Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

KSU - PSYC 4410 - Class Notes - Week 9

Created by: Jordan Engeseth Elite Notetaker

> > > > KSU - PSYC 4410 - Class Notes - Week 9

KSU - PSYC 4410 - Class Notes - Week 9

School: Kennesaw State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Physiological Psychology
Professor: Corrine McNamara
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PSYC 4410 CHAPTER TWELVE
Description: These notes cover material from chapter 12-- learning, memory and intelligence
Uploaded: 10/25/2018
0 5 3 86 Reviews
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 7 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image PSYC 4410
CHAPTER 12—LEARNING, MEMORY + INTELLIGENCE
- Learning, Memory, and Memory Loss o Life without memory→ no sense of existing across time o Your memory is almost synonymous with your sense of self - Localized Representations of Memory—Classical Conditioning and Instrumental Conditioning o Classical Conditioning—Ivan Pavlov Pairing two stimuli changes the response to one of them:  Conditioned stimulus: initially elicits NO RESPONSE; stimulus that evokes a 
particular response only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that automatically evokes an unconditioned  response Unconditioned response: response automatically evoked by an unconditioned 
stimulus
Conditioned response: learned response to CS; response evoked by a  conditioned stimulus after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus CS + USC → UCR (pre-conditioning) to CS→ CR (post-conditioning) o Instrumental/Operant Conditioning Individual’s response followed by reinforcer or punishment Reinforcers: events that increase the probability that the response will occur  again Punishment: events that decrease the probability that the response will occur 
again
- Lashley’s Search for the Engram o Engram: physical representation of what had been learned o Example: a connection between two brain areas o Hypothesis: a knife cut between the two brain areas should abolish the newly learned  response→ disproven o Lashley’s experiments showed that learning and memory do not rely on a single 
cortical area
o Lashley’s principles about the nervous system Equipotentiality: all parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex functioning  behaviors (e.g., learning) Mass action: the cortex works as a whole→ more cortex is better - The Modern Search for the Engram—Richard F. Thompson and colleagues o Suggested that the classical conditioning engram is located in the cerebellum, not 
the cortex
o Lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP) identified as central for learning→ responses increase as learning proceeds Concluded from experiments in rabbits that learning occurred in the LIP Later research identified cells and neurotransmitters responsible for changes in  the LIP o Change in a brain area does not necessarily mean that learning took place in that area o PET scans on young adults led to the discovery that the cerebellum is critical for  classical conditioning→ only if the delay between onset of CS and UCS is short - Types of Memory o Hebb (1949) differentiated between two types of memory: Short-term memory: memory of events that have just occurred Short-term memory has a limited capacity Short-term memory fades quickly without rehearsal Short-term memories cannot be stimulated with a cue/hint All info enters short-term memory
background image Long-term memory: memory of events from times further back No limited capacity Long term memories persist Long-term memories can be stimulated with a cue/ hint Short-term memories consolidated into long-term memory   → not all  short-term memories become long-term memories - Our Changing Views of Consolidation o Time needed for consolidation varies o Emotionally significant memories form quickly Locus Coeruleus (a small structure in the pons that emits bursts of impulses in  response to meaningful events, especially those that produce emotional arousal) 
increases release of norepinephrine
Emotion causes release of epinephrine & cortisol to activate amygdala and  hippocampus—enhances consolidation of recent experiences o Working memory Proposed by Baddeley & Hitch as an alternative to short-term memory Emphasis on temporary storage of information to actively attend to it and  work on it for a period of time - Working Memory o Common test of working memory is the delayed response task Requires responding to something you heard or saw a short while ago o Research points to the prefrontal cortex for the storage of this information Damage impairs performance Manner of impairment can be very precise - Amnesia→ memory loss o Different kinds of brain damage result in different types of amnesia o Two common types related to disorders: Korsakoff’s syndrome: brain damage caused by prolonged thiamine (vitamin  B1) deficiency Impedes brain’s ability to metabolize glucose Leads to a loss of or shrinkage of neurons in the brain Often due to chronic alcoholism Distinctive symptoms: confabulation (taking guesses to fill in gaps in memory); apathy, confusion, and memory loss Alzheimer’s disease: gradually progressive loss of memory, often occurring in old  age Affects 50 percent of people over 85 and 5 percent of people 65–74 Early onset seems to be influenced by genes 99 percent of cases are late onset   → half of all patients with late onset have  no known relative with the disease No drug is currently effective Associated with an accumulation and clumping of the following brain  proteins: o Amyloid beta protein: creates plaques from damaged axons and 
dendrites; produces widespread atrophy of the cerebral cortex, 
hippocampus and other areas o An abnormal form of the tau protein: part of the intracellular support 
system of neurons; creates tangles
o Infant Amnesia: early childhood amnesia—not a disorder like the previous two Universal experience—we don’t remember much from our first few years of life Children do form memories—the question is why they forget them Hypotheses: 
background image learning language and complex reasoning abilities don’t develop until the child is
older
changes in the hippocampus and growth of new neurons o Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia: two major types of amnesia Anterograde amnesia: loss of ability to form new memory after the brain damage Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory of events prior to the occurrence of the brain  damage - The Hippocampus and the Striatum o Different areas of the hippocampus are active during memory formation and later
recall
o Hippocampus is vital for the formation of new long-term memories o Hippocampus damage results in amnesia o Person called H.M. is a famous case study in psychology→ hippocampus was removed to  prevent epileptic seizures Impaired Storage of Long-Term Memory Not being able to state the correct date or his current age Read the same magazine repeatedly without losing interest Could recall only a few fragments of events in the recent past Did not recognize himself in a photo, but could recognize self in a mirror Short-term/Working Memory Remained Intact Able to remember a number after 15 minutes without distraction When distracted, memory was remained intact He had difficulty with the Tower of Hanoi task H.M. showed both retrograde and anterograde amnesia after the surgery H.M. was able to form a few weak semantic memories H.M. could not describe any events since his surgery→ severely impaired episodic  memory H.M. learned to read words written backwards (in a mirror) o Normal Pattern of Amnesia Patients Normal working memory, unless distracted Severe anterograde amnesia for declarative memory Severe loss of episodic memories Better implicit than explicit memory Nearly intact procedural memory - Semantic and Episodic Memory o Semantic memory: memories of factual information o Episodic memory: memories of personal events - Implicit and Explicit Memory o Memory loss impacts a person’s ability to imagine the future o Explicit/Declarative memory: deliberate recall of information that one recognizes as  a memory o Implicit memory: the influence of experience on behavior even if one does not 
recognize that influence
Procedural memory: development of motor skills and habits; specific type of  implicit memory - Functions of the Hippocampus o Research on hippocampus function suggests: Critical for declarative memory functioning (especially episodic memory) o The Hippocampus and Declarative Memory Research with rats shows damage impairs abilities on two types of tasks: Delayed matching-to-sample tasks: Subject sees an object and must later  choose the object that matches Delayed nonmatching-to-sample tasks: Subject sees an object and must 
later choose the object that is different from the sample

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Kennesaw State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
7 Pages 51 Views 40 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Kennesaw State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Kennesaw State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Physiological Psychology
Professor: Corrine McNamara
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PSYC 4410 CHAPTER TWELVE
Description: These notes cover material from chapter 12-- learning, memory and intelligence
Uploaded: 10/25/2018
7 Pages 51 Views 40 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to KSU - Class Notes - Week 9
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to KSU - Class Notes - Week 9

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or support@studysoup.com

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here