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BGSU - HDFS 2020 - Class Notes - Week 10

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BGSU - HDFS 2020 - Class Notes - Week 10

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background image HDFS 2020-1004 Contemporary Families and Marriages Christy Snyder Chapter 8: Marriages in Societal and Individual 
Marriage in American Society:  Marriage has long been the foundation on which American families are 
o Approximately 53.1% of adults 18 and older in the U.S. are  currently married. o Another 18.8% are formerly married, being either widowed (6%),  separated (2.2%), or divorced (10.6%). With a 2012 divorce rate of 17.3 women per 1000 women 18 and older 
in first marriages, the U.S. has one of the highest divorce rates among 
Western societies
o More than 40% of new marriages are projected to end in divorce
o Singlehood, cohabitation, and births to unmarried mothers 
(either single or cohabiting) all have increased over the last three
decades of the twentieth century.
Pew research survey noted that only 13% of “never-marrieds” report 
that they do not want to marry
Americans’ attitudes toward marriage have become somewhat more 
The economic and demographic aspects discouraging marriage -  o Some scholars contend that a retreat from marriage has occurred in the U.S. in recent decades.  o The retreat from marriage is evident in such recent and ongoing  trends as- Older age in first marriage for both women and men More people never marrying Significant increases in cohabitation and non-marital births Continued high divorce rates o Whatever retreat from marriage has occurred is not equal among all social groups Instead racial, economic, and educational differences can 
be identified
Does not marrying suggest rejection of marriage?
background image o Even if low socioeconomic status reduces the likelihood of  marriage, it may not signal an attitudinal rejection of marriage o Low-income unmarried couples with children experience three  barriers to marriage- Financial concerns Concerns about the quality and durability of their 
Fear of divorce Somewhere between decline and resiliency o Deinstitutionalization of marriage: The weakening of the social norms that define people’s 
behavior in a social institution such as marriage
o Marital decline perspective: Belief that marriage is endangered o Marital resilience perspective: Belief that marriage is changing though still highly valued o Individualized Marriages emphasize personal fulfillment and  personal growth in marriage and expect that our spouses will 
facilitate this. 
This is now a more common type of marriage than 
companionate marriage
Religion and Marriage o Along w race and social class, religious affiliation is among the  factors that may influence whether and when people choose to 
o Religious differences have been identified in marriage  sanctification, mate choice, childbearing and child rearing, 
division of housework, domestic violence, marital quality and 
o Religion also involves marital sanctification Who Can We Marry?: Nowhere in the U.S. is marriage allowed between: o Parents and children
o Grandparents and grandchildren
o Brothers and sisters
o Uncles and nieces
o Aunts and nephews
Along with Canada and Mexico, 19 U.S. states and the District of 
Columbia allow first cousins to marry
Age Restrictions
background image o Throughout the U.S., 49 out of 50 states require both would be  spouses to be at least 18 years old to marry without parental 
consent (19 in Nebraska).
Number of Spouses o No state allows an individual to marry legally if he or she is  already married Marriage Equality: The Controversy over Same-Sex Marriage: On June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage became legal throughout all 50 
states in the U.S.
In 1996 Congress passed Defense of Marriage Act In 2015 as a result of the legal case of Obergefell v. Hodges, same-sex 
marriage was legalized throughout the U.S. 
Why Do We Marry? The Marriage Market, Who, and How We Choose: Endogamy o People usually marry others from within their same large group Such as the nationality, ethnic group, or socioeconomic 
status with which they identify—because they share 
common assumptions, experiences, and understandings. 
Exogamy o Requires us to marry outside certain groups—specifically, outside our own family (however defied) and outside our sex. Homogamy o Endogamy and exogamy interact to limit the field of eligible  mates The field is further limited by society’s encouragement of 
The tendency to choose a mate whose personal or 
group characteristics are similar to ours
o Most marriages are between members of the same race Black-White Intermarriage o Only about 1 in 10 racial intermarriages are between an African  American and Caucasian o Typically, when they occur, these are marriages of black  husbands to white wives The Marriage Squeeze and Mating Gradient o Marriage Squeeze The gender imbalance reflected in the ratio of available 
unmarried women and men. 
Members of one gender tend to be “squeezed” out of the 
marriage market
o Mating Gradient
background image The tendency for women to marry men of higher status  Men tend to marry women slightly below them in age, 
education, and so on
Marital and Family History o Never-married people are more likely to marry other never- married people than they are to “intermarry” by marrying 
divorced people
This marital history homogamy occurs mostly as a result of
deliberate choices
Residential propinquity is the tendency to choose partners 
in our own geographic areas
Theories and Stages of Choosing a Spouse o Complementary needs theory – people choose partners whose  needs are different from their own o Value/role theory – people choose partners who feel and think as  they do o Parental Image Theory – People seek partners similar to their  opposite sex parent o Filter Theories – Partners are chosen based on specific  parameters o Stimulus-Role-Value Theory – People choose partners with whom  they have a special attraction Why Marry?:  Benefits of Marriage:  o Economic well-being
o Physical and mental health
o Personal happiness
Is it Marriage?  o Social causation and social selection—are processes in which  marriage has health benefits for both partners Predicting Marita Success:  Ted Hoston and Heidi Melz describe three “prototypical courtship 
experiences.” Each of which has different likely consequences for 
couples who marry
o Rocky and turbulent courtships – unhappy but lasting marriage
o Sweet and undramatic courtships – satisfying and enduring 
marriages o Passionate courtships – Vulnerable to divorce  Background Factors o Age 
o Level of education

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School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Human Development
Course: Contemporary Marriages and Families
Professor: Christy Synder
Term: Fall 2018
Name: HDFS 2020, Week 10
Description: A continuation of my notes page, new addition is chapter 10!
Uploaded: 10/31/2018
15 Pages 125 Views 100 Unlocks
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