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Mason - CHEM 211 - Chemistry 211 Midterm 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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Mason - CHEM 211 - Chemistry 211 Midterm 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image CHEM 211-006 Midterm #3 Study Guide     Chapter 8:     The Electron-Spin Quantum Number:  ​​three quantum numbers (n, l, m) describe the size,  orientation in space of an atomic orbital.     ● Fourth quantum number:  ​​describes spin, a property of the electron.     Name   Symb ol   Permitted Values      Property   Principal   n   Positive integers (1, 2, 3, .  . .)      Orbital energy (size)   Angular  momentum   l   Integers from 0 to  n ​ − 1      Orbital shape (The  l ​ values 0,  1, 2,and 3 correspond to  s, p, d,  and  f ​ orbitals,  respectively.)   Magnetic   m l   Integers from − l ​ to 0 to +​    Orbital orientation   Spin   m s   +1/2 or -1/2      Direction of e- spin    
Order of sublevels: s, p, d, f  
NOTE: 4S HAS A LOWER ENERGY TO 3D, SO FILL 4D FIRST AFTER STARTING AT 1S  
- s block in groups 1 and  2   - p block in groups 13-18   - d block in transition groups 3-12   - f block in inner transition    
Pauli’s Exclusion principle:
​​ ​ no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four  quantum numbers.  
 
background image Aufbau’s rule: e- enter low-energy orbitals first  
 
H
und’s Rule: max number of unpaired electrons will occur in ground state     ● Higher charges interact more strongly than lower charges ​​ (Coulomb’s law,  Section 2.7 ​). Therefore, a higher nuclear charge (more protons in the nucleus)  increases nucleus-electron attractions and, thus, lowers sublevel energy. 
(stabilizes the atom).
   - ex: the H atom ( Z ​ = 1), the He​ +  ion ( Z ​ = 2), and the Li​ 2+  ion ( Z ​ = 3).​ ​The 1​s  sublevel in H (one proton attracting one electron) is the least stable 
(highest energy), so the least energy is needed to remove its electron; and 
the 
​1​s ​ sublevel in Li​ 2+  (three protons attracting one electron) is the most  stable, ​ so the most energy is needed to remove its electron.    
 
Shielding
​: reduces the full nuclear charge to an​ ​ effective nuclear charge ( ​Z eff ) , ​ the  nuclear charge an electron  actually experiences, and this lower nuclear charge makes  the electron easier to remove.    Ground-State Electron Configuration:  ​Lowest energy distribution of electrons in the  sublevels of atoms     Electron Configuration ​: consists of principal energy level ​(n value),​ designation of  sublevel ​ (l value)​, and number of electrons in the sublevel ​(#);​ it is written as nl#     Orbital Diagram: ​ box or line for each orbital in a given energy level.   - examples of energy and sublevels for periods:   - Period 1: 1s (one box, max of two arrows) , n=1   - Period 2: n=2, 2s (one box, max of two arrows), 2p (three boxes, max of two  arrows each)   - Period 3: n=3, 3s (one box, max of two arrows), 3p (three boxes, max of two  arrows each)    

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School: George Mason University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry 1
Professor: Paul Cooper
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Chemistry, MCAT General Chemistry, atoms, and bonds
Name: Chemistry 211 Midterm 3 Study Guide
Description: This covers Chapters 8-9 for the Midterm Thursday. I will add Chapters 10-11 on another sheet or update it to this sheet. The update should happen no later than Tuesday evening.
Uploaded: 10/28/2018
6 Pages 334 Views 267 Unlocks
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