* Sensation is the process of information from the world through sense receptors and brain. + these are the 5 senses vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste
+ all of these allow incoming information to reach the brain.
* Perception is the organization and interpretation of sensations
+ Ex from class: when we touch something like a table, we first sense that we have touched something, then sense that the surface is smooth, perception allows us to know that it is a table
* cognition is what we do with and organize our perception
* What can infants do when they're very young?
+ sensory abilities
> at birth human able to track a moving stimulus
> by one month able to focus properly on a stimulus
> by two months pay more attention to complex stimuli
> at birth they amniotic fluid in ears ~ evidence of hearing late in the
> at two days old able to detect the location of a sound
Don't forget about the age old question of Where in the thymus do t cells mature?
~ Ex from class: clap and the baby will turn its head toward sound
> at one day old preference for sweet taste
> at four days old show preference/ recognition for taste of some foods mother ate during pregnancy
> at one week old able to differentiate between sweet and bitterness Smell
> at two days old distinguish odors
> at six days old can distinguish the smell of their mother's milk from another nursing mother's Don't forget about the age old question of What is the greatest crime against humanity?
> at three days old show sensitivity to pain
~ contrary to an old popular belief
~ why? Pain receptors are acute
> mouth most sensitive area
~ why they put everything in their
+ develops early and fast
perception includes attention, identifying, and locating
+ struggles of studying infants
have not yet developed speech so they cannot tell us what they're thinking or what they are feeling
+ how do we study infants?
track eye movements = preferential looking = time spent looking at one thing versus another
discrimination of changes
+ powerful when used with infants
* Conditioning/ reinforcement
+ can they recognize mother's voice?
* Questions/ problems with the methods We also discuss several other topics like What was the main cause of the nativist movement?
we guess what the baby's actions mean; we can never truly know + absence of response
can only make inferences from what they do
+ what's in their head?
can never be sure of what they are thinking about We also discuss several other topics like How is fabric made by weaving?
* Development trends
+ attention getting
shape, edges, contours, very loud sound, and bright light all things we pay attention to throughout life
+ attention holding
what holds our attention changes with development
> we have to learn to regulate our attention
* Stimulus complexity If you want to learn more check out What are the rights that everyone deserves?
Don't forget about the age old question of What point is preferred along an indifference curve?
+ under aroused = you go to sleep; over aroused = you can't learn
+ infants = prefer moderately stimulating information
+ fastest developing sense
+ develops before vision
+ prefer high pitched sounds (why we change our voice when talking to babies) & melodies
* Important changes in infancy
+ threeday old babies prefer their mother's voice (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980) + during 46 months there is a shift in boundaries for sound (VVV) * Auditory localization is being able to locate where a sound is coming from + we see the rare ushaped curve
1 month good hearing
2/3 months bad hearing
4 months good again
+ what causes the ushaped curve?
shift from subcortical to cortical control (Bronson) [a reorganization]