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THE U / Engineering / PSY 3215090 / Which part of the newborn's body is the least controlled?

Which part of the newborn's body is the least controlled?

Which part of the newborn's body is the least controlled?

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School: University of Utah
Department: Engineering
Course: Development in Infancy
Term: Fall 2018
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Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These questions cover the quizzes from CH. 5-8
Uploaded: 10/30/2018
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PSY 3215 Exam 2 Study Guide


Which part of the newborn's body is the least controlled?



University of Utah

Gabriella Minassian

CH. 5

The baby's first experience with sound, light, taste, and tactile  stimulation (touch) is outside the womb, after the baby is born.  - false

The ability to think conceptually, using words or symbols, begins  - around 18 months of age.

Newborns prefer to listen to  

- an adult female's voice

For normally developing infants, crying  

- brings adults closer to them

In hunter-gatherer societies in Africa, where babies are in almost  constant contact with a caregiver, babies  

- cry for only brief periods and with less intensity than babies in  Western culture. If you want to learn more check out What do you mean by indifference curve?

Mothers of newborns are able to distinguish their own baby's odor,  whether or not the baby was delivered via C-section or vaginally.  - true


Why are waking states important in infancy?



newborn cries  

- *both of these*

-Reflect several abnormal conditions.

-Are symptomatic of a range of normal internal states.

An organized pattern of physical and physiological respond that is  related to the infant's level of arousal is referred to as  - state

Reflexes seen in newborns  

- may depend on muscle movement, weight, state, illness and other  factors

Infant researchers usually prefer to work with infants when the infant is in a state of quiet alert. This means  

- researchers must find the 3 hours of quiet alert time that infants on  average have.Don't forget about the age old question of What are party eras?

Co-regulation  

- refers to periods of communication when caretaker and infant adjust  their actions to each other.


Who were the most responsive to babies?



Infants prefer to look at  

- faces

Sleep helps brain development and maturation by consolidating  daytime learning and memory when the brain is at rest.  - true

Gwyneth is just present with her brand new baby immediately  following birth. If she follows the universal pattern of touching,  Gwyneth  

- will start with the fingers and toes and then work inward.

While talking with some women in the park, a new mother says that  she sleeps with her baby. According to your understanding of the  textbook,  

- NOT: this is typical American behavior.

Which of the following emotions is a newborn most likely to feel?  - disgust

Your friend tells you that she doesn't know if she should breastfeed her  new baby. You inform her,  We also discuss several other topics like Describe a docket?

- *all of these*

-You will be less likely to get ovarian or breast cancer if you breastfeed. -You will be able to eat more if you breastfeed because you'll be  burning extra calories! It can help you lose your pregnancy weight! -Likely, your baby will not be sick as often if you breastfeed and you  will save money!

Which part of the newborn's body is the least controlled?  - The arms and hands

One way to increase the rate of breastfeeding each day and the  number of months breastfeeding is  

- co-sleep with the baby.

Newborns can distinguish the four basic tastes of sweet, salty, sour,  and bitter.  

- true

Why are waking states important in infancy?

- This state allows infants to process information and grow  perceptually, cognitively, and socially.

It is strongly recommended that infants be breast fed until  - at least 1 year

If parents are not allowed to touch their newborn at or near birth,  bonding and attachment will be interrupted over the long term.  - false

Non co-sleeping children are more likely to sleep alone, sleep through  the night, and be weaned earlier.  

- true

You observe a newborn opening and closing his eyes, show increased  activity, rapid and regular breathing, and occasional smiling. In which  state of arousal is this infant?  

- NOT: active alert Don't forget about the age old question of What does hominin mean?

NOT: quiet alert

Most adults find crying to be arousing, although they cannot reliably  perceive differences between types of cries unless they are parents.  - false

Your friend has a baby with colic. She asks for your best advice on what to do for it. Relying on your textbook, you tell her,  

- find ways to reduce your own stress; likely, your baby will stop crying  on its own eventually.

Lottie just had her first baby. Her sister just had her third baby. Likely,  Lottie's baby - *all of these*

-Lottie's baby will receive more caregiving interactions.  -Lottie's baby will have more baby pictures.  

-Lottie will spend more time in nonfeeding activities during feeding  times.

Formula feeding impairs the development of mother-infant attachment. - false

Hand to mouth behavior under two months of age is relatively rare and infants don't intentionally hold their hands to their mouths until about  4 months of age.  

- true

When it comes to infant sleep preferences,

- NOT:mother can expect most infants to wake several times per night  for the first 6 months. If you want to learn more check out What is an absolute advantage?

During baby's first year, its time spent crying  

- increases for the first 2 months, then decreases over the first  year.

CH. 6

Baby Bodie shakes his head back and forth, while smiling broadly. In a  similar response and rhythm, his mother smiles and says, "No, no, no,  no, no!" This is an example of  Don't forget about the age old question of What are demographic measures?

- NOT: infant directed speech.  

NOT: motherese

The duration of distress  

- significantly decreases during the first 3 months.

Adults have difficulty categorizing distress expressions of very young  infants into adult emotions.  

- true

Infantile amnesia refers to  

- the inability of adults to remember their experiences as infants.

No single disorder accounts for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  - true

Observing your neighbor's 1 month old baby, you would expect to hear all of the following sounds, EXCEPT  

- cooing and comfort sounds.

When it comes to music,  

- NOT: infants respond the same to music, whether it is a lullaby or a  play song.

NOT: infants have short term memory for songs (i.e., they can  remember songs for 24 hours without hearing them, but not a week).

You observe a researcher place a small red dot on an infant's forehead  and put the infant in front of a mirror. Most likely, this researcher is  studying  

- self-recognition in infants.

Parents who stimulate their infants' ability to focus attention are likely  to have infants who are  

- fast habituators

You observe a young mother with her infant in the park. She does not  seem to talk much to her infant and occasionally pokes it to see it  respond. The baby looks at her and smiles, but the mother turns away  and checks her phone. You believe,  

- the mother may be suffering from maternal depression.

Babies who are easily aroused are more likely to get over stimulated  and become overly expressive in interactions.  

- false

You watch the mother of a 2-month-old quickly respond to the baby's  cry by picking him up and patting him. If this mother responds this way consistently, it is likely that the baby will  

- NOT: be a demanding toddler.  

NOT: show an increase in crying in order to be picked up.

Three-month-old Gage is best at recognizing  

- a smile

Self-agency refers to the sense of the relationship of one's action and  its effect on the environment.

 - true

Infant smiles during the alert state are usually first seen  - about 6 to 8 weeks of age.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?  

- NOT: If a baby is less attractive, mothers are more attentive to people other than the infant.

At 3 months of age, infants still do not show a preference for faces of  their own ethnicity compared to other ethnicities.  

- false

Which of the following behaviors is an example of a primary circular  reaction?

- baby sucks his toes

Which of the following would be more distressing to an infant?  - NOT: All of these are equally upsetting to infants.

You receive a birth announcement from a relative and learn that she  had a baby boy, 20 inches long and 7.5 pounds. Based on the  information in the textbook, this baby is  

- about average

Early in development, growth of the baby is from  

- NOT: tail to head and torso outward.

Infant growth tends to proceed from outward extremities inward  toward the torso.  

- false

Between two and five months of age,  

- male and female infants are similar in motor skills and amount of  motor activity.

Marital quality is __________________ associated with men's and  women's involvement in the parenting role.  

- strongly

CH. 7

Once infants start eating solid foods, parents should be encouraged to  use food to calm or soothe infants because of its effectiveness.  - false

The babbling of 6 month old infants from different countries is  indistinguishable from each other.  

- false

Your baby is a picky eater. One recommended way to address this issue is to insist that your baby eat the particular food.  

- false

Whether mothers work or not, as long as the mother is doing what she  prefers, the children tend to be well adjusted.  

- true

Deaf babies begin babbling at the same age as hearing infants.

- false

Feldman and Nash (1979) studied the responsiveness to babies of  thirty parents of adolescents, parents of grown children, and  grandparents. Who were the most responsive to babies?  - The grandparents.

Research with six to nine month old infants has shown that infants  - have a concept of quantity.

Temperament in infancy is highly unstable and shows little correlation  to temperament measured later on in childhood.  

- false

When it comes to crawling,  

- infants use whatever means are available to achieve their goals and  may not necessarily follow a "crawling pattern."

It appears that the biggest differences in male versus female  responsiveness to infants appear in middle childhood and adolescents.  - true

By what age do we see the first evidence that babies are becoming  aware of a world outside of themselves?  

- between 6 and 9 months

In the baby aisle of the grocery store, a shopper is looking at the  myriad of items with a confused look on her face. She tells you that  she wants to start introducing solid foods to her 6 month old but is not  sure what to try first. You reply,  

- cereal, but one at a time and mixed with breastmilk or formula.

Hand preference  

- *both of these*

-in infancy is seen when the preferred hand does most of the exploring  of an object while the non preferred hand holds it.

-still means both hands are used but each hand does different things.

For a baby,  

- mealtime is more than food intake and an opportunity for learning,  play, and socializing.

Korean mothers  

- are likely to provide books, reading, and music for their babies. By the age of 6 months, infants will laugh at your jokes.

- true

Early introduction of solid foods to infants has been associated with the development of  

- *all of these*

-kidney malfunction.

-food allergies

-increased likelihood of developing strong food dislikes.

Daddy gives 7 month old Junior a red cup with lemon juice and a blue  cup with apple juice. Junior winces at the lemon juice and expresses  distaste. Daddy wants to see what Junior will do if presented the red  and blue cups again. If the results are similar to Reardon and Bushnell  (1988), Junior  

- NOT: won't accept any cup from Daddy.

Your friend tells you that her 7-month-old baby seems to be actually  thinking about what to feel in response to an event. You respond,  - NOT: "It seems so, but babies this age still don't have the cognitive  ability to do that."

Infants appear to be very slow to develop the ability to extract  meaning from seeing a person's face alone.  

- true

Which of the following statements is TRUE?  

- In general, mother-infant attachment is not seriously altered by  maternal employment.

Which of the following factors have NOT been found to be related to  temperamental characteristics?  

- Research has found that all of the above are related to temperament.

Most infants begin to show preference for a certain hand  - by 2 months

When women remain at home with their children,  

- fathers show more positive emotions toward their infants.

While observing children at a preschool, you notice a young mother  holding baby twins, a boy and a girl. What is the LEAST likely reaction  of the children?  

- The preschoolers will talk to the baby.

What negative emotions emerge during the 6 to 9 month period?  - anger and wariness

Similar to adults, right hand preference in infancy is fairly strong and  stable.  

- false

The frequency with which infants make demands of mothers  ___________________ once infants begin to walk.  

- NOT: decreases slightly

According to the text, when comparing the style of play and parent child teaching in industrialized vs. nontechnical cultures, the style of  non-technical cultures is better for developing well-rounded and more  competent children.  

- false

Postural control while sitting is important for the development of skilled reaching.  

- true

Research on emotion regulation in 6 to 9 month old infants has found  - NOT: boys and girls this age are similar in their emotion expressions.

Men with working wives  

- NOT: tend to equally share in childcare but not housework.

According to research, both males and females show interest in and  ability to care for infants, as long as such interest is fostered by the  social environment.  

- true

The mother who is most likely to directly demonstrate how to do  something and repeat such demonstrations is from  

- NOT: Beijing, China.

CH. 8

Ian works all day and worries that their baby will be more attached to  Ian's wife than to Ian. You tell him,  

- Overall, there are few differences between attachment to mother or  father; be responsive to your baby and part of your baby's life and  you'll have nothing to worry about.

Which emotion is most frequently elicited in infants when their goals  have been disrupted?  

- anger

Overall, there are few differences between attachment to mother and  attachment to father.  

- true

Which of the following does NOT affect an infant's response to  strangers?  

- All of these affect the infant's response to strangers.

Your friend wants to "baby proof" her home and make it safe for her  toddler. Which of the following is the best piece of advice?  - NOT: You can buy many things at your local home improvement  center to baby proof your house.

NOT: You are better off teaching your baby to live in the "real" world.  Teach your baby not to touch things he shouldn't touch and not open  cabinets he should not open.

The ability to combine two or more objects appropriately according to  their function is  

- relational play

Your classmate missed the professor's lecture on developments in the  infant's ability to perceive emotion and intention expressed by others.  He asks you to summarize the lecture in one sentence. You reply,  - NOT: By the end of the second half of the first year, infants learn to  differentiate their own feelings from those of others.

NOT: Even at one year of age, infants show that they can no  understand the feelings of others.

After a brief separation, infants who spend more hours per day with  their caregivers on an Israeli kibbutz  

- showed a more positive response when reunited with their caregivers  than with their mothers.

You watch an infant looking at something for a long period. The infant  makes abrupt, jerky movements. It is likely that the infant is watching  - NOT: his mother

Studies of infants show that infants intrinsically are attached to their  mothers, whether or not mother spends time with the infant, showing a biological basis for attachment.  

- false

Cross culturally, most infants show a general fear of strangers at  around 8 months of age.  

- true

When Mommy tries to take a toy away from Baby Liselle, Baby Liselle  firmly pushes Mommy's hand away to prevent the toy from being  taken. According to Piaget, this is an example of  

- coordination of secondary circular reactions (Sensorimotor Stage IV).

A-not-B errors are grown out of by around 15 months of age; adults do  not make A-not-B errors.  

- false

Locomotive ability seems to enhance  

- both social and cognitive development.

Between 8 and 10 months of age, infants are able to imitate certain  actions, but only if they are given many demonstrations and plenty of  time to process the information.  

- false

Almost all infants who show _______________________________ type of  attachment come from families with a history of child abuse,  maltreatment, infant malnutrition, and/or alcoholism.  - disorganized-disoriented

In general, long good-byes appear to help children separate from their  mother in a more positive way.  

- false

PSY 3215 Exam 2 Study Guide

University of Utah

Gabriella Minassian

CH. 5

The baby's first experience with sound, light, taste, and tactile  stimulation (touch) is outside the womb, after the baby is born.  - false

The ability to think conceptually, using words or symbols, begins  - around 18 months of age.

Newborns prefer to listen to  

- an adult female's voice

For normally developing infants, crying  

- brings adults closer to them

In hunter-gatherer societies in Africa, where babies are in almost  constant contact with a caregiver, babies  

- cry for only brief periods and with less intensity than babies in  Western culture.

Mothers of newborns are able to distinguish their own baby's odor,  whether or not the baby was delivered via C-section or vaginally.  - true

newborn cries  

- *both of these*

-Reflect several abnormal conditions.

-Are symptomatic of a range of normal internal states.

An organized pattern of physical and physiological respond that is  related to the infant's level of arousal is referred to as  - state

Reflexes seen in newborns  

- may depend on muscle movement, weight, state, illness and other  factors

Infant researchers usually prefer to work with infants when the infant is in a state of quiet alert. This means  

- researchers must find the 3 hours of quiet alert time that infants on  average have.

Co-regulation  

- refers to periods of communication when caretaker and infant adjust  their actions to each other.

Infants prefer to look at  

- faces

Sleep helps brain development and maturation by consolidating  daytime learning and memory when the brain is at rest.  - true

Gwyneth is just present with her brand new baby immediately  following birth. If she follows the universal pattern of touching,  Gwyneth  

- will start with the fingers and toes and then work inward.

While talking with some women in the park, a new mother says that  she sleeps with her baby. According to your understanding of the  textbook,  

- NOT: this is typical American behavior.

Which of the following emotions is a newborn most likely to feel?  - disgust

Your friend tells you that she doesn't know if she should breastfeed her  new baby. You inform her,  

- *all of these*

-You will be less likely to get ovarian or breast cancer if you breastfeed. -You will be able to eat more if you breastfeed because you'll be  burning extra calories! It can help you lose your pregnancy weight! -Likely, your baby will not be sick as often if you breastfeed and you  will save money!

Which part of the newborn's body is the least controlled?  - The arms and hands

One way to increase the rate of breastfeeding each day and the  number of months breastfeeding is  

- co-sleep with the baby.

Newborns can distinguish the four basic tastes of sweet, salty, sour,  and bitter.  

- true

Why are waking states important in infancy?

- This state allows infants to process information and grow  perceptually, cognitively, and socially.

It is strongly recommended that infants be breast fed until  - at least 1 year

If parents are not allowed to touch their newborn at or near birth,  bonding and attachment will be interrupted over the long term.  - false

Non co-sleeping children are more likely to sleep alone, sleep through  the night, and be weaned earlier.  

- true

You observe a newborn opening and closing his eyes, show increased  activity, rapid and regular breathing, and occasional smiling. In which  state of arousal is this infant?  

- NOT: active alert

NOT: quiet alert

Most adults find crying to be arousing, although they cannot reliably  perceive differences between types of cries unless they are parents.  - false

Your friend has a baby with colic. She asks for your best advice on what to do for it. Relying on your textbook, you tell her,  

- find ways to reduce your own stress; likely, your baby will stop crying  on its own eventually.

Lottie just had her first baby. Her sister just had her third baby. Likely,  Lottie's baby - *all of these*

-Lottie's baby will receive more caregiving interactions.  -Lottie's baby will have more baby pictures.  

-Lottie will spend more time in nonfeeding activities during feeding  times.

Formula feeding impairs the development of mother-infant attachment. - false

Hand to mouth behavior under two months of age is relatively rare and infants don't intentionally hold their hands to their mouths until about  4 months of age.  

- true

When it comes to infant sleep preferences,

- NOT:mother can expect most infants to wake several times per night  for the first 6 months.

During baby's first year, its time spent crying  

- increases for the first 2 months, then decreases over the first  year.

CH. 6

Baby Bodie shakes his head back and forth, while smiling broadly. In a  similar response and rhythm, his mother smiles and says, "No, no, no,  no, no!" This is an example of  

- NOT: infant directed speech.  

NOT: motherese

The duration of distress  

- significantly decreases during the first 3 months.

Adults have difficulty categorizing distress expressions of very young  infants into adult emotions.  

- true

Infantile amnesia refers to  

- the inability of adults to remember their experiences as infants.

No single disorder accounts for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  - true

Observing your neighbor's 1 month old baby, you would expect to hear all of the following sounds, EXCEPT  

- cooing and comfort sounds.

When it comes to music,  

- NOT: infants respond the same to music, whether it is a lullaby or a  play song.

NOT: infants have short term memory for songs (i.e., they can  remember songs for 24 hours without hearing them, but not a week).

You observe a researcher place a small red dot on an infant's forehead  and put the infant in front of a mirror. Most likely, this researcher is  studying  

- self-recognition in infants.

Parents who stimulate their infants' ability to focus attention are likely  to have infants who are  

- fast habituators

You observe a young mother with her infant in the park. She does not  seem to talk much to her infant and occasionally pokes it to see it  respond. The baby looks at her and smiles, but the mother turns away  and checks her phone. You believe,  

- the mother may be suffering from maternal depression.

Babies who are easily aroused are more likely to get over stimulated  and become overly expressive in interactions.  

- false

You watch the mother of a 2-month-old quickly respond to the baby's  cry by picking him up and patting him. If this mother responds this way consistently, it is likely that the baby will  

- NOT: be a demanding toddler.  

NOT: show an increase in crying in order to be picked up.

Three-month-old Gage is best at recognizing  

- a smile

Self-agency refers to the sense of the relationship of one's action and  its effect on the environment.

 - true

Infant smiles during the alert state are usually first seen  - about 6 to 8 weeks of age.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?  

- NOT: If a baby is less attractive, mothers are more attentive to people other than the infant.

At 3 months of age, infants still do not show a preference for faces of  their own ethnicity compared to other ethnicities.  

- false

Which of the following behaviors is an example of a primary circular  reaction?

- baby sucks his toes

Which of the following would be more distressing to an infant?  - NOT: All of these are equally upsetting to infants.

You receive a birth announcement from a relative and learn that she  had a baby boy, 20 inches long and 7.5 pounds. Based on the  information in the textbook, this baby is  

- about average

Early in development, growth of the baby is from  

- NOT: tail to head and torso outward.

Infant growth tends to proceed from outward extremities inward  toward the torso.  

- false

Between two and five months of age,  

- male and female infants are similar in motor skills and amount of  motor activity.

Marital quality is __________________ associated with men's and  women's involvement in the parenting role.  

- strongly

CH. 7

Once infants start eating solid foods, parents should be encouraged to  use food to calm or soothe infants because of its effectiveness.  - false

The babbling of 6 month old infants from different countries is  indistinguishable from each other.  

- false

Your baby is a picky eater. One recommended way to address this issue is to insist that your baby eat the particular food.  

- false

Whether mothers work or not, as long as the mother is doing what she  prefers, the children tend to be well adjusted.  

- true

Deaf babies begin babbling at the same age as hearing infants.

- false

Feldman and Nash (1979) studied the responsiveness to babies of  thirty parents of adolescents, parents of grown children, and  grandparents. Who were the most responsive to babies?  - The grandparents.

Research with six to nine month old infants has shown that infants  - have a concept of quantity.

Temperament in infancy is highly unstable and shows little correlation  to temperament measured later on in childhood.  

- false

When it comes to crawling,  

- infants use whatever means are available to achieve their goals and  may not necessarily follow a "crawling pattern."

It appears that the biggest differences in male versus female  responsiveness to infants appear in middle childhood and adolescents.  - true

By what age do we see the first evidence that babies are becoming  aware of a world outside of themselves?  

- between 6 and 9 months

In the baby aisle of the grocery store, a shopper is looking at the  myriad of items with a confused look on her face. She tells you that  she wants to start introducing solid foods to her 6 month old but is not  sure what to try first. You reply,  

- cereal, but one at a time and mixed with breastmilk or formula.

Hand preference  

- *both of these*

-in infancy is seen when the preferred hand does most of the exploring  of an object while the non preferred hand holds it.

-still means both hands are used but each hand does different things.

For a baby,  

- mealtime is more than food intake and an opportunity for learning,  play, and socializing.

Korean mothers  

- are likely to provide books, reading, and music for their babies. By the age of 6 months, infants will laugh at your jokes.

- true

Early introduction of solid foods to infants has been associated with the development of  

- *all of these*

-kidney malfunction.

-food allergies

-increased likelihood of developing strong food dislikes.

Daddy gives 7 month old Junior a red cup with lemon juice and a blue  cup with apple juice. Junior winces at the lemon juice and expresses  distaste. Daddy wants to see what Junior will do if presented the red  and blue cups again. If the results are similar to Reardon and Bushnell  (1988), Junior  

- NOT: won't accept any cup from Daddy.

Your friend tells you that her 7-month-old baby seems to be actually  thinking about what to feel in response to an event. You respond,  - NOT: "It seems so, but babies this age still don't have the cognitive  ability to do that."

Infants appear to be very slow to develop the ability to extract  meaning from seeing a person's face alone.  

- true

Which of the following statements is TRUE?  

- In general, mother-infant attachment is not seriously altered by  maternal employment.

Which of the following factors have NOT been found to be related to  temperamental characteristics?  

- Research has found that all of the above are related to temperament.

Most infants begin to show preference for a certain hand  - by 2 months

When women remain at home with their children,  

- fathers show more positive emotions toward their infants.

While observing children at a preschool, you notice a young mother  holding baby twins, a boy and a girl. What is the LEAST likely reaction  of the children?  

- The preschoolers will talk to the baby.

What negative emotions emerge during the 6 to 9 month period?  - anger and wariness

Similar to adults, right hand preference in infancy is fairly strong and  stable.  

- false

The frequency with which infants make demands of mothers  ___________________ once infants begin to walk.  

- NOT: decreases slightly

According to the text, when comparing the style of play and parent child teaching in industrialized vs. nontechnical cultures, the style of  non-technical cultures is better for developing well-rounded and more  competent children.  

- false

Postural control while sitting is important for the development of skilled reaching.  

- true

Research on emotion regulation in 6 to 9 month old infants has found  - NOT: boys and girls this age are similar in their emotion expressions.

Men with working wives  

- NOT: tend to equally share in childcare but not housework.

According to research, both males and females show interest in and  ability to care for infants, as long as such interest is fostered by the  social environment.  

- true

The mother who is most likely to directly demonstrate how to do  something and repeat such demonstrations is from  

- NOT: Beijing, China.

CH. 8

Ian works all day and worries that their baby will be more attached to  Ian's wife than to Ian. You tell him,  

- Overall, there are few differences between attachment to mother or  father; be responsive to your baby and part of your baby's life and  you'll have nothing to worry about.

Which emotion is most frequently elicited in infants when their goals  have been disrupted?  

- anger

Overall, there are few differences between attachment to mother and  attachment to father.  

- true

Which of the following does NOT affect an infant's response to  strangers?  

- All of these affect the infant's response to strangers.

Your friend wants to "baby proof" her home and make it safe for her  toddler. Which of the following is the best piece of advice?  - NOT: You can buy many things at your local home improvement  center to baby proof your house.

NOT: You are better off teaching your baby to live in the "real" world.  Teach your baby not to touch things he shouldn't touch and not open  cabinets he should not open.

The ability to combine two or more objects appropriately according to  their function is  

- relational play

Your classmate missed the professor's lecture on developments in the  infant's ability to perceive emotion and intention expressed by others.  He asks you to summarize the lecture in one sentence. You reply,  - NOT: By the end of the second half of the first year, infants learn to  differentiate their own feelings from those of others.

NOT: Even at one year of age, infants show that they can no  understand the feelings of others.

After a brief separation, infants who spend more hours per day with  their caregivers on an Israeli kibbutz  

- showed a more positive response when reunited with their caregivers  than with their mothers.

You watch an infant looking at something for a long period. The infant  makes abrupt, jerky movements. It is likely that the infant is watching  - NOT: his mother

Studies of infants show that infants intrinsically are attached to their  mothers, whether or not mother spends time with the infant, showing a biological basis for attachment.  

- false

Cross culturally, most infants show a general fear of strangers at  around 8 months of age.  

- true

When Mommy tries to take a toy away from Baby Liselle, Baby Liselle  firmly pushes Mommy's hand away to prevent the toy from being  taken. According to Piaget, this is an example of  

- coordination of secondary circular reactions (Sensorimotor Stage IV).

A-not-B errors are grown out of by around 15 months of age; adults do  not make A-not-B errors.  

- false

Locomotive ability seems to enhance  

- both social and cognitive development.

Between 8 and 10 months of age, infants are able to imitate certain  actions, but only if they are given many demonstrations and plenty of  time to process the information.  

- false

Almost all infants who show _______________________________ type of  attachment come from families with a history of child abuse,  maltreatment, infant malnutrition, and/or alcoholism.  - disorganized-disoriented

In general, long good-byes appear to help children separate from their  mother in a more positive way.  

- false

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