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KSU - PSYC 4410 - Study Guide - Final

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KSU - PSYC 4410 - Study Guide - Final

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background image PSYC 4410 EXAM THREE—CHAPTERS 8, 12, & 14
CHAPTER EIGHT— KEY CONCEPTS - activation-synthesis hypothesis: suggests that dreams begin with spontaneous  activity in the pons, which activates many parts of the cortex o synthesizes story from cortex activation pattern - alpha waves: present when you enter state of relaxation/stage 1 sleep - basal forebrain: area anterior and dorsal to the hypothalamus; includes cell clusters that 
promote wakefulness and sleep
o releases inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (neurotransmitter essential for sleep) o also, releases acetylcholine, excitatory neurotransmitter essential for increase  arousal  - brain death: no sign of brain activity and no response to any stimulus  - coma: extended period of unconsciousness characterized by low brain activity that 
remains fairly steady
; person shows little response to stimuli
- endogenous circadian rhythm: internal mechanisms that operate on a 24-hour cycle; daily cycles include our—sleep, eating and drinking, body temperature, hormone secretion, 
urination, and drug sensitivity
- endogenous circannual rhythm: internal mechanism that operate on an annual/yearly  cycle; includes—migration of birds, hibernation, etc.  - insomnia: sleep disorder resulting from inadequate sleep; influences by—noise, stress, pain,
diet, and medication
- jet lag: circadian rhythm disruption resulting from crossing time zones; mismatch in your  internal and external clock  o phase advance occurs traveling east (more difficult of the two) o phase delays occur traveling west  - K-complex: a sharp wave associated with temporary inhibition of neuronal firing; occurs
during stage 2 sleep
- locus coeruleus: area of the pons that releases norepinephrine → arousal within the  cortex → increases wakefulness - melatonin: hormone regulated in the SCN and secreted by the pineal gland that promotes 
o secretion begins two/three hours before bedtime o feedback resets biological block  - minimally conscious state: one stage higher than a vegetative state marked by occasional  brief periods of purposeful action and limited speech comprehension - narcolepsy: sleep disorder characterized by frequent periods of sleepiness during the 
o attacks may be sudden or gradual o caused by lack of hypothalamic cells producing and releasing orexin  - neurocognitive hypothesis: suggests that dreams are similar to thinking, just under  unusual circumstances o dreams begin with arousing stimuli generated within the brain o stimuli combined with recent memories and sensory info - night terrors: experiences of intense anxiety from which a person awakens screaming 
in terror
o usually occurs in NREM sleep - non-REM (NREM) sleep: sleep other than REM sleep; includes: sleep stages 1, 2, 3 and 4  - orexin (or hypocretin): peptide neurotransmitter that increases wakefulness and arousal
background image o released from lateral and posterior nuclei of hypothalamus→ travels to the  basal forebrain→ stimulation/arousal of neurons  - paradoxical sleep: sleep that is deep in some ways, but light in others; also known as  REM/rapid eye movement  - periodic limb movement disorderrepeated involuntary movement of the legs and 
sometimes the arms while sleeping; occurs primarily in NREM 
- PGO waves: high-amplitude electrical potentials detected in the pons that travel to the  lateral geniculate and then to the occipital cortex - pineal gland: endocrine gland posterior to thalamus; secretes melatonin needed for 
inducing sleepiness
- polysomnography: combo of EEG + eye-movement; used in the study of sleep stages - pontomesencephalon - rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: sleep characterized by rapid eye movement during  sleep; irregular, low voltage, fast waves; most relaxed stage of sleep - REM behavior disorder: vigorous movement occurring during REM sleep; likely associated 
with acting out dreams 
- reticular formation: part of the midbrain that extends from the medulla to the  forebrain and is responsible for arousal - sleep apnea: disorder characterized by prolonged inability to breathe during sleep; likely 
caused by genetics, old age, obesity and brain deterioration
- sleep spindle: occurs during stage 2 sleep; 12- to 14-Hz waves during a burst that lasts  at least half a second - slow-wave sleep (SWS): stage 3 and stage 4 sleep; slow, large amplitude waves; highly 
synchronized brain activity
- suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): primarily control center for circadian rhythms of sleep  and body temp o located in optic chiasm and part of hypothalamus - vegetative state: person alternates between periods of sleep and moderate arousal but no 
awareness of surrounding
o some autonomic arousal to painful stimulus; no purposeful activity/response to speech - zeitgeber: “time giver;” stimulus that resets circadian rhythms  CHAPTER TWELVE—KEY CONCEPTS - Alzheimer’s disease: gradually progressive loss of memory, often occurring in old age o Assoc. with accumulation/clumping of amyloid beta protein and an abnormal  form of tau protein - Amnesia: memory loss; different kinds of brain damage result in different types of amnesia  o Korsakoff’s—brain damage resulting from prolonged thiamine deficiency o Alzheimer’s—gradual amnesia resulting from aging o Infant amnesia—inability to recall early childhood events - AMPA receptor: glutamate receptor; repeated excitation results in depolarization of the 
membrance, displacement of magnesium molecules, and excitation of NMDA receptors, and 
opening of calcium channels o Greater AMPA receptors built, the more dendritic branching  - amyloid-β: protein built up in Alzheimer’s patients; creates plaques from damaged axons 
and dendrites and
 produces widespread atrophy of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and 
other areas - anterograde amnesia: inability to form new memories following brain damage

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School: Kennesaw State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Physiological Psychology
Professor: Corrine McNamara
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: sleep, consciousness, Wakefulness, states of arousal, learning, memory, intelligence, conditioning, Physiology, psychological disorders, treatments, and #Psych #Bio #Neurotransmitters #Biology #Psychology #Neurons #Neuroscience #Brain #Transmittors #Eyes #Perceptions #Axons
Description: The following material can be found on this guide: Chapter Eight-- Sleep and Wakefulness Chapter Twelve-- Learning, Memory, and Intelligence Chapter Fourteen-- Psychological Disorders and Treatments Each of these 3 chapters will be present on exam 3.
Uploaded: 10/30/2018
5 Pages 86 Views 68 Unlocks
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