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FIU / Biological Science / BSC 2011 / What are multicellular organisms?

What are multicellular organisms?

What are multicellular organisms?


School: Florida International University
Department: Biological Science
Course: General Biology II
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: animals, kingdom, Systems, and homeostasis
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This study guide goes over the rise and diversity of animals, homeostasis, animal nutrition, and circulatory and respiratory systems
Uploaded: 10/26/2018
16 Pages 156 Views 2 Unlocks

zeny1255 (Rating: )


What are multicellular organisms?

Introduction to the Kingdom Animalia 

∙ Multicellular organisms were thought to have mainly evolve and rise  

during the Cambrian explosion.

∙ Remember, members of the Kingdom Animalia DO NOT have a cell  wall. Instead, they are all eukaryotic, multicellular, motile, and  


∙ Organisms in the animal kingdom mainly reproduce sexually beginning with the fusion of the egg and sperm, ending with the multicellular  

adult phase.  

∙ When you think of metamorphoses, think of when an organism’s life  

cycle consists of two different stages; for example, a butterfly.  ∙ Monophyletic: a group of organisms that shared a common ancestor  

What is the difference between metazoa parazoa & eumetazoa?

and all its members.  

∙ Level of organization of animals (in order):  

1. Cell: combination of chemicals.

2. Tissue: a group of cells that work together to perform one or more  

specific functions.

3. Organ: consists of two or more tissues working together to perform a


4. Organ System: group of organs interacting with each other to  

perform a particular function.

∙ Animals are divided into 2 main branches: Parazoa and Eumetazoa ∙ Parazoa: do not have symmetry  

∙ Eumetazoa: have symmetry  

∙ There are 11 organ systems founded within Eumetazoans: Skeletal,  Reproductive, Digestive, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Immune,  

What is animal diversification?

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Respiratory, Excretory, Integumentary, and Circulatory.  

∙ Fluid filled cavities are known as coelom.

∙ Organisms that do not have a coelom are known as acoelomate. ∙ Hollow filled cavities are known as pseudocoelom.  

∙ Two types of symmetry: asymmetrical and radial symmetry  ∙ The blastopore is the first embryonic opening. In Deuterostomes, the  

blastopore becomes the anus. In Protostomes, the blastopore becomes  the mouth.

Rise and Diversification of Animals 

∙ There are some animals that are mobile and others that are not. ∙ Animals that are capable of moving usually use the following traits:  

strength, speed, toxins, camouflage to detect, capture and eat other  


∙ Animals most likely evolved from some single-celled eukaryotes similar

to today’s choanoflagellates.

∙ Animals in the early Cambrian oceans were very diverse in their  

morphology, way of living, and had taxonomic affiliation. ∙ Several hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion  

include: new predator and prey relationships, an increase in the  

atmospheric oxygen, and the evolution of the Hox gene complex. ∙ Some challenges that are associated with the increase in size and  We also discuss several other topics like What point does your moral code keep you from going along with something?

diversification in forms of animals were obtaining food, defense  mechanisms, digestion, escaping or catching prey, respiration, and gas


 ∙     3 IMPORTANT BODY PLANT ASEPCTS THAT ALL ANIAMLS MUST HAVE: 1. Symmetry: bilateral symmetry and cephalization.

2. Tissues: integrity and strength.

3. Body cavities: space for organs.

∙ Some animals have radial symmetry, which has no front, back, left or  right side. With radial symmetry, organs can be moved around and  also allows the animal to have sensory equipment.

∙ Some animals have bilateral symmetry, which means there is a top,  bottom, front and back side. Animals who have bilateral symmetry  

have better movement and cephalization.


∙ Parazoans do not have tissues, organs or a definite symmetry. ∙ Sponges are an example of a Parazoan. They are found within the  

phylum Porifera.

∙ The inner layer of Parazoans contain specialized flagellate cells called  


∙ The central layer of Parazoans contain a gelatinous, protein-rich matrix called the mesophyl, which contains spicules and fibers of a tough  

protein called spongin.

∙ Spicules and spongin strengthen the body of the sponge.  ∙ The outer layer of Parazoans contain the protective epithelium. ∙ Sponges reproduce sexually and asexually. Sexually by egg/sperm and  We also discuss several other topics like What does de jure discrimination mean?

asexually by fragmentation.  


∙ Tissues are cells working together to perform a specific function. ∙ During the development stage, germ layers give rise to the tissues and

organs of the animal embryo.  

∙ Animals in the phylum Porifera do not have “true tissues.” Every single  cell in sponges work independently from each other, meaning they do  

not have true tissues.  

∙ Eumetazoans are animals with true and distinct tissues. ∙ Within the embryo, there are distinct layers:

1. Inner endoderm: forms the gastrodermis.

2. Outer ectoderm: forms the epidermis and nervous system. 3. Middle mesoderm (only in bilateral animals): forms the  


Body Cavities

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∙ Coelom, Acoelomate, and Pseudocoelom.

∙ Some animals have a free0living larva called a Trochophore. And some animals have a feeding structure called a Lophophore.  

Phylum Echinodermata 

∙ Echinoderms are known as an ancient group of marine animals that are characterized by the deuterostome development and an endoskeleton. Early Chordate Evolution 

∙ There are 4 derived characteristics that all chordates share: 1. Notochord: flexible rod that provides support.

2. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord: develops into the brain and spinal  


3. Pharyngeal slits/clefts: function in suspension feeding, gills, or

parts of the head.

4. Muscular, post-anal tail. We also discuss several other topics like What is one clue to the relationship between supermassive black holes and galaxy evolution?

Subphylum Vertebrata 

∙ Half a billion years ago, the first vertebrates appeared in the oceans. ∙ The jawed fish became dominant, then the amphibians invaded the  

land. Reptiles replaced them as the dominant vertebrates on land. ∙ Bird are closely related to dinosaurs and mammals are dominant after  We also discuss several other topics like Where are the 3 types of capillaries found?

the death of dinosaurs.  


∙ Most diverse vertebrate group. Fish very greatly in size, color, shape  

and their physical appearance.

1. Vertebral column.

2. Jaws and paired appendages.

3. Internal gills.

4. Single-loop blood circulation.


∙ Class Reptilia consists of over 7,000 species on Earth. ∙ All living reptiles exhibit 3 main key features:

1. Dry skin: covers body and prevents water loss.

2. Amniotic eggs: are watertight.

3. Thoracic breathing: increases lung capacity.


∙ Birds are known as the class Aves and are the most diverse of all  

terrestrial vertebrates.

∙ Retain many reptilian traits such as amniotic eggs and scales on legs. ∙ There are 2 main traits that distinguish them: Feathers: provide lift for  

flight and trap heat. And the Flight Skeleton: which the bones are thin  and hollow and some are fused.  


∙ Mammals and vertebrates are different because of their hair and  

mammary glands.  

∙ Some other features include: endothermy, circulation (four  chambered heart), respiration (diaphragm), placenta (amniotic

egg): brings fetal and maternal blood into close contact. ∙ Two subclasses of mammals: Prototheria, which lay eggs and are one  


group: Monotremes. Theria: are viviparous and are in two living groups: Marsupials and placental mammals.  


∙ Primates are known as the mammals that gave rise to our own species. ∙ The two features that allowed them to survive their environment were  

their grasping fingers and toes and their binocular vision.  ∙ Anthropoids are diurnal: which includes monkeys, apes, and humans. ∙ Hominoids are similar to humans. Consist of humans and their direct  

ancestors. Chimps and gorillas was the common ancestor. First  

appeared in Africa.

∙ Hominids are similar to gorillas, monkeys, etc.

∙ Biped: walking on two legs.

∙ H. sapiens is the only surviving hominid. Our species are about  

200,000 years old.  

∙ H. sapiens evolution:

1. Increase in brain size.

2. Use and making of tools.

3. Conceptual thoughts.

4. Symbolic language.  

5. Cultural experience.  


∙ Ways organisms function and survive: 1. Communication and  integration. 2. Support and movement. 3. Regulation and maintenance. 4. Defense. 5. Reproduction.

∙ Communication and integration: 3 organ systems used to detect  external stimuli and help control the body’s responses: sensory,  

nervous, and endocrine.  

∙ Support and movement: two interrelated organ systems: the  

musculoskeletal system.

∙ Regulation and maintenance: 4 organ systems regulate the body’s  

chemistry: digestive, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, and endocrine. ∙ Defense: body uses two organ systems for defense: integumentary and


∙ Reproduction and development: body uses the reproductive system.  ∙ 3 interrelated systems in large animals all depend on a combination of  

bulk, flow, and diffusion.

∙ An animal’s diet provides the following: chemical energy, organic  

building blocks, and essential nutrients.

∙ Food processing involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, and  


∙ Digestion is the process that involves the breaking down of  

food down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb. ∙ 2 types of digestion: Mechanical: chewing, increase surface area of  

food. Chemical: splits food into small molecules that can pass through  


∙ Absorption: uptake of nutrients by body cells.

∙ Elimination: having the undigested material moved out of the  digestive system.

Organ Systems

Main Components


∙ Heart, blood vessels, blood ∙ Internal distribution of  



∙ Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver,

pancreas, and anus

∙ Food processing


∙ Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas,  adrenal, and other hormone

secreting glands

∙ Coordination of body activities (digestion and metabolism)


∙ Kidneys, ureters, urinary  

bladder, and urethra

∙ Disposal of metabolic wastes  and balance of blood

Immune and Lymphatic

∙ Bone marrow, lymph nodes,  thymus, spleen, lymph  

vessels, and white blood cells ∙ Body defense


∙ Skin and its derivatives

∙ Protection against mechanical  injuries, infections,  

dehydration; thermoregulation


∙ Skeletal muscles

∙ Locomotion/movements


∙ Brains, spinal cord, nerves,  and sensory organs

∙ Coordination of body  

activities; detection of stimuli  and formulation of responses  to them


∙ Ovaries and testes

∙ Reproduction


∙ Lungs, trachea, other  

breathing tubes

∙ Gas exchange


∙ Skeletal muscles

∙ Body support, protection of  internal organs, and  


Homeostasis and Regulation 

∙ Signaling molecules are released into the bloodstream by the  endocrine cells in the endocrine system. These cells reach all the  

locations of the body.

∙    In order for cells to function and communicate properly, internal body  

conditions must be constant.  

 ∙     Specialization of body structures have increased since the evolution of  


∙    Homeostasis is known as the dynamic constancy of the internal  

environment and it is essential for life.  

∙    Antagonistic effectors are part of body temperature control. ∙    If hypothalamus detects high temperature, it initiates heat dissipation  

through sweating and dilation of blood vessels in skin.

∙    If hypothalamus detects low temperature, it initiates heat conservation through shivering and having the blood vessels in the skin constricted.  Regulating Body Temperature 

∙ One of the most important aspects of the environment is temperature. ∙ Conformers: organisms who have a body temperature that conforms  

to their environment. An animal that is a conformer allows its internal  conditions to change with accordance to its external environmental  


∙ Thermo-regulators: organisms who regulate their body temperature.  An animal that is a regulator uses its internal mechanisms to control  

internal change despite its external environmental changes.  ∙ Heat produced + heat transferred = body heat

∙ Metabolic rate and body temperature are interrelated.

∙ Some organisms are Ectotherms, which means they regulate  temperature using behavior and have low metabolic rates. They also  

create metabolic heat.

∙ Heat transfer is controlled by the amount of blood flow to the surface  of the animal. This is known as countercurrent exchange.  Coordination and Control/Endocrine Glands and Hormones ∙    Hormones are signaling molecules that are sent out by the endocrine  system. These hormones are sent out to a specific location in the body  or throughout the body. Only cells with receptors for a specific  

hormone can respond.  

∙ The endocrine system has gradual changes that affect the whole body. ∙ Endocrine glands: endocrine cells that are grouped in ductless organs. ∙ Exocrine glands: cells that have ducts and carry enzymes/secreted  

substances into body cavities or surfaces of the body.  


∙ Water is LIFE.

∙ Water is distributed between intracellular and extracellular  


∙ Vertebrates maintain homeostasis.

∙ Important ions: Sodium (major CATION) and Chloride (major ANION). ∙ Hypertonic: water enters body from environment.

∙ Hypotonic: water leaves the body.

Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney 

∙ The amphibian kidney and fish kidney are identical.

∙ Marine reptiles drink the seawater and excrete an isotonic urine while  the Terrestrial reptiles reabsorb much of the water and salt in their  nephron tubules.

The Mammalian Kidney Structure 

∙ The renal artery provides blood for each kidney and produces urine.  Urine is drained from each kidney through a ureter into the urinary  


∙ Inside the kidney, the renal pelvis is formed from the mouth of the  ureter when it is flared open. It is divided into an outer renal cortex and inner renal medulla.  


∙ The most important function of the kidneys is to eliminate harmful  

substances that animals and humans eat and drink.

∙ Urine contains nitrogenous wastes.  

∙ Kidneys are essentially involved in maintaining homeostasis.  ∙ Bulk transport: large tubes

∙ Diffusion: small tubes.

∙ Extracellular digestion: breakdown of food particles which occurs  

outside of the cells.

∙ Gastrovascular cavity: animals have this cavity when they have simple  body plans and this functions as both digestion and distribution of  nutrients in the body.

Gas Exchange

∙ Fick’s Law of Diffusion is the rate between 2 regions

R = DA ∆ p 


R = rate of diffusion

D = diffusion constant

A = Area over which diffusion takes place

∆ p = pressure difference between two sides

d = distance over which diffusion occurs

∙ The (R) rate of diffusion can be changed in different ways: 1. Maximize the area of diffusion surface and concentration  

difference across diffusion surface.

2. Minimize diffusion distance and exposure to depleted fluid.  3. Faster flow speed to get to the tissues, and slower flow speed  

at diffusion surface.  

The Oral Activity, Pharynx, and Esophagus 

∙ The tongue is responsible for shaping food into a bolus and aids in  

swallowing food.

∙ The Pharynx, also known as the throat, swallows the food. It opens up  

to the esophagus and trachea.  

∙ The esophagus is connected to the stomach and transfers the food.  

(think of a pipe)

∙ Peristalsis, are rhythmic contractions of muscles that pushes the food.

∙ The movement of materials between compartments are moved  between sphincters, which are known as valves.

Digestion in the Stomach 

∙ Digestion in the stomach first starts in the mouth. ∙ The stomach is responsible for breaking down food through acid juices.

These juices are known as gastric juices. The mixture of food digested  and the gastric juice is called chyme.  

Digestion Process 

1. Mouth

2. Esophagus

3. Stomach

4. Liver

5. Gall bladder

6. Pancreas

7. Small intestine

8. Lieum

9. Large intestine (colon) 10. Rectum

11. Anus

1. Ingestion: taking in food through the mouth

2. Swallowing food/movement of the food

3. Mechanical Digestion (chewing) 4. Chemical Digestion (secreted by enzymes)

5. Absorption (transport of digested

Digestion in the Small Intestine 

∙ Trypsin and chymotrypsin is produced by the pancreas. This neutralizes

the acidic chyme.

∙ In the liver, bile is made. This is stored in the gall bladder. Bile aids in  digestion.

Invertebrate Circulatory Systems 

 ∙     Nematodes, Cnidarians, and Sponges do not have circulatory systems. ∙ Nematodes are so thin that their digestive tract can be used as a  

circulatory system.

∙ Cnidarians (Hydra) circulate water through there gastrovascular cavity,

which is also used for their digestion.

∙ Sponges use pores to circulate water.  

∙ Insects have open circulatory systems .The circulatory fluid in this  

system bathes the organs directly and is called hemolymph.  ∙ Vertebrates have closed circulatory systems. The circulatory fluid is  

blood and is restricted to vessels.  

∙ Second pumping circuit: double circulation.

∙ The pulmonary circulation moves the blood between the lungs and  

the heart in vertebrates.

∙ The systematic circulation moves the blood between the heart and  

the rest of the body in vertebrates.

∙ Fish have 2 chambers. The first chamber includes the sinus venosus  and the atrium. The second chamber includes the ventricle and the  conus arteriosus. Blood is pumped through the gills first, then to the  

rest of the body.  

∙ Frogs have a 3 chambered heart: 2 atria and 1 ventricle. ∙ Mammals, crocodilians, and birds have a 4 chambered heart: 2  

separate atria and 2 separate ventricles.  


Characteristics of Blood Vessels 

∙   The 4 layer tissues of arteries and veins: Endothelium, elastic  fibers, smooth muscle, and connective tissue. (The walls are too thick,  

which does not allow exchange of materials across the wall) ∙   Capillaries are composed of only a single layer of endothelial  

cells. (quick exchange of gases and metabolites between blood and  

body cells takes place here)

∙   Arteries have thick walls. Have smooth muscle, along with high  pressure and oxygen.

∙   Veins have thin walls. Are not muscular, has low pressure and doesn’t  

have backflow.


∙   In mammals, their lungs are filled with sites of gas exchange called  


∙   When air is inhaled, it passed through the larynx, glottis and trachea. ∙   Each breath is started by neurons in the respiratory control center. ∙   Neurons stimulate chemo sensitive neurons in the carotid/aortic  


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