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SUU / History / HIST 1700 / Who is Benjamin Franklin?

Who is Benjamin Franklin?

Who is Benjamin Franklin?

Description

School: Southern Utah University
Department: History
Course: American Civilization
Professor: Michelle orihel
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: introtoamericancivilizations, americanciv, and AmericanCivilization
Cost: 50
Name: American Civilization Midterm Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers all the information for the American Civilization Midterm.
Uploaded: 10/21/2018
8 Pages 6 Views 6 Unlocks
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HIST Study Guide 1


Who is Benjamin Franklin?



Friday, October 19, 2018 10:18 AM

Benjamin Franklin:

- Benjamin Franklin = self-made man; defied the social hierarchy  - Entrepreneur  

- Does his well-known stuff for the "public good" in the 40's-50's  ○ Had the time to do new things due to his retirement

Enlightenment Era:


What is Politicization?



- New ideas and philosophical thoughts

○ Favored reason over tradition/religion

- Rejected "medieval superstition"

- "Age of Reason" "Neoclassical Era"

- Looking back and following Ancient Greece and Rome - Focus on progress and improvement

- Breaking down the social hierarchy  

Conflict:

- American colonies versus Great Britain

- Conflict among colonists

○ Patriots vs. Loyalists

- Conflict among Patriots

○ Race/gender/class/strategies


What is Regicide?



*Note: The American Revolution wasn't an event, but a process*

7 Years War: Don't forget about the age old question of what is the meaning of Exogamy?
We also discuss several other topics like What hemoglobin has that accelerate oxidation of organic compounds?

- Ended 1763 

-

Britain wins, but their debt increases dramatically

○ Solution = raise revenue (taxes) and organize their new empire

Boston on August 14th, 1765:

- Riots in protest of Stamp/Sugar acts 

- Effigy hanging from the tree (stuffed dummy that represents a person/idea)

○ Solution = raise revenue (taxes) and organize their new empire

Boston on August 14th, 1765:

- Riots in protest of Stamp/Sugar acts 

- Effigy hanging from the tree (stuffed dummy that represents a person/idea) - It was their community's symbolic Liberty Tree

Was the effigy Andrew Oliver (guy everyone would have to go to in order to buy  

-

stamps)

Mock funeral procession: If you want to learn more check out what are manhattan project is?

Crowd around tree grows

-

○ News spreads, bringing more people

- Sheriff tries to cut down the effigy but crowd stops him

- Targets:

○ August 14th: 

⬥ Oliver's office - totally destroyed it

⬥ Oliver's mansion - decapitated the effigy and light it on fire, then  wreck the mansion and burn it to the ground

⬥ Forced Oliver to the tree and make him publicly renounce his  position as stamp distributor the next day

○ August 26th: 

⬥ Thomas Hutchinson's mansion

⬥ Was the brother of Oliver

⬥ Was the Left Handed (Lieutenant) Governor

- These acts spread throughout the colonies

Impact:

- Politicization - people are both protesting and acting upon it

- New leaders emerge: Ebenezer Mackintosh "Captain General of the Liberty  Tree"

○ lead the crowd charges to the office, mansion, and tree the next day

Boston Tea Party: We also discuss several other topics like what is the meaning of Hogaku?

- Tea Act (1773) makes the tea tax cheaper

- Granting the agents of East India Company a monopoly (only they can sell tea in  their shops)

- 3 ships arrive carrying tea

○ Protestors won't let tea be unloaded/sold

- December 16th Meeting

○ 5000 people attending (1/3 of the population)

○ Old South Church used as a Meeting House

 

- 3 ships arrive carrying tea Don't forget about the age old question of What are the Features of Psychological Disorders?

○ Protestors won't let tea be unloaded/sold

- December 16th Meeting

○ 5000 people attending (1/3 of the population)

○ Old South Church used as a Meeting House

○ Sam Adams, John Hancock, etc. give speeches denouncing the  government

- Some people leave the meeting disguised as Indians

○ Go and slash open all the tea and dump it in the ocean

- Government's reaction =

○ Coercive Acts, 1774 

⬥ Britain shuts down Boston Harbor, which makes it impossible to  import/export/trade

Regicide: If you want to learn more check out What is Hybridization?

- The killing of the monarch

- Tearing the old government down and starting a new one from scratch - The revolution was a symbolic regicide

- Labeled King George as a tyrant

- They destroy the Code of Arms  

- Burn effigies of the King

- Tore down a metal statue of King George and decapitated it ○ Send the pieces to Connecticut where women melt it down and make  musket balls to use in battle against the British Troops

Post-Revolution America:

- Agrarian (mostly focused on agriculture)  

No National identity

-

○ Local/state/regional identities

- The united states  

○ are versus is - shows that the "united" states aren't all one country Articles of Confederation:

1781: confederation of sovereign states (sovereign states=the government  

-

power stays in the states)

Government:

- No Chief Executive or Judiciary  

- Unicameral Legislature (only one house)

- Unanimity required in order for a legislation to be passed - Powers Congress Had:

Government:

- No Chief Executive or Judiciary  

- Unicameral Legislature (only one house)

- Unanimity required in order for a legislation to be passed

- Powers Congress Had:

○ War/treaties

○ Indian affairs

○ Currency  

- Powers Congress Lacked:

○ Taxation ("requests" revenue from states)

○ Interstate commerce

Problems:

- There was a depression

- Shays' Rebellion, 1786 - 87 

- George Washington's response to the rebellion:

○ "We are proving the British right with our lack of uniformity" ○ We have to take action

○ The rebellion showed that the lack of a proper government harms the  Natural Rights; life, liberty, and property.

○ Stronger government is needed

The Conventions:

Annapolis Convention:

- Maryland, 1786 

- Delegates from 5 different states

- Federal system

- Call for Convention for "sole and express purpose of amending articles"

Constitutional Convention:

- Philadelphia, May of 1787 

- 55 delegates

- PA State House

- Picked Washington to preside over the Constitutional Convention  

May 1787 - Convention:

- 55 delegates

- James Madison  

○ Virginia

○ Shy, hated public speaking, reserved, loved history books

-

Everyone agreed to secrecy - no press, wanted to ensure an open convo w/o the  ress misconstruin it

- 55 delegates

- James Madison  

○ Virginia

○ Shy, hated public speaking, reserved, loved history books

-

Everyone agreed to secrecy - no press, wanted to ensure an open convo w/o the  press misconstruing it

- The Virginians come up with an idea

○ Madison used things he read in his history books for his new ideas

Plans:

- Madison:

○ Concerned that too much democracy existed in the states

○ Believed that the key to a successful was good representation/leadership

Virginia Plan:

-

○ Replace Articles of Confederation

○ Bicameral legislature

○ Representation by population

⬥ Meant that more populated states had more influence (mainly Virginia) ○ Judiciary

○ Executive (elected by Congress)

Congress veto over states

⬥ Meant congress could shut down any legislation sent by the state

New Jersey Plan:

- William Patterson 

- Revision of /articles of confederation ○ Taxation/regulation of commerce - Unicameral legislature

- Representation by state

The Great Compromise: - Roger Sherman -- CT

- House of Representatives

○ By population

Senate  

-

○ By state

Slavery:

- 3/5ths Clause

○ Counted a slave as 3/5ths of a person to determine representation - Slave trade

 

Slavery:

- 3/5ths Clause

○ Counted a slave as 3/5ths of a person to determine representation - Slave trade

○ In the convention, they were unsure whether to ban slave trade ○ Made a rule to not speak about slavery in congress for 20 years ▪ Once they opened the topic up they banned slave trade

Ratification:

- Nine states required (out of 13 states)

- State ratifying conventions, 1787-88 

Debate:

- Federalists

○ "a well constructed union"

- "Federalist" papers

Antifederalists:

- Local/state governments

- Feared centralized authority

- Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee 

June 1788:

- Majority antifederalist

- Nine states ratified

- Federalist advantages

○ Organization

○ National connections/reputations

○ Press - used more effectively

Antifederalist Contribution:

- Bill of Rights

- First 10 amendments

- 1791 

Result:

- Stronger national government

○ "We the people" not "we the states"

- 1791

Result:

- Stronger national government

○ "We the people" not "we the states"

- Congress given right to tax

- States prohibited from issuing money

- Regulation of foreign commerce and interstate commerce

Agriculture:

- From sustenance ag/household production

- Transition to commercialized agriculture

○ Tech improvements

○ Single crop specialization

○ Surplus >> sell the extra and buy what you don't grow yourself

Transportation:

- Needed to get your goods to the market > needs improved trans - Roads, turnpikes, canals, steamboats, railroads

- Impact

○ Reduced costs

○ Facilitated trade/consumption

Erie Canal:

- Linked east and west NY (Albany to Buffalo) and to NYC

- Project was funded by a combination of government and private investors - Dewitt Clinton

○ Came up w/ the idea

○ Most people did not like the idea

- Finished 1825; took about 10 years

- Consequences

○ Population growth/economic growth in Upstate NY

○ Building more connecting canals

- NYC - economic capital

Railroads:

- Faster/more dependable than canals/roads

- Revolutionized the economy

○ Year round

Railroads:

- Faster/more dependable than canals/roads - Revolutionized the economy

○ Year round

○ Over mountains

○ Links east w/ west - Continental Republic - Railroads facilitate westward expansion

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