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UB / Psychology / PSY 101 / What happens to people with ocd?

What happens to people with ocd?

What happens to people with ocd?

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School: University at Buffalo
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Larry hawk
Term: Fall 2018
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Cost: 50
Name: Psy 101 Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what's going to be in exam 4
Uploaded: 10/26/2018
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Psychology 101 Exam 4 Study Guide


What happens to people with ocd?



1. Personality

• Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and 

emotions that characterizes an individual

A. Trait Theories

• Explain differences between people in terms of stable personality traits • Modern day psychologists have found 5 personality dimensions that span 

cultures

i. The 5 Factor Theory

• Helpful in predicting general trends in behavior

• Too general to predict behavior in a specific situation

a. Extraversion

• Sociable vs Retiring

• Fun­loving vs Sober

• Affectionate vs Reserved

b. Neuroticism

• Calm vs Anxious

• Secure vs Insecure


What is the psychology behind motivation?



We also discuss several other topics like What job contradicts goldhagen’s theory?

• Self­satisfied vs Self­pitying Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate oil recovery?

c. Openness

• Imaginative vs Practical

• Preference for variety vs Preference for routine

• Independent vs Conforming

d. Conscientiousness

• Organized vs Practical

• Careful vs Careless

• Disciplined vs Impulsive

e. Agreeableness

• Soft­hearted vs Ruthless

• Trusting vs Suspicious

• Helpful vs Uncooperative

i. Behaviorist Theory (trade theory) Don't forget about the age old question of What is an example of a punitive damage?

• Behavior are determined by

o Reward

o Punishment

o Classical conditioning

ii. Heredity and Temperament

a. Temperaments


What is somatic movement therapy?



• Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways 

• Present in infancy, assumed to be innate

• Relatively stable over time

• Include

­ Reactivity

­ Soothability

• Babies who are easy or slow to warm up tend to be that way 10 years 

later

b. Genetic Influences on Personality

• 123 pairs of identical twins and 127 pairs of fraternal twins If you want to learn more check out What does a replicated chromosome consist of?

• Measured on “Big Five” personality dimensions

• Results suggest that personality differences in the population are 40 ­ 50% genetically determined

iii. Implications of Trait Theories

a. Genetic contributions

• Temperament; neurotransmitter functioning

b. Situational Factors

• Person­situation interactions

iv. The Nature of Extraversion

• Eysneck: differences due to arousability

a. Extraverts

• Low arousability

• Seek external situation

• Lower heart rate reactivity

b. Introverts

• High arousability

• Avoid external stimulation

• Higher heart rate reactivity

v. Personality Consistency

• Is personality more consistent at some points in the

lifespan?  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the concept of realism?

• Evidence indicates that personality is least stable

during childhood 

• Consistency increases with age

B. Many Theories of personality Emphasize Early Childhood Experience  i. Attachment Theory

• Bond between infant and caregiver

• influence the individual’s interactions with others throughout the lifespan

ii. Freudian Theory

• Freud

o Saw patients suffering from Hysteria (depression, anxiety, 

sleeplessness)

o find no medical cause

o Women reported being molested as children by male relatives

• Used Psychoanalysis

o theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, assume that our 

motives are largely unconscious

• The Conscious

o Things you are currently aware of

• The Preconscious

o Could be retrieved if desired

• The Subconscious

o Things you have no access to

• The Unconscious

o The primary personality component

o Consists of things you're unaware of 

but that influence you 

o Can't be tapped directly

o Reflected in slips of the tongue, dreams

• Motivation Behind Personality

o Freud believed all behavior, no matter how mundane, was driven by 

two unconscious motivators We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of gluconeogenesis?

­ Eros

 Sexual motivation

­ Thantos

 Aggressive motivation

• Personality components

o Id

­ Concerned with drive satisfaction

­ Follows the pleasure principle

o Superego

­ Internalized parental control

­ Conscience, morality, and social standard

o Ego

­ Reason, good sense, and rational control

­ Follows the reality principle

• Psychoanalytic Terms

o Pleasure Principle

­ the id’s boundless drive for immediate gratification

o Reality Principle

­ the ego’s capacity to delay gratification

• Freud’s Model

o Ego: Conscious

o ID: Unconscious

o ID+ Ego= Superego

• Freudian Theory: Stages

o Personality will be determined by how Child Passes through 

psychosexual phases

o Oral (0­1 year)

­ Oral Stage

 Libido gratification: oral

 Infant learns to trust in others, esp. for food

­ Oral Personality

 Fixation: pessimism about the world, hostility or passivity.  Excessive eating or drinking

o Anal (1­3 years)

­ Anal Stage

 Delay of gratification

 Pleasure and libido satisfaction from being in control

­ Anal Personality

 Fixation: either excessive orderliness or messiness  Anal retentive versus anal expulsive

o Phallic (3­6 years)

­ Phallic Stage

 Sex­role identification occurs

 Oedipal or Electra Complex (sexual attraction to opposite sex 

parent)

 Mechanisms include castration anxiety (boys) & penis envy

(girls)

­ Phallic Personality

 Fixation: sex­role identification problems, promiscuity, vanity, or excessive chastity

o Latency (6­puberty)

­ Latency Stage

 A time of focus on achievement and

mastery of skills 

 Libido is channeled into mastery

activities

 Freud thought little of interest happened here

o Genital (from puberty)

­ Genital Stage

 The time of mature personality, intimacy with others  Libido satisfied by adult­type sexual activity

o Defense Mechanisms

­ Methods used by the Ego to keep unconscious anxiety from entering consciousness

­ “My best friend’s boyfriend is hot.”

 Denial

 Refusing to accept that the feeling is present

 Repression

 Relegating anxiety

 Causing thoughts to the unconscious, refusing to think  about them

 Projection

 Attributing one’s undesirable traits or actions to others  Reaction Formation

 Taking actions opposite to one's feelings

 Rationalization

 Creating intellectually ­ acceptable arguments to hide the actual desire

 Displacement

 Substituting a less­threatening object for the subject 

of the hostile or sexual impulse

 Scapegoating

 Sublimation

 Redirecting anxiety­causing impulses

into socially acceptable actions 

 The most mature mechanism

 Art

• Freudian Personality Dynamics

o The id’s instinctual urges can be temporarily suppressed, but the energy must find an outlet

o Outlets are disguised and indirect, to provide release for energy that will be safe and appear normal

• Problems with Freud

o Violates the principle of falsifiability

o Key portions are contrary to recent data: There is no evidence for penis envy, castration anxiety

o Biased against females: Freud's negative attitudes towards women colored his entire theory

• Contributions

o The discovery of unconscious processes

o His emphasis on childhood influences

on adult behavior

o Defense Mechanisms

• Parents versus Peers

o Personality traits more nature than 

nurture

o Parents not consistent

o Secure base and beating the odds

o Peer groups

o Parents versus peers: peers have more 

influence

iii. Social­Learning Theory

• Modeling

o The social­learning process by which behavior is observed and  imitated

• Locus of Control

 The expectancy that one’s reinforcements are generally controlled by internal or external factors

o Internal Locus

 Belief you control your fate

 Taking action

 Optimism about the future

o External Locus

 Belief you don’t control your fate

 Doing nothing

 Pessimism about the future

• Self­Efficacy

 The belief that one is capable of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome

o High Self­Efficacy

 Belief you will do well

 Greater effort and persistence

 Success

o Low Self­Efficacy

 Belief you will do poorly

 Less effort and persistence

 Failure

• Reciprocal Determinism

o Environment

o Person cognitive factors

o Behavior

o (they influence each other)

iv. Social Cognitive Theories

o Albert Bandura

o Reciprocal determinism

o Self­efficacy

v. The Humanistic Approach

o Carl Rogers

o Abraham Maslow

o Rollo May

• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

o Self­actualization is at the top

o Esteem

o Belongingness

o Safety

o Physiological

vi. Humanist Psychologists

• Maslow

o Self­actualization

­ Striving for a life that is meaningful, challenging, and satisfying o Peak experiences

­ Rare moments of rapture caused by the attainment of 

excellence or the experience of beauty

­ Flow, The Optimal Experience

 Csikszentmihalyi studied this,

based on Maslow’s writings 

 Absorption in activity

 Sense of effortlessness and perfection

 Focus on single activity

 Balance between high skill and high challenge

• Carl Rogers

o Conditional positive regard

­ The acceptance and love one receives from significant others is 

contingent upon one’s behavior

o Unconditional Positive regard

­ Love and support given to another person with no conditions

attached

• Rollo May

o Shared with humanists the belief in free will and freedom of choice 

but also emphasized loneliness, anxiety

o Existentialism

­ Emphasizes the inevitable dilemmas and challenges of human

existence

• Culture and Personality

o Collectivistic vs Individualistic cultures

2. Abnormal Psychology

i. Medical Student Syndrome

• Many symptoms resemble life's normal little problems

• People studying illnesses often start thinking they have those illnesses ii. Abnormal Behavior

• Not culturally accepted

• Statistically uncommon

• Causes distress

• Causes dysfunction

iii. Historical Models

• Until end of 18th century: feared and associated with 

evil

• Demonology: devil dwells within person

• Witch: picked with pin and no pain. Conversion disorder

iv. Classification

• Pinel

o Late 18 century

o See mentally ill as sick

o Developed classification system modeled after biological systems o Reasons for classify

­ Common shorthand

­ Understand causes of symptoms

­ Treatment plan

• The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

o DSM­5: published in 2013

­ Lists 20 categories of disorders

­ Covers more than 300 disorders

­ Takes an atheoretical approach

­ Continues to show improved reliability and validity over time o Note that having standards does not guarantee a correct diagnosis • Problems with classifying

o The danger of over­diagnosis (ADHD)

o The power of diagnostic labels (anger management)

o Confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems (caffeine induced sleep disorder)

o The illusion of objectivity (homosexuality)

o Not easy to do (Rosenthal study)

v. Disorders

• Personality Disorders

• Anxiety Disorders

o Simple Phobias

o Panic Disorders

o Generalized Anxiety Disorder

o Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

o Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder

• Phobias

­ An unreasonable, excessive, or irrational fear 

­ Great distress or major interference with life

o Example: Agoraphobia

­ Fear of being away from a safe place or person

o Example: Taphobia

­ Fear of being buried alive

o Phobias: Lifetime Prevalence

­ Women are more likely to have phobia

o Social Phobia

 Includes fears of public embarrassment

 Lead to avoidance of social situation

­ Social Phobia and Public Speaking

 Socially phobic and non­phobic adults prepared a speech  Both groups showed increased anxiety

and heart rate in anticipation

 Social phobics were more anxious

 Most difference: Self­reported levels of 

anxiety

• Hoarding Disorder

o Characterized by persistent difficulty discarding possessions such  that they accumulate and clutter living areas causing significant  distress and impairment in functioning

• Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders

o 19% Any anxiety disorder

o 1 in 5 diagnosed with anxiety disorder

• Panic Disorder

o Feeling of being in an escalating cycle of catastrophe and doom o Others feel as if they are having a heart attack as their heart races. o Worry about "losing control" of themselves and being embarrassed in front of other people.

o Others breathe so quickly, gasping for air, that they hyperventilate and feel like they will suffocate from lack of oxygen

• Stress and Panic Disorder

o In many cases, the first attack comes soon after illness, miscarriage, 

or other traumatic event.

o Some people become so afraid of attacks they become agoraphobic • Panic disorders and the Brain

o Locus coeruleus

o Responsible associated with extreme stress and panic

o People with panic disorders: Overactive locus coeruleus  • Panic Attack

o Panic: Intense physiological reactions that occur in the absence of an  emergency

o Onset can be sudden

o Frequent attacks diagnosed as panic disorder

o Rate among women twice the rate for men (1% of population) o Common Symptoms

­ a racing or pounding heartbeat

­ dizziness and lightheadedness

­ feeling that "I can’t catch my breath"

­ chest pains or a "heaviness" in the chest

­ flushes or chills

­ tingling in the hands, feet, legs, arms

­ jumpiness, trembling, twitching muscles

­ sweaty palms, flushed face

­ terror

­ fear of losing control

­ fear of dying

­ fear of going crazy

• Generalized Anxiety Disorder

o Last 6 months or more

o Low level anxiety

o No obvious feared object

o 3­4% of population

o Excessive thinking and dwelling on counterfactuals

• Obsessive Compulsives (OCD)

o Obsessions: persistent, uncontrollable thoughts

o Five Kinds of Obsessions

­ obsessive doubts

­ endless chains of thought focusing on future events

­ obsessive urges

­ fear of losing control

­ obsessive images

o Compulsions: intrusive, inappropriate actions that often prevent  obsessions

• Biology & OCD

o OCD patients show excessive functioning in the frontal lobes & the limbic system 

o OCD patients show serotonin imbalances

• What happens to people with OCD

o Two­thirds of Obsessive­Compulsive patients improved after 10  years

o 80% improved within 40 years

o Very few were symptom free

• Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder

o A traumatic even or catastrophe followed by difficulties in concentration and memory, inability to relax, disturbed sleep,  depression, psychic numbing (life loses enjoyment)

o May feel guilt and have flashbacks

o More severe when caused by humans

o Why abnormal? Lack of healing

• Causes of anxiety disorders

o Psychodynamic

­ underlying psychological conflicts or fears “bursting” into 

consciousness. “little Hans”

o Conditioned Model

­ Conditioned responses

­ OCD temporarily reduced stress – reinforcing

o Cognitive

­ Perceptual processes distort estimation of danger

­ Ability to deal with it

o Biological

­ Evolutionary

­ Brain Differences: drugs

­ Twin Studies

• Somatoform Disorders

o Real physical symptoms with no biological cause

o Conversion

­ Physical symptoms, such as paralyses, with no physical  explanation

­ E.g. Cambodian Women

o Somatization Disorder

­ Repeated, varying symptoms with no physical cause; often of  many years' duration

­ Less common today

o Hypochondriasis

­ Excessive attention to state of health, along with preoccupation with the minor aches and pains of living

• Conversion Disorder

o In “Glove Anesthesia” (shown), the hand may be numb, although four different nerve tracts provide sensation to the hand and lower arm

o Physical symptoms don’t match what is known about physiology • Dissociative Disorders

o Dissociative Amnesia

­ Total or partial loss of information about the self; usually  triggered by a traumatic experience

o Dissociative Fugue

­ Dissociative amnesia accompanied by fleeing the area; more  common in war zones, natural disasters

o Dissociate Identity Disorder

­ Multiple personalities; usually many rather than 2 or 3 ­ Extremely rare

 Early trauma (before age six)

 Successful coping occurs and so continues

• Mood Disorders

o Dysthymic Disorder

­ A milder yet more enduring type of major depression. ­ May appear to be chronically mildly depressed to the point that it seems to be a part of their personality.

­ Often struggle for years before seeking treatment

o Depression

­ Symptoms

 Sadness, anxiety, or "empty" feelings

 Decreased energy, fatigue,

 Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed

 Insomnia or oversleeping

 Loss or gain in weight

 Feelings of hopelessness and pessimism

 Feelings of helplessness and worthlessness

 Thoughts of death or suicide

 Difficulty concentrating or making decisions

 Restlessness, irritability or excessive crying

­ Depression affects almost 10% of the population in a given  year

­ Two­thirds of those who are depressed never seek treatment ­ 80%­90% of those who seek treatment for depression can feel  better within just a few weeks the stress of a loss, especially the death of a loved one, may lead to depression in some people

­ Age of First Onset

 Depression is seldom identified before adolescence  Diagnosed increases in early adulthood

 Most commonly diagnosed in middle age

 First diagnosis rare among the elderly

­ Gender & Depression

 Women are more likely to diagnosed from depression than  men

­ Causes of Depression

 Biological: low norepinephrine & serotonin levels  Hereditable component

 Cognitive factors

­ Distorted Thinking

 Includes negative views of the world, the future, the self  Tied to poor reality testing, learning helplessness ­ Explanatory Style and Depression

 Measured explanatory styles among first­year college students

 Two years later, those with negative style were more likely to experience a major or minor depressive

disorder

­ The Vicious Cycle of Depression

 Depression can lead to behaviors that cause social  rejection, which worsens depression

 Biological causes

 Negative life experiences

 Leads to depression

 Experience social rejection

o Bipolar Disorder

­ Manic episodes & extreme depression mixed with normal  affect

­ Equally common in both sexes

­ Symptoms of Mania

 Abnormal or excessive elation

 Unusual irritability

 Decreased need for sleep

 Grandiose notions

 Increased talking

 Racing thoughts

 Increased sexual desire

 Markedly increased energy

 Poor judgment

 Inappropriate social behavior

o Seasonal Affective Disorder

­ A greater than normal mood fluctuation with the seasons ­ Related to amount & intensity of light

­ Feeling down winter months than summer months ­ Winter period: Decreased amount of light

o Suicide 

­ Suicide attempts

 Females are more likely to attempt suicide

 Females 75%

 Male 25%

­ Suicide Deaths

 Males are more likely to have a successful suicide

 Males 80%

 Females 20%

­ Suicide Methods

 Men: shoot, hang, stab themselves

 Women: less lethal means, e.g.: drug overdose

­ Suicide Facts

 10­14% of those who attempt suicide will eventually succeed in a later attempt

 Suicide rates are highest among the elderly (not tided to  depression)

 Most suicidal people leave clues of their intentions

 Most suicidal people have not made a definite decision to  die

 Suicide is less frequent for married people and women with children

 The majority of suicide victims are suffering from

depression

o Schizophrenia Disorders

­ Positive Symptoms

 Symptoms found in schizophrenics

 Hallucinations (mostly auditory)

 Delusions (delusions of grandeur and persecution are most common)

 Speech disturbances (including word salad)

 Disorganized behavior (including silliness, unusual motor  behaviors)

 Inappropriate affect (emotional responses that are inappropriate for the circumstances, such as crying at  comedy shows)

­ Negative Symptoms

 Normal behaviors that are absent in schizophrenics  Social withdrawal, limited speech and action, poor hygiene, apathy

 Flat affect (no emotional response at all)

­ Onset Timing

 Between age 20 to 40

 Period of greatest susceptibility

­ Incidence

 Strikes 1/100

­ Causes

 Brain Abnormalities

 Excessive Dopamine Activity

 2/3 of schizophrenics improve when given dopamine reducers

 PET scans show excess dopamine activity in sufferers  Drugs that increase dopamine cause schizophrenic symptoms

 Only reduce positive symptoms

 Stress

­ Schizophrenia: A Brain Disorder

 Pairs of identical twins, discordant

 one schizophrenic and the other normal

 Schizophrenics had enlarged ventricles (see arrows) 

compared to normal sibling

 Enlarged ventricles: Related to the negative symptoms 

­ Odds of being schizophrenic: Strong genetic component ­ Vulnerability­Stress Model

 People with a constitutional vulnerability to 

schizophrenia develop symptoms when placed under 

stress

• Personality Disorders

­ Milder disorders

­ Maladaptive traits that cause distress or an inability to get  along with others

­ Long­lasting

­ High levels of functioning

o Antisocial Personality Disorder

­ Demonstrates a chronic pattern of impulsive and 

irresponsible behavior 

­ Violates the rights of others and lacks empathy

­ Does not show remorse or guilt for actions

­ Failure to conform to social or legal codes, lack of anxiety and  guilt, irresponsible behaviors

o Narcissistic Personality Disorder

­ excessive need for admiration

­ disregard for others' feelings

­ an inability to handle any criticism

­ a sense of entitlement

­ Exaggerated sense of self­importance, exploitative behavior,  lack of empathy

o Autism Spectrum Disorder

­ Characterized by impairment in social communication and  social interaction

­ restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities o Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

­ Characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity • Sexual Disorders

­ Includes sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias

­ Only dysfunctions & paraphilias causing distress to self or  others are disorders

o Paraphilias

­ Voyeurism

 Sexual attraction to watching unconsenting people nude or  engaged in sexual activity

­ Fetishism

 Sexual attraction to inanimate objects

­ Pedophilia

 Sexual attraction to prepubescent children

­ Exhibitionism

 Sexual attraction to exposing one's genitals to unsuspecting strangers

­ Masochism

 Sexual attraction to being bound, beaten, or made to suffer ­ Sadism

 Sexual attraction to hurting others

­ Many arise through classical conditioning

­ Most are strengthened when the person fantasized the attraction while masturbating

• Summary of Gender Differences

o Mostly women

o Reasons

­ Genetic (no evidence either way)

­ Bias in reporting

­  Bias in diagnosis

­ Real­life differences: women more likely to live in poverty and

to be abused as kids

• Psychiatric Diagnosis: Gender Bias

o Case histories mailed to 354 clinical psychologists, asking for a

diagnosis

o Fictitious clients, histrionic or antisocial symptoms

o Males were more often diagnosed as antisocial

o Females were more often diagnosed as histrionic

• Overall Rates of Disorders

o 57% any mental health disorder

• Creativity and Mental Illness

o The rate of mental illness is slightly higher among those

successful in the arts than those successful in other 

professions

3. Treatment

i. Goals of Treatment

• Symptom Control

• Cure Symptoms

• Cure Disease

• Prevent Disease

ii. Therapists

• Clinical Psychologists

o Have a Ph. D. in Psych

o Specialize in mental illness

• Psychiatrists

o Are medical doctors

o Can prescribe drugs

• Counselors

o Have a Masters in psychology or counseling

o Often deal in routine advising

• Social Workers

o Have an MSW, specialize in psychology problems

iii. Old­Fashioned “Cures”

• Trephination

• Exorcism & Burning at the Stake

• Confinement

• Whirling

• Bloodletting

iv. Somatic Therapy

• Work on the body directly

• Drugs

o Find a brain chemical that plays a role in the disease and then find a drug that will restore balance

o Drug Therapies

­ Antipsychotic Drugs

 Used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and other 

psychotic disorders

 Many block or reduce sensitivity of dopamine receptors

 Some increase levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that 

inhibits dopamine activity

­ Tardive dyskinesia

­ Antidepressant Drugs

 Used primarily in the treatment of depression, anxiety,  phobias, OCD

 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI’s):

 Elevate norepinephrine and serotonin in brain  by blocking an enzyme that deactivates these

neurotransmitters

 Tricyclic antidepressants:

 Boost norepinephrine and serotonin by

preventing reuptake

 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s):  Boost serotonin by preventing reuptake

­ Anti­anxiety drugs (tranquilizers)

 Drugs commonly but often inappropriately

prescribed for patients who complain of 

unhappiness, anxiety, or worry

 Increase the activity of GABA

­ Lithium carbonate

 Used to treat bipolar disorder

 Moderates levels of norepinephrine and protects cells from being over­stimulated by 

neurotransmitter glutamate

 Must be given in right dose, bloodstream levels  monitored

­ Antipsychotic Drugs & Inpatients

 Percentage of depressed people who suffer a relapse

 50% no treatment

­ Limitations of Drug Therapy

 May not cure; just mask disease

 Harmful side­effects

 Cost – very expensive

 Don’t work for everyone

o Electroconvulsive Therapy

­ effective treatment for severe depression not responsive to 

drugs

­ May cause temporary memory loss

­ 82% say less upsetting that going to the dentist

o Psychosurgery

­ Lobotomies done from 1935­1955

­ Cingulotomies and other microsurgeries sometimes done today ­ Lobotomy Site

 Portions of the frontal lobe are separated from the

thalamus

­ Works in 50­60% of patients

­ Negatives

 Results are unpredictable

 Consequences are irreversible

 6% die during procedure

 Removes portions of personality

v. Behavioral Therapies

• Classical Conditioning Techniques

o Flooding

­ Immerse consenting person in the fear stimulus

­ After fear subsides, calm sets in, is associated with the feared  object

o Systematic Desensitization

­ Teach subject to relax

­ Create a hierarchy of feared situations, from least to most

­ Work through situations, while maintaining relaxation

o Aversive Conditioning

­ Aversion Therapy for Alcoholism

­ Alcohol is paired with a chemical that causes nausea and 

vomiting

­ Straightforward classical conditioning

• Operant Conditioning Techniques

o Contingency management

 try to remove a reward for bad behavior and start 

rewarding good behavior

o Token Economies

 Using tokens that can be exchanged for other items or 

privileges as a reinforce

o Stimulus Satiation

 Giving the person too much of a desired thing so as to 

reduce its attraction

• A­B­C’s of Emotional Distress

o Disorders often occur with self­defeating beliefs

o Activating Event ­ Beliefs – Consequences

o Cognitive therapy helps people change these beliefs

vi. Cognitive Therapies

• A form of psychotherapy in which people are taught to think in more  adaptive ways

• Rational­Emotive Behavior Therapy

o A form of cognitive therapy in which people are confronted with their irrational, maladaptive beliefs

• Cognitive Distortions

o Recognize automatic negative thinking

o Cognitive Error

­ All­or­nothing thinking

 Seeing each event as completely good or bad, right or  wrong, a success or a failure

­ Arbitrary inference

 Concluding that something negative will happen or is  happening even though there is no evidence to support it ­ Emotional reasoning

 Assuming that negative emotions are accurate without  questioning them

­ Magnification and minimization

 Overestimating the importance of negative events and  underestimating the impact of positive events

­ Overgeneralization

 Applying a negative conclusion of one event to other  unrelated events and areas of one’s life

• Irrational Assumptions

o Disputing intervention

o New effective philosophy

o New feelings

• Person­Centered Therapy

o A Humanistic therapy

o Founded by Rogers

o Uses mirroring & unconditional positive regard to promote self actualization

­ Primary empathy

 restating what the client has just said to convey empathy

­ Secondary empathy

 saying something the client has not said but might be feeling

• Gestalt Therapy

o Integrate the body and mind factors

o Integrate behaviors, feelings, and thinking

o Take responsibility for own decisions and how life has turned out o Therapist directs client to get in touch with feelings, resolve unfinished business

• Existential Therapy

o Helps clients explore the meaning of existence and face with  courage the great issues of life such as death, freedom, free will,  alienation, and loneliness

• Psychodynamics

­ A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy ­ developed by Sigmund Freud

­ emphasizes the exploration of unconscious motives and  conflicts

­ modern psychodynamic therapies share this emphasis but  differ from Freudian analysis in various ways

o Free association

o Analysis of Resistance

o Dream analysis

o Analysis of Transference

o Countertransference

• Problems with Psychodynamics

o Minimizes patient responsibility

o Neglects conscious motives and the present

o Fairly costly

o YAVIS: Young, Affluent, Verbal, Intelligent, Successful • Benefits of Psychotherapy

o The average psychotherapy client shows more improvement than  80% in no­treatment control group

o Summary result of 475 studies

• Is More Psychotherapy Better?

o With additional therapy sessions, the percentage of people improved increased up to 26 sessions

o Rate of improvement then levels off

o Based on a summary of 15 studies, 2400 clients

• Do Some Therapies Work Better?

o Three common, nonspecific factors at work in all types of  psychotherapy

­ Supportive relationship

­ Reasons for hope

­ Opportunity to open up

o For some disorders, certain types of therapy tend to be more successful

­ no universal “best” type of therapy

• Orientations of Psychotherapists

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