ATH 185 Study guide
Structural Violence and the built environment are not the same.
A built environment is the way something is built.
Structural violence is a system that discriminates
o Are usually AngloSaxon that believe that certain immigrants should be allowed to come into the country.
o How people “make a living” to survive by accessible resources.
o the way humans interact with ecosystems and material world
o Ecology is culturally constructed
o The understanding of ecology differs around the world
o Market based system of exchange
Involves a cash economy
o Culturally constructed and based in western worldviews
o Western Capitalism= contemporary globalization
People do things that impact the system
o formal and informal type of economics, basically “cash”
∙ Reciprocity Don't forget about the age old question of What are some factors that affect voter turnout?
o social economics (can be based in kinship and relationships)
o Some type od service
o “If you do this I will do this”
o The notion that if something is given, something should be given in return ∙ Redistribution
o potlatch, social economics
o Everyone gives their stuff to someone much higher up
∙ Cash economy
o Market based system that uses currency to distinguish economic parts of society from other parts of society
o This kind of system adopts “laws” of supply and demand
o The exchange is one to one and immediate
o The exchange is impersonal
∙ Social Economy
o An exchange between people who know each other (personal relationship) o This exchange that occurs over time (reciprocal) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the content of newton´s laws of friction?
Ex. Christmas, birthday, etc
There is formal and informal economics
Informal does not have to be illegal it is just outside the system.
∙ Pat latch
o Pat latch is not Navaho, “K’e is Navaho”
o There is a happy, sad, and healing Pat latch
o It can be a celebration
o It can be medicinal as well
o There is also a form of redistribution
o a network of social relations that can be blood relate, legal, of fictive kin that is usually based on culturally constructed social relations
∙ Cultural Practices of Kinship
o A Navaho “mode of livelihood”
o Involves kinship, clanship and reciprocity between groups of people, and people and the environment. If you want to learn more check out What are the five major types of phyla?
∙ Generalized Reciprocity
o People in social network give gift and exchange goods without calculating how much they have given
∙ Balanced Reciprocity
o System of transfer in which what is given, an immediate return is expected. ∙ Negative reciprocity Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of atomic orbitals?
o One gains at the expense of the other person
o Take, but also give back
o Fictive kinship
o The idea that some aspect of culture, lifestyle, etc is in some way more “real” or “authentic” than others
o The final phase of economic activity
o After production and distribution, when goods are used up by those who have received it.
∙ Class Distinction
o The goal of maintaining status by distinguishing upper class culture from others, usually independent of inherent merit.
Inexpensive products tend to be the “classics” whereas Expensive products present themselves as natural and real produces.
Globalization is not the spreading of soul food through the country
o The consumption of certain globalized products that are incorporated into local understandings and worldviews about material culture.
Food is a material culture
∙ Conspicuous Consumption
o Relates to the idea that some people utilize more resources than necessary for subsistence
Sometimes to display wealth
o a way to think about ecology that allows hormones to utilize resources without “using them up”
o An efficient way to run the economy
Traditional Japanese culture practice has spread through globalization
Shushi has transformed from its “authentic” roots as Japanese street food and became indigenized around the world
Authenticity is often an idea, the idea that something is more real or have a different meaning because we view it to be, usually older material culture.
Traditions are the cultural practices and rituals we tie to the past