Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

KSU - PSYC 4410 - Class Notes - Week 10

Created by: Jordan Engeseth Elite Notetaker

> > > > KSU - PSYC 4410 - Class Notes - Week 10

KSU - PSYC 4410 - Class Notes - Week 10

School: Kennesaw State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Physiological Psychology
Professor: Corrine McNamara
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PSYC 4410 WEEK TEN
Description: These note discuss psychological disorders including: substance abuse + addiction, mood disorders, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, and ASD.
Uploaded: 10/29/2018
0 5 3 2 Reviews
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 9 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image PSYC 4410
CHAPTER 14—PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND ADDICITON - Substance Abuse and Addiction o Most commonly abused drugs are derived from plants (e.g., nicotine in tobacco) o Antagonist: dug that blocks a neurotransmitter o Agonist: drug that mimics or increases an effect o Drug’s affinity for a receptor: measure of drug’s tendency to bind to it → ranges 
from strong to weak
o Efficacy: tendency to activate the receptor o A drug’s effectiveness and side effects vary from one person to another Abundance of each type of receptor varies between individuals - Predispositions o People differ in their predisposition to alcohol or drug abuse o Certain aspects of brain function and behavior are present from the start in people with a 
familial disposition to addiction
Not all individuals develop addiction - Genetic Influences o Twin studies confirm strong influence of genetics on vulnerability to 
alcohol/drugs
o Many addiction-linked genes have been identified, each with a small effect Genes affect the probability of substance use, but effects vary depending on
environment
People with a gene for producing less acetaldehyde dehydrogenase metabolize 
acetaldehyde (from alcohol) more slowly  
→ those individuals tend to drink less and  have fewer problems with alcohol abuse (e.g., China and Japan) - Environmental Influences o Prenatal environment contributes to risk for alcoholism o Childhood environment is critical o Careful parenting supervision decreases likelihood of developing impulsive behavior that 
leads to abuse
o Alcoholics that develop alcohol problems before age 25 tend to have family 
history and a genetic predisposition and rapid onset of problems
- Behavioral Predictors of Abuse o Research findings Sons of alcoholics show less than average intoxication after drinking a moderate 
amount of alcohol
Low level of intoxication may influence person to keep drinking Probability of developing alcoholism is greater than 60 percent Alcohol decreases stress for most people, but more so for sons of alcoholics - Synaptic Mechanisms o Nearly all abused drugs affect several kinds of receptors o The effects while the drug is in the brain differ from effects that occur during 
withdrawal, and effects responsible for cravings
o Efforts to alleviate drug abuse must consider a variety of mechanisms - The Role of Dopamine  o James Olds and Peter Milner (1954) Stimulating rat brains: missed target and hit septum causing rats to respond 
favorably
Discovered that rats would push a lever to produce electrical self-stimulation of the 
brain
o Nucleus accumbens: brain area rich in dopamine that is central to the brain’s 
reinforcement system
Central to reinforcing experiences of all types Location where addictive drugs release dopamine or norepinephrine o Other experiences that release dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: Sexual excitement Music
background image Taste of sugar Imagining something pleasant Habitual gambling and video game playing o Dopamine release essential for all addictions and all substance abuse? → dopamine 
contributes to reinforcement, but no longer appears to be as central as previously believed
- Cravingsinsistent search for the activity o Distinctive feature of addictions o Even after long period of abstinence, cues can trigger a craving o Studies in rats show repeated exposure to an addictive substance alters receptors to 
become more responsive to the addictive substance→ less responsive to other types of 
reinforcement
- Tolerance and Withdrawal  o Tolerancedecrease in effect as an addiction develops Drug tolerance is learned, to a large extent Can be weakened through extinction procedures o Withdrawal: body’s reaction to absence of the drug One hypothesis is that addictive behavior is an attempt to avoid withdrawal 
symptoms
Modified hypothesis: person with an addiction may use the substance to 
cope with stress
Studies in rats have shown: Receiving an addictive drug during a withdrawal period is a powerful experience Associated relief can cause craving the drug under other types of stressful 
experiences
- Treatments o Some addicts able to decrease use or quit on their own o Alcoholics Anonymous/AA (or similar group) o Cognitive-behavioral therapy: contingency management includes rewards for 
remaining drug-free
o Medication—not as common, but some options are available - Medications to Combat Alcohol Abuse o Drug effectiveness varies with user’s motivation to quit o Antabuse (disulfiram): results in sickness after drinking Taking a nausea-inducing drug after drinking, to associate the two—learned aversion Approach has not become popular o Naloxone and naltrexone: block opiate receptors and decrease pleasure from alcohol - Medications to Combat Opiate Abuse o Methadone as a safer alternative→activates same brain receptors and produces 
same effects as heroin and morphine
Can be taken orally, absorbs slowly, and leaves the brain slowly “Rush” and withdrawal both reduced o Buprenorphine and LAAM Similar to methadone MOOD DISORDERS & DEPRESSION - Mood Disorders o Major depression symptoms Person feels sad and helpless most of the day every day for long periods of 
time
Person does not enjoy anything and cannot imagine enjoying anything Fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, or contemplation of suicide Trouble sleeping Cognitive problems: low motivation, impaired memory, concentration problems, 
and impaired sense of smell
- Major Depressive Disorder  o Absence of happiness is a more reliable symptom than increased sadness More common in women during the reproductive era Affects five percent of adults with a given year→ 10 percent lifetime prevalence
background image o Some people suffer long-term depression More common to have periodic episodes of depression - Genetics  o Depression has a moderate degree of heritability o No one gene has been identified as clearly linked to depression People with early-onset depression (before age 30) more likely to have relatives with 
depression as well as relatives with anxiety disorders, neuroticism, ADD, OCD, IBS, 
and migraine headaches
Late onset depression (after age 45) linked to relatives with circulatory problems o Hypothesis: the effect of a gene varies with the environment Evidence: Young adults with the short form of the serotonin transporter gene who 
experienced stressful experiences had a major increase in probability of 
developing depression
Long-form of gene less susceptible to stressful events; one long and one short-
moderate risk
Short-form may increase depressive reaction to stressful events—especially 
childhood stress
- Abnormalities of Hemispheric Dominance o Brain activity associated with depression Decreased activity in the left prefrontal cortex Increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex Imbalance stable over the years, despite symptom changes o People with depression tend to gaze to the left when asked to do a verbal task→ most 
people gaze to the right
- Antidepressant Drugs – Categories o Many drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders discovered by accident o Categories of antidepressant drugs (4)— Tricyclics Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Atypical antidepressants - Antidepressant Drugs—Tricyclics o Tricyclics incl. imipramine; Tofranil o Block transporter proteins that reabsorb serotonin, dopamine, and 
norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron after release
o Also block histamine receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and certain sodium channels o Side-effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, difficulty urinating, and heart irregularities - Antidepressant Drugs—SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) o Block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin o Examples: fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), fluvoxamine (Luvox), citalopram (Celexa),
and paroxetine (Paxil)
o Work in a similar fashion to tricyclics but specific to the neurotransmitter serotonin - Antidepressant Drugs – SNRIs (Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors) o Examples: duloxetine (Cymbalta) and venlafaxine (Effexor) o Block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine o Unlike other antidepressants, the SNRIs improve certain aspects of memory - Antidepressant Drugs – MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors)  o Block the enzyme monoamine oxidase that metabolizes catecholamines and 
serotonin into inactive forms → 
results in more transmitters in the presynaptic terminal
available for release
o Usually only prescribed if SSRIs and tricyclics are not effective o High blood pressure results with some food - Atypical Antidepressant Drugs o drugs with antidepressant effects that do not fit into any of the other 
antidepressant categories
o Miscellaneous group of drugs with antidepressant effects and milder side effects o Example: bupropion (Wellbutrin) o Inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and to some extent norepinephrine, but not 
serotonin

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Kennesaw State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
9 Pages 50 Views 40 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Kennesaw State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Kennesaw State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Physiological Psychology
Professor: Corrine McNamara
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PSYC 4410 WEEK TEN
Description: These note discuss psychological disorders including: substance abuse + addiction, mood disorders, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, and ASD.
Uploaded: 10/29/2018
9 Pages 50 Views 40 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to KSU - Class Notes - Week 10
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to KSU - Class Notes - Week 10

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or support@studysoup.com

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here