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UIUC - ECE 120 - ECE120 Midterm 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UIUC - ECE 120 - ECE120 Midterm 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image DRAFT   
  ECE120  NOTES   
background image DRAFT  CHAPTER 1: WELCOME ABOARD  ●  Computers are  Deterministic Systems  — meaning if given the same commands and the  same starting position, the outcome will be the same every time  ●  Computers will only do what they are commanded or instructed to do  ●  A computer is simply a huge, systematically interconnected collection of very simple  parts  ●  All components within a computer are connected by wires which can be high or low  voltage relative to 0 volts  ●  Computers read and encode all information as sequences of 0s and 1s. For example, the  letter a is read by the computer as the sequence 01100001  ●  Abstraction  is central to the world of computing as it serves as a productivity enhancer  allowing us to deal with a situation at a higher level while keep the component ideas in 
the background. The notion of abstraction revolves around giving a simple command to 
the computer which will perform many detailed actions by itself to give you the desired 
●  The ability to  Deconstruct , or un-abstract, is crucial as at times the computer may not  have been correctly programmed  ●  The  Central Processing Unit  (CPU) is the “brains” of the computer system as it performs  the mathematical and logical operations  ●  Peripherals, such as a keyboard, mouse, and a monitor, help the user perform actions  more effectively and efficiently  ●  All computers can perform the same actions and tasks. A smaller computer, given enough  memory and time, can perform the same tasks as a more expensive computer  ●  Actions inside the computer are carried out by the physical movement of electrons  ●  Voltages and current influence the flow of electrons. Devices that require more voltage  can outperform devices with less voltage  ●  In 1937,  Alan Turing  proposed that computers are  Universal Computational Devices  meaning that they calculate many different types of problems that individual devices can  ●  Analog Machines  are machines that produced an infinite amount of answers while  Digital  Machines  are machines that output a finite set of digits or letter  ●  Computer scientists believe that anything can be computer, can be computer by a  computer provided that it has enough time and memory  ●  A  Turing Machine , patented by Alan Turing, is a  Black Box  that provides no information  as to how the input determines the outputs. Turing’s Thesis proposes that every 
computation can be performed by some Turing machine 
●  Turing claimed that one way to construct a machine more powerful than any Turing  machine was to make the  Universal Turing Machine U, which holds the information of  other Turing machines  ●  Natural Languages  are languages that people speak  ●  There are 7 “ Levels of Transformation ”: 
background image DRAFT  ○  Problem/Tasks - Natural language must be detailed and cannot contain any  ambiguity  ○  Algorithm - A step-by-step procedure that is guaranteed to terminate, such that  each step is precisely stated and can be carried out by the computer. Must have 
definiteness, effective computability, and finiteness 
○  Program - Transforms the algorithm into a computer program that sends a  sequence of instructions to the computer. Mechanical languages do not suffer 
from failings such as ambiguity  
○  Instruction Set Architect - A complete specification of the interface between  programs that have been written and the underlying computer hardware. The term  Operand  specifies individual data values which the ISA determines are acceptable  or not. Acceptable operands are called  Data Types   ○  Microarchitecture - The way an instruction set architect is implemented into the  system. The microarchitecture often is a result of the designer’s decisions 
regarding cost and performance 
○  Logic Circuit - Creates the microarchitecture and best reflects the trade-offs  between cost and performance  ○  Devices - The physical circuits and chips used in the computer system  ●  The main purpose of the “Levels of Transformations” is for us to communicate with and  command electrons, and since humans cannot do that naturally, we must use a computer   
background image DRAFT  CHAPTER 2: BITS, DATA TYPES, AND OPERATIONS  ●  A computer is an organized system with several levels of transformations which is solved  by movement of electrons  ●  The devices inside of a computer react to the presence or absence of voltages in  electronic circuits which are determined by the presence or absence of electrons  ●  The presence of a voltage is symbolically represented as “1” and the absence of voltage  as “0”  ●  The electronic circuits inside of a computer actually differentiates voltages close to 0  from voltages far from 0 rather than the absolute presence of a voltage and the absolute 
absence of a voltage 
●  In computer language, each “0” and “1” is referred to as a  Bit  which is a shortened form  of binary digit  ●  When using one bit (2 1 ), the voltage on one wire can represent uniquely only one of two  things: One thing can be represented by 0 while the other by 1  ●  When using eight bits (2 8 ), the voltage on one wire can differentiate at most 256 different  values which can allow a lot more combinations and representations in the computer  ●  A particular representation is a  Data Type  if there are operations in the computer that can  operate on information that is encoded in that representation  ●  Each ISA has its own set of data types and instruction that can operate on those data  types, however, the two main ones are  2’s Complement Integers  for representing positive  and negative integers and  ASCII Codes  for representing characters on the keyboard  ●  Unsigned Integers  have many uses in a computer, such as keeping track of a specific  number of times a task is performed or identifying different memory locations. These are 
strings of binary digits that are positive integers 
●  Signed Integers  are strings of binary digits that represent a certain value such as a  number. A  Signed Magnitude  is a data type that follows a certain pattern of coding, such  as letting all binary strings that begin with “1” be negative while all binary strings that 
being with “0” be positive 
●  Regarding unsigned representations, if the lowest value is 0, then the largest value is 2 N -1  where “N” represents the number of bits  ●  1’s Complement  refers to a data type in the computer engineering community that flipped  all “0s” and “1s” to represent the same number, but negative  ●  Almost all computers use the same basic mechanism to do addition which is known as  Arithmetic and Logic Unit  (ALU. It performs addition by adding the binary bit patterns at  its inputs and outputting a bit pattern that is the sum of the two input bit patterns  ●  If the inputs to the ALU are the representations of non-zero integers A and -A, the output  of the ALU will be 00000. To accomplish this, the 2’s complement data type specifies the 
representation for each negative integer and the ALU adds it to the representation of the 
positive integer. For example, since 00101 is the representation of +5, 11011 is chosen as 
the representation for -5 

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School: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Department: Electrical Engineering
Course: Introduction to Computing
Professor: Suma Bhat
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Electrical and Computer Engineering, ECE120, Computing, and Engineering
Name: ECE120 Midterm 3 Study Guide
Description: Study guide covers material that has been tested before or will be on midterm 3
Uploaded: 10/21/2018
17 Pages 136 Views 108 Unlocks
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