent thend Flower WW r w lb Eelgrass 39 a Manatee grass a Paddle grass d Turllle grass is Surf grass Syringodlum Zoslera Halopnlla Thalassla Phyllospadix scoulerl F E er Castro Copyngh t The MoGraw Hilll Companies Ino Permission required or reproduction or display rop as an elongated seed wuss so Distinguishing Photosynthetic Major Food major CellWall Significance in the Group Features Pigments Reserves Components Marine Environment Green algae Eu karyotic unicellular Chlorophyll a b Starch Cellulose Primary producers calcareous and rnulticellnlar carotenoidlls calcium carbonate algae are important sources of mostly bottomedwellling in calcareous alllgae calcareous deposits in coral reefs lBrown algae Eukaryotic Chlorophyll our Lamlinarin Cellulose Primary producers dominant multicellular carotenoidls oil alginates components of kelp forests bottom dwellian flucoxanthin and others Red algae Eukaryotic Chlorophyll a Starch Agar carageenan Primary producers coralline multicellular phycobilins cellulose calcium algae are important sources bottom dwelling phycocya nin carbonate in of calcareous deposits in phycoerythrin coralline algae coral reefs carotenoicls lFlowleringl plants l I Eu karyotic Chlorophyll or b Starch Cellllulose Dominant primary producers seagrasses 39quot 39 I multicellular carotenoidls in seagrass beds salt marshes saltmarsh bottomdwelling and mangrove forests plants nursery grounds for many species ma ngroves help stabilize soft loottorns protect coast from turbulence X Invertebrates a 97 of animals are invertebrates b Heterotrophic multicellular diploid tissues and most times organs c Phylum Porifera sponges i Sessile lter plankton and DOM asymmetric mostly marine ii Cellular level of organization no true tissues or organs iii Ostia tiny pores that allow water to enter iv Pinacocytes at cells cover outer surface v Porocytes pore cells vi Choanocytes collar cells line interior cannal agellum create current collars trap food vii Spicules silia or calcium carbonate shapes 1 Sponging elastic bers Viii X xi xii 2 Both secreted by amebocytes may also transport or store food Asexual budding fragmentation Sexual broadcast spawning most are hermaphroditic 1 Specialized collar cells produce gametes not gonads 2 Larva metamorphosis into adults Glass Sponge anchor in deepwater sediments lacelike skeleton of fused spicules Boring Sponges bore thin channels through calcium carbonate Coralline Sponges calcium carbonate skeleton forms beneath the body discovered in underwater caves and steep reefs after SCUBA invention d Phylum Cnidarian vi vii Viii X Radial symmetry oral and abdominal surface 1 Central mouth surrounded by tentacles opening to a gut 2 Nerve net Nematocysts stinging structures found in cnidocytes used to catch prey carnivores Polyp mouth up medusa jelly sh mouthtentacles down 1 Statocysts give medusa a sense of balance Planula larval stage cylindrical ciliated two layer larva 2 layers epidermis amp gastrodermis gelatinous cellless mesonglea in between Sexual 1 Medusa normally has epidermal gonads 2 Zygote forms planula settles on bottom and forms colony matures into medusa Asexual 1 Polyps normally reproduce by budding Class Scyphozoa true jelly sh 1 Freeswimming medusa polyp form only in reproduction 2 All marine not strong swimmers Class Anthozoa corals anemones sea fans 1 Polyps normally lack medusa stage 2 Gut contains septa 3 Corals secrete calcium carbonate shell and possess zooxanthellae 4 All marine Class Hydrozoa feathery colonies of polyps 1 Polyps reproductive medusa 2 Freshwater and marine 3 Portuguese manofwar physalia colony of specialized polyps e Phylum Ctenophores comb jellies i ii iii iv 100 species all marine radial symmetry 8 rows of thick cilia beat continuously re ect light Capture prey with two tentacles with colloblasts sticky cells carnivores May obtain nematocysts by eating jelly sh f Phylum Platyhelminthes atworms i ii iii iv v vi vii 20000 species Dorsoventrally attened bilateral symmetry Tissues make up true organs only a mouth no anus Central nervous system rst brain cluster of nervous tissue in head 3 germ layers epiderm mesoderm amp gastroderm Turbellarians freeliving can be striking colors live in or on oysters crabs other invertebrates Flukes trematodes suckers to attach parasites of vertebrates larva may inhabit invertebrates that must be eaten by the target vertebrate Viii Tapeworms cestodes parasitic long body of repeating units inhabit intestine lack gut absorb directly through body wall 1 Longest invertebrate on record g Phylum Nemertea ribbon worms 900 species mostly marine shallow coastal waters Complete digestive system body cavity circulatory system Proboscis long eshy tube to entangle prey iv Ciliated epidermis h Phylum Nematoda round worms nematodes 10000 to 25000 species Rich organic sediments parasitic common in marine animals Hydrostatic skeleton iv Complete digestive system cuticle to prevent drying v Larval stage can be passed to humans if eaten from raw sh i Phylum Annelida segmented worms i ii iii iv v vi vii Viii ix 20000 species marine freshwater or moist terrestrial environment Closed circulatory system welldeveloped nervous system and brain Setae bristlelike structure extends from segments to help stay in place Coelom cavity that houses the gut mesoderm Segments act as a hydrostatic skeleton 1 Longitudinal and circular muscles fantastic crawlers and burrowers Polychaetes mostly marine parapodia with setae and gill proboscis with jaws 1 Trocophore planktonic larval stage 2 Most live in tubes 3 Featherworm Pogonophorans beard worms lack mouth and gut some depend on symbiotic bacteria especially at hydrothermal vents deep sea Hirudinea leaches paracitic sucker at each end not as distinct segments no setae 1 Mostly fresh water moist terrestrial few marine Oligochaetes terrestrial earthworms few setae shallow coastal waters j Phylum Sipuncula peanut worms All marine shallow coastal deposit feeders in coral empty shells or soft sediments Soft unsegmented body coelom Retractable anterior with tentacles k Phylum Echiurans some classify with annelids Nonretractable spoon or forkshaped proboscis Deposit feeder l Phylum Mollusca 39soft body I ii iii iv v vi vii viii gt200000 species Head muscular foot open circulatory system Mantle secretes calcium carbonate shell Radula scrapes algae chitin Trochophore larva develop into veliger larva planktonic miniature adult Gastropoda largest group snails radula some carnivorous Chitins all marine 8 plate shell radula shallow coastal water Bivalves clams oysters scallops etc 1 2 shells umbo oldest part 2 No head no radula 3 Water circulated with siphons gills Cephalopods squid octopus nautilus cuttle sh 1 Waterjet propulsion well developed eye 2 Thick mantle beak and radula to crush prey 3 Squid have stiff internal pen
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