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CSU / Life Science / LIFE 102 / How can water form hydrogen bonds?

How can water form hydrogen bonds?

How can water form hydrogen bonds?


School: Colorado State University
Department: Life Science
Course: Attributes of Living Systems
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Part 1
Description: These notes will cover what will be on the first 30 questions of the exam
Uploaded: 10/25/2018
28 Pages 455 Views 2 Unlocks


How water can form hydrogen bonds?

PART 1 of 2: Questions regarding the first four exams

Exam 1: Information to know and sample questions


● An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by a chemical reaction

● 96% of all living matter is made up of HONC (Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon)

● All elements are unique and different from one another because of the specific and unique number of protons that exist in each elements nucleus.

● Calculating how many protons and neutrons there are in a certain element is done by subtracting the amount of protons (the atomic number) from the atomic mass. What you are left with will be the number of neutrons.

Why are phospholipids so suitable to build membranes?

Know how to read the periodic table as well, what it means when elements are in the same period or column as one another If you want to learn more check out What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?

● Elements in the same vertical column have the same number of electrons in their valence shells

● Elements are able to fill their valence shells by making covalent bonds with one another, or they steal electrons from other elements. When an elements gains or loses an electron, they gain or lose a negative charge, making them either partially positive or partially negative.

What two structures are not apart of the endomembrane system?

● Know what an isotope is (an atom with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons, making isotopes have different atomic masses than a regular atom of that element)

● Know the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds (polar covalent bonds are not equal in charge because electrons are not equally shared between the two

atoms. With a nonpolar covalent bond, the electronegativity is more equal and the electrons are shared equally) We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of the congress of industrial organizations?

● Know the difference between an ionic and covalent bond (covalent bond is the sharing of pairs of electrons while ionic bonding is the give and take of electrons)

● The importance of hydrogen bonds (its what holds together a molecule of water and our DNA, they are temporary bonds that continuously form and break and form and break) ● State the Mass COnservation law: All atoms present in the reactants are still present in the products

● Know what it means when a reaction is reversible (A + B = C + D just as C + D = A +B)


● Water is a polar molecule and has hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen. Water is polar because of its shape (shape = function) one side of the molecule is positively charged and the other is negatively charged.

● Unique properties of water include:

○ Cohesiveness

○ Moderates Temperature

○ Expands upon freezing

○ Excellent Solvent

○ Has surface tension

○ Has high specific heat

● Because of the hydrogen bonds present with water, it has a high heat of vaporization which means it takes a LOT of energy to vaporize water

● Be able to explain why ice floats (The hydrogen bonds that are usually constantly breaking and forming and breaking and forming with other water molecules are freezing and becoming rigid, making it so that there is a lot of space in between each water molecule, making it less dense and therefore less heavy, which is why its solid state is able to float in its liquid state) We also discuss several other topics like What are the discrete random variables?

● Water is most dense at 4 degrees C instead of 0 degrees C

● Hydrophilic Substances love water, while hydrophobic substances will avoid it at all costs

● Concentration: how much solute is present per volume of solvent in moles ● Solvent: The dissolving agent

● Solute: The thing being dissolved

● Water is a good solvent because of its loose hydrogen bonds with other water molecules

● Higher hydrogen ion concentration means the more acidic the solution

● Formula for calculating pH is -log[H+]

● For each change in pH by 1 unit, the amount of hydrogen ions increases 10 fold


● An organic molecule is any carbon-based molecules

● Carbon is tetravalent, which means it needs four electrons to fill its valence shell, which means that it can make four chemical bonds, which is why it is such an important building block. Also the variation of the carbon skeleton (the shape of carbons bonded together) is complex and wide ranging. It can be long, short, vertical, horizontal, circular, triangular, single bonded, double bonded, and more. Don't forget about the age old question of In visual arts, drawing is an image made by what?

● The difference between butene 1 and butene 2 is that butene 2 has double bonded carbon, making it more stable and able to keep its shape

● Functional groups can help carry out specific reactions. For example, Carbonyl groups can increase the melting or boiling point of a compound. Hydroxyl groups can form hydrogen bonds. Carboxyl groups have acidic properties. Amino groups can pick up H+’s and add basic properties. Sulfhydryl groups can help stabilize compounds with covalent bonds. Phosphate groups can contribute a negative charge to a compound. Methyl groups can effects the shape and function of compounds.

● Isomers: Same atomic composition but different structure, shape, and function

Building Blocks of Life 

● Dehydration reactions get rid of water molecules in a polymer. Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking the bond in a polymer

● Glucose forms a ring structure and the atoms that make up that ring are 5 carbons and 1 oxygen.

● Two sugar monomers that are linked together are called disaccharides ● Polysaccharides are important because they are able to store energy and help to maintain the structure of a cell

● Lipids are naturally occuring hydrophobic molecules. Ex. fatty acids, oils, steroids, phospholipids

● A triglyceride consists of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol

● Phospholipids are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. They have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails and form membranes when put into water Don't forget about the age old question of What are the kinds of impulsivity?

● The difference between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids is that saturated fatty acids don’t have any double bonds between their carbons and therefore saturated fats are solid at room temperature while unsaturated fats are liquid

● The chemical structure of an amino acid consists of an amino group, a carboxyl group, and some sort of side chain.


● Primary structure is linear, string of pearls. Secondary structure is an alpha helix or beta sheet. Tertiary structure is a 3D shape, and quaternary structure is a twisted and turned version of a 3D shape

● Forces that stabilize 3D structures are hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, and disulfide bridges

● Protein denaturation is when a protein loses its specific shape and therefore cannot function in the proper way

● Proteins are in charge of cell communication, antibodies, structural help, enzymes, making the cell function the way it should

● Pyrimidines, purines, and deoxyribose or ribose make up the components of a nucleotide connected to a phosphate backbone to make the structure of DNA and RNA Don't forget about the age old question of In chemistry, what defines a trigonal pyramidal?

● DNA is the blueprint, RNA is the copy.

● Deoxyribose and ribose are different because Deoxyribose is in DNA and has H and OH and ribose is in RNA and has OH and OH

● Base pairing is A = T and C = G

● Complementary means that you can figure out the other strand of DNA just by looking at the first strand. They run antiparallel which means the 5’ end and the 3’ end run in opposite directions.

Cell Structure 

● The domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells Protists, fungi, animals, and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells are

characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Membrane-bound organelles

● Compartmentalization gives specialization in certain functions, like a factory ● Nuclear envelope = double membrane surrounding the nucleus

● Nuclear pore complexes = the doors that RNA passes through in order to get out of the nucleus

● Ribosomes read RNA like a cookbook and make proteins, exist freely in the cytosol

● Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulums are different because the rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes all over it but they both are needed for the storage and management of proteins.

● The golgi apparatus sorts and packages proteins so that they are sectioned off and ready to go to the places that they need to go

● Vesicles are the taxis that drive the protein to its destination

● Lysosomes digest food particles and damaged organelles. Vacuoles hold materials and waste

● The endomembrane system in cells is the factory line of DNA to creation of proteins and getting them to where they need to go

● Organelles not part of the membrane system are mitochondria and chloroplasts ● The endosymbiont theory states that the eukaryotes evolved through a process whereby different types of free-living prokaryotes became incorporated inside larger prokaryotic cells and eventually developed into mitochondria, chloroplasts, and possibly other organelles. 

● Microtubules microfilaments intermediate filaments are different types of cytoskeletal fibers that Organizes the cell’s structures and activities, 

anchoring many organelles 

● The extracellular matrix (animals) and the cell wall (plants) both serve to support and encase the innards of the cell 

● Contact points include gap junctions, tight junctions, and desmosomes Sample Questions and Answers:

Why is each element unique and different from other elements in terms of chemical properties?

Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus

In what ways are the elements that share a vertical column on the periodic table the same?

They have the same number of electrons in their valence shells when they are neutral

Atoms have the same number of electrons as they do protons. But when the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons, the atom is known as an…..


In ordinary table salt, sodium and chlorine are 

Ionic bond

held together by what kind of bond?

How many electrons are involved in a double covalent bond?


When atoms involved in a covalent bond have the same electronegativity, (equal, balanced charges) what type of bond results?

A nonpolar covalent bond

Why is water able to form hydrogen bonds? 

The bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds

Why does oil not dissolve in water? 

Because of the hydrophobic bonds that oil has

What is true about all isomers? 

They have different structures, but the same atomic composition

Macromolecules are broken down to monomers in what type of reaction?

Hydrolysis reaction

Veggie oil is a liquid at room temperature and animal fats are solid at room temperature. Why?

Veggie oil has more double bonds than animal fats

Why are phospholipids so suitable to build membranes?

Because of their hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails, they spontaneously form a bilayer in water

The specific amino acid sequence of a protein is its…..

Primary structure

At which level of protein structure are interactions between the side chains (R groups) most important?


When you fry and egg, why does the egg white turn from clear to white?

The protein is denatured

DNA and RNA contain monomers known as…...


Which cellular structures are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Plasma membrane, cytosol, ribosomes, DNA

What two structures are not apart of the endomembrane system?

Mitochondria and chloroplast

If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the 


cyanide will likely be found in the...

What organelles contain DNA? 

The nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria

Exam 2 


● Membranes function as a way to keep all of the innards of the cell together and to keep the cell safe from harm. Cells have fluid mosaic membranes made up of phospholipids and proteins. 

● Selectively permeable membranes only allow certain things to pass through, keeping the harmful/not needed bits outside of the cell to remain outside 

● Fluid mosaic. Fluid = moves freely Mosaic = made up of a lot of different components 

● Membrane viscosity is influenced by temperature, pH, and weather or not the cholesterol is saturated or unsaturated 

● Integral membrane proteins are proteins that stretch outside of the cell, through the membrane, and inside the cell. Peripheral membrane proteins are proteins that exist in either side of the membrane, but not in it like an integral protein. 

● Small, nonpolar molecules that can pass through the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipid bilayer membrane interior can move freely from one side of the membrane to the other. All other molecules require the assistance of a transport protein to move to and from the membrane 

● Diffusion is a result of the kinetic properties of particles of matter. The particles will mix until they are evenly distributed. Diffusion may also be thought of as the movement of particles down a concentration gradient 

● Passive transport requires no input of energy and molecules move from high to low concentration 

● Active transport does require energy and moves molecules from low to high concentration. Uses ATP as energy source 

● Osmosis is the passive diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane. Solutes that don’t cross the membrane is what drives osmosis. Moves from hypertonic to hypotonic. Water diffuses towards the highest solute concentration 

● Tonicity is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water Isotonic solution 

● Solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell; no net water movement across the plasma membrane 

● Hypertonic solution Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water 

● Hypotonic solution Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water

● Exocytosis: Secretion of vesicle contents to the outside of the membrane via fusion with membrane 

● Endocytosis: Captures content from outside the cell, new vesicles are formed. ● Anabolism: Any process that results in synthesis or assembly of large molecules from smaller molecules. Usually requires the input of energy

● Example: Synthesis of proteins from amino acids

● Catabolism: The Breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules ● Involves breakage of chemical bonds

● Often releases energy

● Example: Cellular Respiration

● First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy can be transferred or transformed to other forms of energy, but it cannot be created or destroyed 

● Gibbs free energy is the change in free energy (G) = Entropy (change in H) - Temperature (T) * Entropy (change in S) 

● An exergonic reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous

● An endergonic reaction absorbs free energy from its surroundings and is nonspontaneous

● ATP is made up of Adenine, Ribose, and three phosphate groups 

● Activation energy: Energy needed to start a reaction 

● Enzyme: catalyzes reactions by lowering the energy of activation barrier ● Active Site: the actual site on the enzyme where the substrate binds for the reaction to proceed

● Cofactors: non-protein molecule/atom required for enzyme activity

● Inhibitors: Make it so that the enzyme cannot be used. Competitive inhibitors bind in the active site and non-competitive inhibitors dont and change the shape of the enzyme active site. (allosteric site) 

● Feedback inhibition is the product that the enzyme has helped create is the one inhibiting the enzyme to make more of the product 

Chapter 10: How Cells Divide 

Key Terms:

Mitosis - Creates two daughter cells, identical in every way possible

DNA - The blueprints of the cell, formed in a double helix wound around a protein Chromatins - The DNA wrapped around proteins/The DNA double helix + the proteins it  is wound with

Chromatids - Identical pieces of DNA held together by a centromere/ one or the other sister chromatids

Chromosome - The separate chromatids of a chromosome (which are attached at the centromere)

Centromere - The point at which the sister chromatids are held most closely together/ the connection between 2 chromatids in one chromosome

Two Sister Chromatids = One Chromosome

The Cell Cycle - The lifespan of the cell/ the span of time between one dell dividing, growing, and producing two new cells

Interphase - Cell growth and copying of chromosomes (90% of the overall cell cycle) Prophase - DNA is condensed into chromosomes (2 sister chromatids). Centrosomes are moving to opposite sides of the cell

Prometaphase - Nuclear membrane disappears and microtubules are formed Metaphase - Duplicated chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell Anaphase - 2 sister chromatids (chromosomes) separate and are pulled in opposite directions

Telophase/ Cytokinesis - Cell develops cleavage and splits into two cells  Synapsis - During Prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes find each other and become closely associated

Gametes - Egg and sperm

Zygote - Gametes fusing together to produce a single cell

Fertilization - The act of fusing together gametes to form a zygote

Reasoning for Cells Reproducing 

It is the basic point of life, the “goal” all cells want to accomplish, if cells actually had some sort of goal. It also replenishes the stock of cells and keeps other cells fresh and functioning.

How Often Cells Reproduce 

It varies on the cell type. For example, nerve cells will never want to reproduce again but skin cells reproduce and divide all the time, making a new layer of skin every 6 weeks

Asexual Reproduction 

Asexual reproduction produces two daughter cells that are identical to one another and it occurs in all organisms, both prokaryotic, and eukaryotic.

4 Steps for Eukaryotic Cell Division 

1. A cell needs to grow and duplicate its organelles

2. DNA needs to be duplicated in order to form chromatids

3. DNA needs to divide and move to the two poles of the cell

4. Cell can now divide to form two cells


Cell growth and copying of chromosomes (90% of the cell cycle), consists of three phases: G1 (1st gap/growth), Synthesis, and G2 (second gap/growth). The cell is growing during all three phases, but it is only during synthesis that the chromosomes are duplicated. During G2, the DNA is loose and not structured. But in Prophase, the DNA is condensed into chromosomes (2 sister chromatids)


 DNA is condensed into chromosomes (2 sister chromatids). Centrosomes are moving to opposite sides of the cell


Nuclear membrane disappears and microtubules are formed


Duplicated chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell on an imaginary plate in the middle of the cell. Each duplicated chromosomes (2 sister chromatids) connect to either the top or the bottom of the cell


2 sister chromatids (chromosomes) separate and are pulled in opposite directions. (The 2 sister chromatids, when seperated, are each now called chromosomes because they are not attached anymore)


Cell develops cleavage and splits into two cells

Study Questions:

Eukaryotes that reproduce during ______ reproduction require two cells to contribute genetic material for the production of the next generation


A zygote is created when two haploid cells called ______ fuse together


True or False: meiosis is very important because it creates diploid daughter cells for


sexual reproduction

Gametes are Haploid. Haploid means that the cells contain how many sets of chromosomes?


True or False: In sexual reproduction in eukaryotes, each parent contributes one set of chromosomes to the offspring


A human gamete contains how many chromosomes?


How many chromosomes do humans have in total?


In most animals, the ____ state of the life cycle is much larger than the ____ state of the life cycle

Diploid; haploid

During Prophase I, all four chromatids of the two homologues are closely associated in a structure called a bivalent or _____


Synapsis (or pairing) of homologous chromosomes occurs during which process?


What involves a physical exchange between chromosome segments of the bivalent?

Crossing over

In Meiosis, when does DNA replication occur?

Before meiosis I only

Meiosis is the process by which _____ cells are produced from a cell that was originally diploid


When reproduction is achieved through meiosis and subsequent fertilization, it is called _______ reproduction


A human gamete contains _____



True or False: Both somatic and germline cells are diploid. However, somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germline cells undergo meiosis


During meiosis, homologous chromosomes become closely associated in the process of pairing, or ______


During which stage of meiosis do synapsis and crossing over occur?

Prophase 1

The sister chromatids found in the daughter nuclei at the end of telophase I are not identical to each other due to _____ _____

Crossing over

During _______ I of meiosis, the homologous are pulled toward opposite poles of the cell.


Gametes produced by meiosis contain what chromosomes?

Both paternal and maternal chromosomes which have been subject to crossing over

Meiosis produces cells that are not identical to each other because of what events?

Random orientation of chromosomes in metaphase I and crossing over

When a cell undergoes meiosis, 4 daughter cells are produced. In terms of the number of chromosomes, each daughter cell contains a ______ nucleus


What is a significant similarity between mitosis and meiosis?

The number of chromosomes in a parent cell

What type of cell division (meiosis and mitosis) does the diploid zygotes of an animal have to go through (usually many times) in order to give rise to all of the cells in the adult body?


Which of the following is sometimes referred to as reductive division?


Meiosis I

Meiosis II

Meiosis I

When chromosomes do not sort properly during cell division, this is referred to as


In anaphase I a pole may receive either the maternal or paternal homologue from each


chromosome pair. This means that genes on different chromosomes assort ______

The two types of gametes typically produced by multicellular eukaryotic organisms are…..

Egg cells and sperm cells

Errors in meiosis can lead to gametes with the wrong number of chromosomes which are referred to as ______ gametes


Recombination nodules are structures that contain the enzymes needed for…...

Crossing over

After meiosis is complete, what is produced?

Four daughter cells that are haploid

In sexually reproducing organisms, which types of cell division requires two sequential rounds of division?


During meiosis I, the ______ of sister chromatids function as a unit, attaching to the same microtubule


What is the name for the sites of crossing over in a chromosome?


The four daughter cells produced by meiosis are genetically…...

Not identical to one another

The points where chromatids are held together following crossing over are called ______


In animals, the cells that will eventually perform meiosis to produce gametes are called _______ ________ cells

Germ - line

How many rounds of cell division are required for meiosis?


The reason for the monopolar arrangement of sister chromatids in meiosis I is that it allows for …...

Each joined pair of homologues to align on the metaphase plate

Chapter 11 and 12 Notes 

Key Terms:

Somatic Cells - Any type of cells other than egg and sperm cells

Diploid Cells - Sperm or egg cells

Mitosis - Conserves the number of chromosome sets and produces cells that are exactly identical to the parent cell

Meiosis - Reduces the number of chromosome sets from two (diploid) to one (haploid), producing cells that are genetically different from each other AND the parent cell Tetrads - Paired homologous chromosomes

Locus - The location of a gene on a chromosome (its address)

Independent Assortment: different genes independently separate from one another when reproductive cells develop. 

Crossing Over: The exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which results in new allelic combinations in the daughter cells 

Random Fertilization: The collection of genes within one gamete (such as a sperm cell) do not give that gamete a lesser or better chance than any of the other sperm cells of fusing with an egg cell to produce a zygote; it is therefore random. 

Gregor Mendel - Discovered the basic principles of heredity by breeding garden peas in carefully planned experiments

Hybridization - 2 contrasting, true-breeding varieties/species being bred together P Generation - Parent generation

F1 Generation - First offspring generation

F2 Generation - Second offspring generation, when F1 individuals self-pollinate or cross-pollinate with other F1 individuals

Punnett Squares - A diagram for predicting the results of a genetic cross between individuals of known genetic makeup

Homozygous - When there are two identical alleles for a characteristic (ex. PP, pp) Heterozygous - When there are two different alleles for a characteristic (ex. Pp) Phenotype - An organism's physical appearance

Genotype - An organism's genetic makeup

Law of Segregation - Alleles for a specific trait will separate (or segregate) from each other during gamete formation

Law of Independent Assortment - Alleles for one trait will segregate independently of alleles for a different trait

Unique Events in Meiosis

All three of these unique events happen during Meiosis I. Firstly, Synapsis and crossing over: This happens during Prophase I and involves homologous chromosomes to physically connect and exchange genetic information.

Secondly, At the metaphase plate, there are paired homologous chromosomes (tetrads) instead of individual replicated chromosomes

Lastly, At anaphase I, it is homologous chromosomes (instead of sister

chromatids) that seperate

Three Contributions to Genetic Variation 

Independent Assortment: different genes independently separate from one another when reproductive cells develop. 

Crossing Over: The exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which results in new allelic combinations in the daughter cells 

Random Fertilization: The collection of genes within one gamete (such as a sperm cell) do not give that gamete a lesser or better chance than any of the other sperm cells of fusing with an egg cell to produce a zygote; it is therefore random. 

Study Questions and Answers:

A hybridization experiment involves mating two individuals with _______ characteristics to each other


What plant was the main organism for Mendel’s genetic experiments?


The _____ form of a trait is the one that is not expressed in the F1 generation of a



In Mendel’s experiments, he observed a 3:1 ratio between dominant and recessive traits in the ____ generation of _____ crosses

F2 ; monohybrid

The physical appearance of other observable characteristic of an individual is called his/her _______


The Principle of ________ is the idea that the two alleles of a gene separate during the formation of eggs and sperm so that every gamete receives only one allele


A _______ square can be used to predict the outcome of a simple genetic cross


Pedigree analysis is typically used for studying:

Human traits that follow simple inheritance patterns

What type of experiment involved mating two individuals with different characteristics to each other? One individual provides females gametes, while the other provides male gametes


The principle of _____ is that 2 alleles for a genes separate during gamete formation and are joined at random, one from each parent, during fertilization


When the interaction of genes alters genetic ratios, this is called _____


When continuous traits are graphed in the form of a histogram with the phenotype on the x axis, and the frequency of individuals

with that phenotype on the y-axis, a _______ shaped curve results


A punnett square has rows and columns which represent gametes made by males and females. At the intersection of each row and column we combine the corresponding gametes to produce the genotype of a potential ___________


Each individual carries _____ alleles of a given gene that will segregate from each other during gamete formation


Regarding the phenotypes in a monohybrid cross, the F1 heterozygotes display _____ trait


mendel was able to produce hybrids in pea plant by using a technique called _____ - pollination


In a _____ distribution, the values of a variable are distributed around a mean within a certain spread, which indicates the amount


of variation in the variable

a cross in which only a single trait is considered is called


Human height is an example of a trait that has a continuous distribution of phenotypes. Human height is therefore an example of ______ inheritance


The gene that determines ABO blood types encodes an enzyme that adds which molecules to proteins on the surface of the red blood cells?


The law of independent assortment states that in a dihybrid cross, the _____ of each gene assort independently


The expression of two different alleles simultaneously in the heterozygote is called...


A ______ cross follows the simultaneous inheritance of two different characters


In his studies, Mendel referred to factors that are passed intact from one generation to the next. We now know these factors are actually _______


In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are composed of….

DNA and proteins

THe portion of the cell cycle when the cell is growing and does not contain a replicated genome is referred to as …...


A somatic cell from a corn plant normally contains 20 chromosomes. How many sister chromatids would that cell contain during G2 of the cell cycle?


Metaphase is characterized by….

Aligning of chromosomes at the mid point of the cell

Animal cells typically achieve cytokinesis by…..

Forming a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell into two

Some cells have several nuclei per cell. How could such multinucleated cells be explained?

The cell underwent repeated mitosis, but cytokinesis did not occur

Starting with a single fertilized egg, a series of 6 cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?


Which of the following produces new cells that are genetically identical to the original cell?


You are studying meiosis in an organism where 2n = 24. How many chromosomes will each nucleus have after meiosis II is complete?


Sister chromatids separate from each other during….

Mitosis and meiosis II

What happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?

Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other

What is independent assortment?

The way one pair of homologous

chromosomes lines up along the metaphase plate does not affect how any other pair lines up

From an evolutionary perspective, what is the main advantage of sexual reproduction?

It creates offspring that are genetically diverse, which is advantageous in a changing environment

During his experiments with pea plants, Mendel referred to the trait that was

expressed in the F1 or first filial generation as…...


Why did the F1 offspring of Mendels classic pea cross always look like one of the two parental varieties?

One allele was completely dominant over the other

If fertilization involves two gametes that contain different alleles of a given gene, the resulting offspring is


Two carriers of a recessive allele are going to have a baby. What is the chance that the child shows recessive phenotypes?


Chapter 13 Notes 

Key Terms: 

Complete Dominance - Occurs when phenotypes of the heterozygous and dominant homozygote are identical

Incomplete Dominance - The phenotype of the offspring is somewhere between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties (aka, black and white make gray, there is a mixing)

Codominance - The phenotype of the offspring shows combined phenotypes of the two parental varieties (aka, black AND white, displaying both like a painted cow) Polygenic - Many genes

Polygenic inheritance - Two or more genes on a single phenotype existing along a continuum, (aka, the color of your skin, the height of a human compared to their parents) Epistasis - When a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus. (aka, a gene that determines whether or not another gene will show up as a phenotype or not. Think back to the golden retriever example and what makes a “golden” retriever golden.)

Pedigree Analysis 

A pedigree is a family tree that describes the interrelationships of parents and children across generations. They take the time to look at how certain family members inherited certain phenotypes, genes, or other traits. With a pedigree, people can look at inheritance patterns of particular traits. This can help calculate the probability of a future offspring developing a particular genotype or phenotype before the offspring is born.

Behavior or Recessive Alleles 

Recessively inherited disorders show up only in individuals that are homozygous for that allele. Carriers for that allele are heterozygous but they are phenotypically normal. Most individuals with recessive disorders are born from carrier parents.

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 

The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance States that Mendelian genes have specific Loci (positions) on chromosomes and chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment. The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis can account for mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment

The Chromosomal Basis of Mendel’s Laws 

The behavior of non-homologous chromosomes during meiosis accounts for the independent assortment of the alleles for two or more genes on different chromosomes

Study Questions

The ________ frequency between two genes corresponds to the distance between them on a chromosome


2.4 centiMorgans is equal to…..

2.4 map units or a 2.4% Recombination frequency

A heterozygous wild-type fruit fly with a gray body and red eyes is crossed to a homozygous mutant black fly with white eyes. What would be the recombinant offspring of this cross?

Flies with gray bodies and white eyes along with flies with black bodies and white eyes

What is an autosome?

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

Females who are heterozygous for hemophilia can pass it on to their sons. This type of inheritance is referred to as ________ - linked

Sex or X

What mechanism ensures that males and females produce the same amount of proteins encoded by x - linked genes despite having different numbers of X chromosomes?

Dosage compensation

What term describes the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis?


Trisomy 21 is also called….

Down Syndrome

Nondisjunction can lead to the gain or loss of a chromosome. What is the name of this condition?


The “default” setting in human embryonic development is female. However, embryos, which have a Y chromosome normally become males, due to activity of certain genes, such as the ___________ gene, on the Y chromosome


In thomas Hunt Morgans experiments, the white eye allele in fruit flies was shown to be located…..

On the x chromosome

Males are more often affected by sex linked traits because….

Men have only one copy of the x


A male who carries one particular allele of an x linked gene will pass it on to….

All of his daughters

A female who carries one particular allele of an x linked gene will pass it on to …..

Half of her sons and daughters

The closer 2 genes are on a chromosome, the lower the probability that a _______ will occur between them


In 95% of cases of down syndrome, there is one extra chromosome (number 21) in every cell. This aneuploid condition is most likely the result of ______

Failure of 1 homologous pair to segregate during meiosis

What is true of homologous


They contain genes for the same traits

In the male Drosophila flies, the Y chromosome pairs with ____________ during meiosis

The X chromosome

What combinations of gametes must be present in order to produce a male human?

An X bearing egg and a Y bearing sperm

Assuming an error free meiosis, each gamete produced by a male fruit fly will contain

Either one X chromosome or one Y chromosome

In his experiments with eye color in fruit flies, Morgan determined the Mendelian genetics can explain the ratios he observed in F2 only if the gene for eye color was absent from the ___ chromosome


A trait determined by a gene on the X chromosome is referred to as…..

Sex linked or X linked

For two genes on the same chromosome, a recombinant gene will be produced only if a _______ occurs between the two genes

Crossing over

Crossing over, also called genetic _______, produces recombinant gametes for genes that are linked.


When studying linked traits, what is the name of the offspring, which differ from the parental generation in their

combination of traits?


The frequency of recombinant gametes is a measure of the ________ of genes on a chromosome


The distance between two genes on a chromosome corresponds to their……

Recombination frequency

What are linked genes?

Genes that segregate together

A recombination frequency of 6% means that the genetic distance between two genes is equal to…….

6 centiMorgans or 6 map units

Map units are synonyms for which other term?


The units of distance used in genetic mapping are known as…..

Map units

Morgan’s experiments revealed that eye color alleles in fruit flies are located in one of the sex chromosomes, more specifically the ____ chromosome


Crossing over can produce gametes that have new combinations of alleles. Such gametes are called…….

Recombinant gametes

Exam 4 

Chapter 14 : The Genetic Material

1. A double helix is the shape that DNA is in, a pair of double helices intertwined around a given axis. All Chargaff’s rules are is the knowledge that C pairs with G and A pairs with T and in RNA, A pairs with U.A = Adenine, C = Cytosine, G = Guanine, and T = Thymine

2. The structure of DNA is a double helix and the base pairs are A to T, and C to G 3. DNA strands are complementary, which means that you don’t need both of them to know what they both are. If you know what one strand of DNA is, then you will be able to know the sequence of the second because of base pairing rules. DNA is also antiparallel meaning that the 5’ end rins to the 3’ end and the 3’ end runs to the 5’ end. The two strands of DNA are running in opposite ends, which is why there is a leading strand and a lagging strand when replicating DNA 

4. Semiconservative DNA replication describes the fact that in DNA replication, half of the replicated strand is from the old strand of DNA and half of it is made new 5. Origins of replication are sequences in a genome where replication can be initiated. These are the areas that create those bubbles in the DNA when it is replicating 6. Strand separation occurs by having enzymes start at those origins of replication and creating bubbles that morph into each other until they create two separate strands of DNA. A helicase is an enzyme that untwists the double helix and unzips it like a zipper to separate the double stranded DNA at the replication fork. DNA polymerase is an enzyme that is responsible for getting rid of the RNA primers and replacing it with actual segments of DNA. DNA primase is an enzyme responsible for putting segments of RNA onto DNA strands so that the DNA synthesis fo the leading and lagging strand can occur. This segment of RNA is called a primer. Ligase is an enzyme that is responsible for stitching the DNA segments on the lagging strand together after they have been synthesized. 

7. DNA primers are the segment of RNA that the enzyme primase puts down that the beginning of DNA synthesis. They are necessary because they are the first step to DNA synthesis. RNA plays a role in DNA replication because it acts as a starting point for DNA replication. Okazaki fragments are the pieces of replicated DNA on the lagging strand that have to be stitched together by ligase 

8. The helicase enzyme first unzips the double helix so that the double stranded dna are now single strands. DNA replication occures in one direction, since new dna can only be synthesized from the 5’ to 3’ end. This means that there is a lagging strand and a leading strand. The leading strand is continuously synthesizing new DNA because it is in the 5’ to 3’ direction that the new strand needs to be in. THe lagging strand, since it is in the opposite direction, had Okazaki fragments that need to be synthesized and then stitched together by the ligase enzyme. This means that the lagging strand needs a lot more RNA primers so that the synthesizing enzymes know where to start at each segment. It also consists of DNA polymerase 3 and DNA polymerase 1. DNA polymerase 3 synthesizes

the okazaki fragments while DNA polymerase 1 takes the RNA segments and synthesizes those. The problem with the lagging strand is that there is no way to complete the 5’ ends, so repeated rounds of replication produce shorter DNA segments, resulting in loss of information over time, which means there are uneven ends with the eading and lagging strand 

9. Telomeres are repeating segments and the ends of dna strands, meant to compensate for that loss of the genetic information on the end, which helps to postpone the erosion of genes over time 

Chapter 15: Genes and How they Work 

1. The central dogma of molecular biology states that all living organisms undergo transcription and translation in order to make their necessary proteins. (Cellular chain of command) 

2. The template strand of DNA is used during transcription, when one of the strands of separated DNA is used as a template to make a new complementary strand of DNA (thus, making it semi-conservative DNA) The relationship between DNA and mRNA is mRNA is complementary to the template strand of DNA, which means that whatever the ribosome reads from the mRNA will be able to make the necessary protein recipes that it is carrying 

3. Gene transcription: Gene transcription has three stages. Initiation, elongation, and termination. During initiation, the RNA polymerase enzyme binds to the promoter site on the DNA strand and begins to unzip the DNA at the promoter site. Then it starts to make its way down the DNA strands, collecting information and transcribing that information to RNA. Elongation is the elongation of the transcription process, where RNA is made through transcribing the information that the RNA polymerase enzyme picks up while making its way down the DNA strand. Termination is when the transcription process is done and this happens when the RNA polymerase enzyme runs into a termination site. The transcripted strand of RNA is released from the RNA polymerase enzyme and is now a completed RNA strand which is complementary to the DNA segment it came from. The enzyme that transcribes DNA to RNA is the RNA polymerase enzyme that travels down the DNA when making the RNA strand. 

4. The functions of the promoter and the terminator sites on the DNA molecule let the RNA polymerase enzyme know when to start and when to stop transcribing information and what information it needs it to transcribe. 

5. Translation is the process of translating the mRNA to make a protein. This is done in the ribosome. The ribosome latches on to the strand of mRNA that was made during transcription and uses tRNA to translate the information. tRNA is made up of an amino

acid and anticodons. These amino acids are then chained together in the ribosome and make up a polypeptide 

6. The genetic code is a dictionary made up of 3 nucleotide letters that tell the ribosome what proteins it needs to make, when to start making those proteins and when to stop making those proteins. An mRNA codon is an amino acid, 3 nucleotide sequences. The genetic code is considered to be redundant because more than one codon may specify a particular amino acid. (Three different codons would code for the same amino acid that is wanted) A start codon is the green light that is needed to start translating the codons to amino acids. The stop codons are the codons that tell the translation process to stop. 7. The three part table thing 

8. A tRNA molecule has an amino acid on top of it that is passed from one tRNA to another in order to make a polypeptide. At the bottom, there are codons that run along the mRNA so it knows what amino acid it needs to make appear. An anticodon is the complementary 3 part base pair that is complementary to the mRNA strand. 

9. After transcription, the translation of the messenger RNA is processed because that is how proteins that the ncell needs to function are made. Introns are long, noncoding stretches of nucleotides that exist about the mRNA strands and they are never expressed. Exons are the parts of the mRNA strand that are expressed. RNA splicing is the process of removing the introns from the mRNA strand so that all of the exons are put in a sequence/side by side (like editing s video) 

10. A point mutation is a change in one base pair of a gene. Because the genetic code is redundant, sometimes this causes no negative effect to the protein being made. Sometimes, it messes up which protein is supposed to be made. Then this “oops”protein can be non functional, or there could be no protein made at all. 

11. Insertions or deletions of DNA nucleotide base pairs can lead to addictions or losses of necessary proteins during the translation process. A frameshift is “The FAt CAt ate the sad rat” where one shift changes the entire sequence of proteins that are produced. 

12. A silent mutation is a point mutation that does not really affect the amino acid that is being produced. Because the genetic code is redundant, there are many 3 nucleotide base pairs that can code for the same protein, so sometimes there is a point mutation, but it does not affect the protein thAt is being made. A missense mutation is a mutation to the amino acid sequence where the wrong amino acid is produced whereas a nonsense mutation changes the amino acid codon into a stop codon and doesn't finish coding the rest of the protein sequence. So, nonsense stops the production, missense just changes specific amino acids that weren't supposed to be made. 

Chapter 27: Viruses

1. Viruses are considered acellular because they need other cells in order to produce their own kind, they cannot replicate themselves without taking over other cells. The general steps in virus replication is the virus inserts its DNA into a cell and then the cell transcribes and translates that DNA instead of its own DNA until the cell bursts with new viruses 

2. There are different structures of viruses, genomes, capsids, and envelopes that hold the virus dna 

3. Store their genetic information in cells 

4. THey can only replicate inside of a host cell, they cannot replicate themselves. THe host range is the number of species a given virus can infect. Tissue tropism is the type of tissue it can attack. 

5. Lytic cycle: leads to death of host cell by making it burst with new viruses. Lysogenic cycle: allows the viral dna to infect the cell but does not make it burst right away, instead, it lets the cell divide and replicate before the viral dna takes over, so even though it only infected one cell, it made it so that two cells (daughter cells) could become virus factories 

6. Reverse transcriptase is a virus that inserts mRNA into the cell instead of DNA and is then able to make the cell produce its viruses by looking at the mRNA that will later work itself into the cells DNA 

7. Prions are virtually indestructible infectious proteins that lead to brain diseases like scrapie. They propagate themselves by taking the normal protein and making it into a folded over, not working protein. (Defectively-folded prion version) 

Chapter 17: Biotechnology 

1. Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut DNA in specific places, causing sticky ends. They cut genes and vectors of interest. DNA ligase is the process of taking those sticky ends and putting them together to make one DNA loop or circle. DNA ligase pastes the genes and vectors of interest together. cDNA is mRNA that is free of introns. THe enzyme used to produce cDNA, which is just mRNA without the introns, is enzyme reverse transcriptase 

2. Gel Electrophoresis is a process that measures the weight/the amount of base pairs that certain cut segments of DNA have. It separates DNA fragments by putting a partial positive electrical current through a gel and the DNA segments will move from the 

negative end to the positive end because DNA has a partial negative charge. The larger base pair segments of DNA will not move as far because they are heavier, while the ones with less base pairs will move a lot farther to the positive side of the gel. 

3. Nucleic Acid Probes are used to identify specific nucleotide sequences by running an electrical current through the strands, putting the DNA with the online complementary strand in a bag and then having it burn onto an x ray film.

4. PCR is a polymerase chain reaction has three steps: Denaturation, priming, extension. 5. Cloning vectors are plasmids and bacteriophages 

6. GMOs are organisms that have segments of foreign DNA in them that make them express a gene or phenotype that is not neutral for them to express. 

7. Gene therapy permanently kills a dysfunctional gene 

PART 2 of 2: Questions Regarding the section 5 material

Questions that still need answers: How many electrons does it take to fill the valence shells of C,H,O and N?

The 20 essential amino acids are classified as being non-polar, polar, and electrically charged. What does that mean?

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