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UCR / geosciences / GEO 1 / How does magma move?

How does magma move?

How does magma move?


School: University of California Riverside
Department: geosciences
Course: The Earth's Crust and Interior
Professor: Gareth funning
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Geology
Cost: 50
Name: Geology Study Guide
Description: A breakdown of Subjects like; Mineral Structure, Mineral Properties, Igneous Rocks, and Plutonic Rocks
Uploaded: 10/25/2018
3 Pages 138 Views 2 Unlocks

Geology Study Guide 

How does magma move?

Mineral Structure and Mineral Properties

Atoms: is the smallest unit of an electron

● John Dalton: hypothesized that each chemical have atoms

Structure of an Atom

- nucleus, protons, neurons

- isotopes; are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neuron

Ionic bonding:result from electrical attraction of positively-charged and negatively-charged ions

Ionic Bonding

- Strength of the force attracting two charges of the opposite sign - Strength of attraction increases with the amount of charge and decreases with size

Mineral Properties

➢ Hardness

○ Hardness of mineral controlled by the strength of the bonds holding them together--- covalent strongest of all

How oceanic crust form?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the chemical stimulation of the frontal dopamine system?

➢ Streaks

○ The color of a mineral has when it is powdered

■ Very diagnostic for minerals

➢ Luster

○ Description:metallic, vitreous, resinous, greasy, pearly

➢ Habit(the shape a mineral grows)

○ Refers to the shape that a mineral grows into

○ Habit indicator of how fast mineral cooled

➢ Color

○ Color of mineral--- how the atoms in the crystal interact with light ➢ Twinning

○ Crystal twinning occurs when 2 (or more) crystals with opposite lattice directions grow together.

➢ cleavage/fracture( shape mineral has when it breaks)

○ Crystal cleavage reflects structural weakness

Igneous Rocks Classification

Rock: solid, naturally-occurring, consolidated, aggregate of minerals and/or nonmineral solid matter, that solidified from a molten state

What are the types of metamorphism?

➢ Common igneous rocks: granite and basalt

Intrusive: injected(‘intruded’) into the crust, cooled beneath the surfaceWe also discuss several other topics like How can water form hydrogen bonds?

Extrusive: erupted(‘extruded’)from volcanic, cools at the surface


- Rich in feldspar and silica

- Rocks contain orthoclase, quartz, sodium

- Rich plagioclase and biotite


- Rich in magnesium and ferrous iron

- Rocks contain olivine, pyroxene, and calcium rich plagioclase Melt Generation and Evolution

➢ Igneous rocks are classified their texture and chemical composition Partial melting: only part of the rock melts

➢ Occurs when the temperature in mantle at a given point exceeds the solidus How to Melt

1. Raise the temperature higher than melting point We also discuss several other topics like What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?

a. Happens in mantle plumes---distorts ocean floor

2. Add water to catalyze two melting reaction

a. Allows melting point at lower temperatures

3. Reduce the pressure on the rock while maintaining s high temperature a. Occurs in mid-ocean ridges

Order of Crystallization

➢ Mafic minerals crystallize the fastest and higher temperatures ➢ Felsic crystallize the latest and lower temperatures

Fractional crystallization: the intrusion crystallized instages, from mafic minerals to intermediate

➢ Bowen’s series can also predict which minerals will be generated in a melt of a given temperature

Plutonic Rocks and Continental Crust (& Mantle)

How does magma move?

● Magma is liquid and mobile in the lithosphere and crust

● Rises from Wedges open and fractures overlying country rock Typical Plutonic Rocks

- Granite: continental/felsic

- Gabbro: oceanic, mafic We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of the congress of industrial organizations?

Formation of Continental Crust

Step 1: early earth

- Original formation of ancient continental core

Step 2: ongoing

- Craton: old and cold continental crust, predominantly granite

- Felsic composition

- Rich in elements (K/Ka)

● Continents grow--- ocean islands and sediments are scraped onto the continent Xenoliths; lacks from upper mantle---preserved don’t melt

- A piece of rock that is brought up from deep by magma

Mid-Ocean Ridges and The Oceanic Crust

Harry Hess 

➢ Wrote dissertation on peridotite

➢ Echo sounder--- survey sea floor

➢ Hess discovered a new class of submarine floor “guyots”

➢ Discovered of “great global rift” 1953

➢ “Geopoetry”--- sea floor spreading

How Oceanic Crust Form

I. Hot mantle rises, decompresses and melts

II. Thin dikes erupt as pillow lava

III. Basalt cool, dikes to form sheeted dikes We also discuss several other topics like What is a camera obscura?
Don't forget about the age old question of What define a binomial variables?

IV. Sediments deposit on seafloor

V. Gabbro layer is formed adjacent to magma chamber

Geotherm: normal relationship between temperature and depth

- ophiolite(oceanic crust emplaced on land)

Ophiolite Suite: 

➢ Sediment layers

➢ Pillow lavas

➢ Thin section of gabbro

➢ Thin section of peridotite

Conduction: is the main mechanism for heat transfer for rigid materials ➔ All types of metamorphism:

◆ Regional

◆ High pressure

◆ Contact

◆ Shock

◆ Seafloor

◆ Burial

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