Political Participation: American Political Culture
What do we mean by American political culture?
“A shared body of values and beliefs that shapes perceptions and attitudes toward politics and government and, in turn, influences political behavior” “a shared body of values and beliefs”
∙ Rights of citizenship (life, liberty, and property)
∙ Obligations of citizenship (must obey law)
∙ Rules for participation in the political process ( 15th right for black men to vote,19th for women to vote and 26th right to vote at age 18) “shapes perceptions and attitude toward politics and government” ∙ Legitimacy
∙ Sustenance – the way we are structure and we are okay with it ∙ Alternatives
- Forceful compliance
“influences political behavior”
∙ About 55% vote in presidential elections (we have the least impact on presidential elections)
∙ Less than 33% vote in congressional elections (have a bit more impact on this election)
∙ 20% do nothing all (eligible to vote)
∙ only 10% take full advantage of political participation
EARLY LIMITS ON VOTING RIGHTS
∙ property requirements
∙ religious requirements
∙ franchise (right to vote) for white males only
post-reconstruction practices Don't forget about the age old question of What is the full name for dna? rna?
∙ reconstruction form civil war
∙ designed to impact black Americans
∙ 13th abolition of slavery
∙ 15th black men right to vote
∙ literacy tests
∙ grandfather clause (couldn’t vote unless their own grandfather could vote before a certain year, this meant black men weren’t allowed) ∙ poll taxes
∙ white primary (private party organization)
∙ signaled the decline of the political parties’ power
∙ primary elections
∙ voter registry laws
∙ secret ballots We also discuss several other topics like Why is water a powerful solvent?
∙ nonpartisan ballots
∙ women’s suffrage
voting rights act of 1985- eliminated literacy tests
why don’t people vote?
∙ Turned off
∙ Social mobility
∙ Barriers to registration
∙ Failure of parties
∙ Rational calculation
Role of public Opinion
• Definition – Aggregate (sum) of attitudes (feel about things) and opinions (think about things) of individuals on a significant issue
what we expect government to act based on our believes, how our political views are formed
• Origins of Political Opinions (Socialization: how we obtain opinions)
• Family – do you know what your parents are? republican? Democratic? Do you think like them? This is the longest socialization you do. It is where you grew up.
• School- Education policy in Texas, state controls education, your civic education begins at grade 4 If you want to learn more check out What is the content of the nineteenth amendment?
• Church- religion, line your values with politics
• Generational Effects-depending what generation you’re from, what matters to you might not be important to others from a different generation
• Media Influence- most people get their information about politic things from the media
• Definition – all forms of media that is used to deliver content. anything you can see or hear involving news (television, music, newspaper, social media)
what do you think the political view of the media is?
• Economic Interest
• Professional Environment
• Ideological Leaning
Sources of Media Power
• News making
•Agenda Setting: how does the government know what’s important to us? Media selects what is shown and that makes government select what to do
• Interpreting: they don’t give you raw news, they analyze and turn it into a news story, you don’t decision if it is important or not the media does it for you.
• Socializing: they stimulate you, you think about it in the way it is presented to you
• Persuading: we are being tricked, be a critical thinker, challenge it
when connect to the drivers, connects to media wanting good ratings and make money
The Politics of the Media If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of separation anxiety disorder?
What drives them?
• Negativism: sensational can be negative, in order to capture one’s attention, we gravitate to more sensational which is also negative. “drunk driving”
• Muckraking: how they view themselves in their professional environment • “Watchdogs of the Public Trust” We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of invisible sites?
If you want to learn more check out When is contact hypothesis utilized?
bullet points are connected to the effects of interest
Political Parties & Interest Groups Political Parties
Definition – Political organizations that function as intermediaries between individuals and government to attain the goal of getting their members elected.
Why a Two-Party System?
• Historical Precedents
• Core Values
• Central Policy
• Winner-Take-All vs. Proportional Representation
Restrictions on Minor Parties
• Ballot Access
• Public Funding
∙ Traditional values
∙ Status quo
∙ Public order – stiffer penalties for criminals ∙ Free market
∙ Optimistic view of human nature
∙ Favor change
∙ Supportive of civil
∙ Favor regulation
Third Parties in the U.S.
• Ideological Parties libertarians • Protest Parties populists • Single-Issue Parties green party • Splinter Parties progressives The “Responsible” Party Model
• Adopt a platform
• Recruit candidates
• Inform and educate the public
• Organize and direct campaigns
• Organize the legislature
Does it work?
Failure of Traditional Party Functions
• Winning wins over principle
• No incentive to take strong policy positions
• Candidates selected in primary elections
• Campaigns managed by professional organizations
• No method to bind elected officials to party platform.
Definition – Political organizations that function as intermediaries between individuals and government seeking to influence governmental policy.
Why Interest Groups Form
1) Protect Economic Interests
2) Advance Social Movements
3) Seek Government Benefits
4) Respond to Government Regulation
Organized Interests in Washington Business and Trade Organizations
➢Most numerous – more than 50%
➢Superlobby – The Business Roundtable
➢ABA & AMA
Organized Interests Cont’d
➢Large inclusive groups – National Grange
➢Specialized groups – National Milk Producers
➢National Organization for Women
➢American-Israel Public Affairs Committee
Organized Interests Cont’d
Public Interest Groups Single Issue Groups
- Common Cause - National Abortion Rights Action League
Washington’s Top 10
1) Microsoft Corp
2) Electroimpact Inc
3) Zumiez Inc
4) Puyallup Tribe of Indians
5) Schweitzer Engineering Labs
6) DaVita HealthCare Partners
7) University of Washington
9) Far Star Ventures
10) Cooper House
Interest Group Tactics
•Direct Lobbying Techniques
• Public Relations
•Indirect Lobbying Techniques
• Grass-Roots Mobilization
• Molding Public and Elite Opinion
• Coalition Building
• Peaceful, but illegal
• Civil Rights Movement
Political Parties & Interest Groups
Both are intermediary organization that operation between the people and government to accomplish their goals
Definition- political organizations that function as intermediaries between individuals and government to attain the goal of getting their members elected
-party as an organization