Marine Biology Guide 4
Marine Biology Guide 4 BIOL 518
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Graham on Monday August 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 518 at Truman State University taught by Dr. George Schulte in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Marine Biology Test 4 Study Guide Chapter 16 The Ocean Depths 1 Deep Sea a b C TOE397 Epipelagic roughly the photic zone Mesopelagic some dim light but not enough for primary production main thermohaline 1 Common animals copepods shrimp krill ostracods arrow worms cephalopods squid ii Common adaptations small size large mouths hinged jaws fearsome teeth wide diets iii Nonmigrators copepods fish shrimp squid and krill most detritus is fecal pellets of surface grazers because they sink faster 1 Flabby muscles consume less energy 2 Lack swim bladder weak bones and lacking spines make them neutrally boyant iv Vertical migrators swim to surface to feed at night and deep during the day to avoid predation 1 welldeveloped bones and muscles 2 wide temperature tolerance 3 swim bladder of fat not gas Deep sea perpetually dark waters 1 Bathypelagic ii Abyssopelagic iii Hadopelagic trenches 1 Most stable environment on earth 2 Bioluminescence for prey attraction communication and courtship 3 Larger than mesopelagic fish early life devoted to growth reproduce later in life 4 Some anglerfish are male parasitism male bites much larger female and remains there the rest of his life some species male s modified jaw fuses with female tissue and circulatory systems join 5 Meiofauna tiny animals in sediment eat decomposer bacteria and DOM 6 Highly developed olfactory sense to capitalize on baitfalls 7 Alvin crew lunch preserved for 10 months Organisms rely on dead surface life for food and thermohaline circulation for oxygen 1 20 of surface primary producers sink to mesopelagic Bristlemouth most abundant fish in earth Tubular eyes acute vision in direction they point secondary retina to see laterally and upward Camouflage countershading transparency reduction of silhouette laterally compressed bodies counter illumination 1 Bioluminescence tends to be more bluegreen than natural light D fish eyes detect subtle differences or have yellow filters ii Predators may have opaque stomach to block glowing meals iii Some species have red photophores invisible to other species to spy on prey Oxygen minimum zone OMZ about 500m where respiration of decaying bacteria removes oxygen while no photosynthesis can take place below there is little life and little oxygen removed from the water i animals have well developed gills are inactive and hemoglobin Chapter 12 Estuaries l Estuaries Most formed by rising sea level during Pleistocene l called drowned river valley i Chesapeake Bay Barbuilt estuary accumulation of sediment builds sand bar and barrier islands Tectonic estuaries where land sunk as a result of moving crust Fjords estuary cut deep by retreating glaciers Most common in passive margins active margins have narrow inlets that prevent estuaries f Salt wedge saltwater enters the estuary along the bottom because it is more dense g Tidal bore nearly vertical wall that rushes in at high tide up to 20ft tall h Coriolis effect currents affects salinity parallel to the river 0 0 i Negative estuaries areas with little fresh water and high evaporation 50 E to 100 E the substrate of estuaries is typically sandy or soft mud due to large amounts of sediment i often void of oxygen k eurohaline tolerate wide ranges of salinity I stenohaline tolerate low ranges of salinity m succulents fleshy plants that accumulate large amounts of water to dilute salt n anadromous migrate from the sea to fresh water to spawn o catadromous migragrate from the fresh water to sea to spawn ll Intertidal zone litteral zone Emersion exposed to air Immersion submerged Substrate determines community Epifauna animasl that live on a substrate Mostly filter feeders amp grazers little sediment for deposit feeding Waves i Refraction end in shallow water causes wave to bend ii I impact at headland I at bay iii Variation in wave shock affect organisms iv Mussels use byssal threads strong protein fibers by gland in the foot Cope with dessication by hiding or clamming up Sea water has high heat capacity air temps are extreme i Ridges on shells T surface area ii Light color reflects light i Deal with fresh water when it rains benefit of clam up i Can cause massive mortality ii Tidal pools extreme salinity changes evaporation j Intertidal fish tend to lack swim bladder sink k Limiting resources unoccupied space dispersal is key I Keystone predator predator with larger effects compared to community m Ecological succession regular patterns of regrowth i Final stage called climax community n Infauna live in the sediment i Must adapt to oxygen shortage o Meiofauna live in interstitial space between grains I change 9
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