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UCONN - PNB 2264 - PNB 2264 Exam 3 study guide - Study Guide

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UCONN - PNB 2264 - PNB 2264 Exam 3 study guide - Study Guide

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB 2264 Exam 3 study guide
Description: These notes cover all lecture power-points and in class notes.
Uploaded: 10/22/2018
5 5 3 26 Reviews
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background image Week 6 Connective Tissue Structure: Specialized cells: chondroblasts- produce cartilage matrix Chondrocytes- mature cartilage cells, located in lacunae of cartilage Osteoblasts- bone matrix formation  Osteocytes- mature bone cells osteoclasts- break down and reabsorbs bone Types of Fibers: Collagenous     -Protein collagen      -stable, cross-inked triple helix      -high tensile strength  Elastic      -protein elastin      -random coil conformations      -property of extensibility Hyaline Cartilage -matrix: lots of dense, fine collagen -perichondrium membrane  -strong, flexible and smooth -reduces friction in joints  -ex. articular cartilage in joints Fibrocartilage  -matrix: collagen, some elastic fibers -resists compression bc of hydration -ex. intervertebral disks
background image Joints Range of Motion(ROM): refers to the normal extent of mobility for a 
specific joint movement
- Ex. wrist flexion: 70-90 degrees; for wrist extension: 65-80 degrees  Degrees of Freedom(DOF): the number of axes at which movement in a 
joint occurs
- Ex. wrist is a biaxial joint with 2 degrees of freedom and 2 planes of  movement -Inverse relationship between mobility and stability (sutures, intervertebral 
joint, elbow, hip, shoulder)
Joint Classifications Structural categories   - Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial  Classification by function   Synarthrosis: Immovable, Amphiarthrosis: Slightly Movable,  Diarthrosis: Freely Movable Joint Movements: Smaller angle = flexion (elbow, knee… Forward = flexion(shoulder, wrist.. Opposition – “pincer” grasp Types of Fibrous Joints:  Sutures and Fontanels Sutures: connect membranous bones of the skull, immovable (synarthrosis)  Fontanels: incompletely ossified membranous area present in fetal and 
infant skulls, ossified by age 2
 Syndesmoses
background image -bones are connected by an interosseous ligament -allows slight shift, or “give” movement (amphiarthrosis)  -ex. between tibia and fibula Types of Cartilaginous Joints:  Synchondroses -hyaline cartilage connects bones or parts of bones
-immovable (synarthrosis)
-structure reveals developmental history (e.g. epiphyseal  plates are remnants of cartilage templates for bone growth)
Symphyses
-fibrocartilage discs unite bones -allows slight movement between articulating bones  (amphiarthrosis) -e.g. pubic symphysis, joints connecting vertebral bodies   Synovial Joint -characterized by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid -freely movable parts (diarthrosis) -most common joint in appendicular skeleton -all share common anatomy  Function of Synovial Joint: -cushion, lubricate, nourish joint Other synovial Structures: -Bursa: “pillow” filled with synovial fluid -Tendon Sheath: “sleeve” filled with synovial fluid  Uniaxial Joint: -1 axis of rotation
background image - 1 degree of freedom - 1 plane of movement; 1 movement pair Hinge joints:- elbow Concave surface articulating with a convex surface Movement pair: Flexion/extension Pivot joints: - atlanto-axial joint Cylinder shape rotates within ring of bone or ligament Movement: Rotation Biaxial joints - 2 axes of rotation, 2 degrees of freedom - 2 planes of movement -2 movement pairs: Flexion/extension + abduction/adduction - PLUS a combined movement: Circumduction Condyloid (ellipsoid) joints: - wrist  Ovoid-shaped process articulate with a shallow cavity Saddle joints: - first caropo-metacarpal  Distinct based on the shapes of the bones involved Multiaxial Joints- Triaxial  -3 axes of rotation - 3 degrees of freedom - 3 planes of movement -Movement pairs: Flexion/extension, Abduction/adduction, Rotations (medial
and lateral) + combined movement circumduction
Ball-and-socket joints:- shoulder  Spherical surface articulating with a cup-shaped socket
background image  Multiaxial Joints- Nonaxial -No identifiable axes of rotation (gliding) -slight gliding movements Gliding joints: - sternocostal  Flat or nearly-flat articular surfaces that allow gliding in any direction - Ex. between clavicle and scapula/sternum  My shoulder joint can flex, extend, rotate, abduct and adduct. I am 
describing which feature of the shoulder joint?
Degree(s) of freedom -range of motion is more specific  MUSCULOSKELETAL ANATOMY – BONES, JOINTS, MUSCLES AND MOVEMENTS OF THE AXIAL SKELETON AXIAL SKELETON: Head and Vertebral Column I. Skull     A. The Jaw: Temperomandibular Articulation(TMJ)       1. Bones          a. Temporal bone (Mandibular fossa of zygomatic process) b. Mandible: Mandibular condyles           [c. Hyoid: not part of this joint but in the area.]              2. Joint class: Combined Hinge and Gliding.   a. Gliding joint adds complexity to movement – not a simple hinge b. hinge action between mandibular condyle and fossa 
background image        3. Muscles of Jaw - (know actions)           a. Digastricus: Open TMJ (jaw)            b. Temporalis: Close TMJ            c. Masseter: Close  TMJ d. Pterygoids: - Medial:  side-to-side (“lateral excursion”) movements. - Lateral:  depress/protract mandible.  It is this muscle that  moves mandibular process OUT of mandibular fossa to allow your mouth to 
open wide.
II. Vertebral Column  (Total of 26 vertebral bones)    A. Anatomy of (Typical) Vertebrae         1. Body - supports weight        2. Arch - encloses spinal cord        3. Also: transverse processes, spinous process, vertebral foramen, 
superior + inferior articular processes and facets.
B. Types of Vertebrae and articulations        1. Cervical (7) a. C-3 – C-7 have “typical” vertebra structure  b. C-1 and C-2 have unique structures   C1 “atlas” lacks a body; supports globe of the skull C2 “axis” has a tooth-like projection (dens) (forms axis for pivot with  C1)          2. Thoracic Vertebrae (12)             a. Costovertebral Articulations – ribs articulate with thoracic  vertebrae

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB 2264 Exam 3 study guide
Description: These notes cover all lecture power-points and in class notes.
Uploaded: 10/22/2018
35 Pages 245 Views 196 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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