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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 8

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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 8

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB week 8 class notes
Description: These notes cover the power-point information as well as in class questions.
Uploaded: 10/25/2018
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background image Week 8 NEUROANATOMY PART I: Peripheral Nerves (PNS) and Spinal Cord (CNS) See Learning Unit for Learning Objectives!  This handout supplements the CNS anatomy lecture. INTRODUCTION / ORGANIZING PRINCIPLES CNS (brain and spinal cord);  PNS (“everything else”) Terms Meninges, CSF, Blood-Brain Barrier Protective/Supportive Structures Ventricles – CSF within brain; CSF from choroid plexus of ventricles (where it’s
formed by ependymal cells) through ventricles and central canal of spinal 
cord; then into subarachnoid space.
Meninges – Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater Cerebrospinal fluid: bathes brain, the “ECF” of CNS; however CSF is not = 
plasma.  There is even less variation in constituents (i.e., even closer 
homeostasis.)  Compared to plasma, there is more Na, Cl, Mg, H+; and less 
K+, Ca++.
Blood-Brain Barrier:  Quite difficult for many substances to enter brain tissue o Astrocytes, with end feet on brain capillaries
o Tight junctions, continuous epithelium in brain capillaries
o Substances which penetrate easily:  glucose, amino acids, some ions, 
EtOH, fatty acids, nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO) and CO 2 . o Substances which cannot cross blood-brain barrier:  Blood (with cells),  wastes (e.g., urea), proteins, and K+. Blood Supply to the Brain Internal carotid arteries supply approximately anterior 2/3 of brain o Anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries
o Middle cerebral artery is a common cerebrovascular accident (CVA / 
stroke) site o Posterior cerebral artery Vertebral arteries supply the rest of the brain Circle of Willis – collateral circulation Venous sinuses for venous drainage. CVA / stroke  o Hemorrhagic
o Ischemic (typically thrombosis / clot)
background image Histology:  Neurons and Supporting Cells (Glia) CNS Neurons Structural types o Multipolar (most) or pyramidal neurons predominate in CNS
o Unipolar
o Bipolar
Functional categories o Afferent 
o Efferent
o Interneurons (90% of neurons, all in CNS)
Supporting Cells: Neuroglia – CNS  • 90% of cells in CNS are neuroglia • Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal Cells; Oligodendrocytes 1. Astrocytes  - Among the many functions: • Surround capillaries and induce blood-brain barrier • Surround synapses – regulate extracellular K+ 
• Neurotransmitter uptake
2. Microglia • Derived from blood cells
• Injury response – secrete inflammatory cytokines (growth factors)
• Remove cellular debris by phagocytosis 3. Ependymal Cells • Line ventricular surface; secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 4. Oligodendrocytes • Synthesize CNS myelin Functions of the CNS Neuronal Circuits
background image Simple reflex arcs include flexor withdrawal, tendon jerk (spinal cord) reflexes GROSS ANATOMY OVERVIEW: Peripheral Nerves / Spinal Cord Peripheral Nerves Definition  Structure of a nerve o Terms Spinal Nerves Types
How spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord
Cranial nerves are also peripheral nerves, and connect to the brainstem Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy  1. Spinal cord is enclosed by connective tissue and encased by the  vertebral column.   In adult, it ends at L1-L2 level, and spinal nerves  below this level continue as cauda  equina 2. Cross section: Gray matter (gray due to presence of cell bodies; site of  synapses between neurons), white matter (axons and/or peripheral processes of 
sensory neurons), dorsal and ventral horns, dorsal (posterior) root and ventral root, 
dorsal root ganglion.
3. Spinal meninges (dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater); subarachnoid  space Fiber tracts:  Tract = collection of axons running together within CNS 1. Ascending (sensory) tracts a. Dorsal columns (fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus).

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB week 8 class notes
Description: These notes cover the power-point information as well as in class questions.
Uploaded: 10/25/2018
7 Pages 78 Views 62 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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