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UCR / Geospatial Studies / geo GEO 009 / What makes water a “polar” molecule?

What makes water a “polar” molecule?

What makes water a “polar” molecule?


School: University of California Riverside
Department: Geospatial Studies
Course: Oceanography
Professor: Sandra turner
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Oceanography, waves, Atmosphere, Ocean and Atmosphere, and ocean geography
Cost: 50
Name: Oceanography Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the following: -ocean chemistry -atmospheric circulation -ocean circulation -ocean waves
Uploaded: 10/31/2018
13 Pages 40 Views 3 Unlocks

University of California, Riverside

What makes water a “polar” molecule?

Fall Quarter 2018

Professor: Sandra Turner

Oceanography Midterm 2 Study Guide


Lesson 6: Ocean Chemistry

(Readings 7)

What makes water a

“polar” molecule?

Why is water a powerful solvent?

What’s a salt?

Solutions vs Mixtures Ionic vs Covalent bonds

● One end of a water molecule is positive

● The other end is negative

● Polarity makes great solvents

● An ionic compound

● NaCl is a common salt

● Origin?

○ Erosion

○ Outgassing

● Solution-A mixture of a solvent and a solute

○ Solvent-usually liquid

■ more

○ Solute-a dissolved gas or solid

■ Less

● Mixture-material made up two different substances that are mixed in

● Ionic bonds-when ion atoms have an unbalanced electrical charge, they will either share or lose electrons with other ions

● Covalent bonds

Why is water a powerful solvent?


Dissolution vs


Our Ocean’s Salinity

Ions of the ocean

Why do the oceans lack magnesium, chlorine, and sulfur?

● Random movement of materials/fluid from a highly concentrated area to a low concentrated area

● Dissolution-process of which a salt is broken

down(dissolving) in order to form a solution

○ Ions break up

● Precipitation-formation of a solid within a solution ○ Ions get back together

○ Saturation-rate of a solute molecules dissolving

● The total amount of inorganic solids dissolved when in contact with water

● Seawater

○ 97% water

○ 3% dissolved content

● Salinity-total of dissolved inorganic material in the water ○ The ocean is about 35% salinity

● Evaporation, precipitation, freshwater runoff from land ○ Factors that affect the ocean’s salinity

● Sodium and chloride

○ Found most abundant of the salts in the ocean

● React with one another which changes the properties of pure water

● Colligative properties

○ Heat capacity

○ Disruption of hydrogen bonding

○ Makes sea water evaporate slower

○ Osmotic pressure-pressure exerted on biological membrane whenever environment’s salinity


○ Pure water does not have any colligative


● The small amount it does contains comes from volcanic gases which contain Chlorine and Sulfur

● The undersea volcanic activity stips away the magnesium

Why do the oceans lack magnesium, chlorine, and sulfur?

If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of the lemon test?

How can we measure


Trace elements 

How is the ocean an

chemical equilibrium?

Reason why oceans get salty

How long do ions stay in saltwater?

Residence time for water

1. Sum up all ion concentrations

2. Principle of Constant Proportions

○ Measure a few ions

● Ion concentrations group in constant ratios

● Oceans are chemical equilibriums

● Elements that show themselves in quantities less than 0.001%(1 ppm)

● It has a balanced input and output

○ In=Out

● It is not static 

○ Non-reactive

● This makes ion concentrations typically constant

● It doesn’t make sense considering In=Out

● Which means at some point in the past In>Out

● Continental weathering or mantle outgassing

○ Creates chemical ions in the ocean

○ Eventually leaves through some sort of biological process and sedimentation

● Residence time= total amount of ions in ocean/rate or input or removal of ions

● Conservative elements

○ They are well mixed

■ Ocean mixing time=about 1600 years

○ Have long residence time

● Nonconservative elements 

○ Somehow tied to biological/seasonal processes

○ Have short residence time

● Water is a conservative constituent

● Residence time= about 4100 years

● Each year, water evaporates and returns through either precipitation or runoff

We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of separation anxiety disorder?

What other elements could dissolve in water?

Biochemistry in the ocean


Carbon Dioxide

● Oxygen

● Nitrogen

● Carbon dioxide

● These are all principle gases found in our atmosphere, however, there will be different proportions of them if we were to compare the amounts in air and water

○ More amounts of Nitrogen and Oxygen found in atmosphere compared to oceans

● Plant life creates Oxygen and sugars using water and carbon dioxide

● :Living Organisms would respire which breaks down these sugars

○ Uses oxygen

○ Generates water, energy, and carbon dioxide

● Oxygen

○ Made as a product of photosynthesis

○ Animals use these

● Carbon dioxide

○ Made as a product of animals

○ Plants use these

● Maximum quantity of a substance that is able to dissolve in another substance

● Solubility of gases differs with temperature compared to when it's with gases

○ Opposite effect with salts

● Greenhouse gas

● CO2 from atmosphere

○ Has a fast dissolving rate

● CO2 from ocean

○ Has a slow dissolving rate

● Oceans behave as a SINK for atmospheric CO2 ○ Take CO2 from atmosphere

● Stored in ocean as a carbonic acid, bicarbonate ion ○ Carbonate ion=dissolved inorganic carbon

● pH is determined through the carbons balance

○ Deep water-more acidic

■ Dissolves carbonate better

○ Oceans have a relatively stable pH

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the surface survey?

Lesson 7: Atmospheric Circulation

(Readings 8)

What are some different ways heat can transfer?

Thermal equilibrium 

What is the Greenhouse Effect?

What determines the

amount of solar

radiation/heat a point will receive?

● Conduction-collision of molecules that don’t require the motion of the whole material

● Convection-mass motion

○ Within a gas or a liquid

● Radiation-particles/waves through empty space ○ Solar radiation 

■ Heats Earth’s surface

■ Drives convection into our atmosphere

● Heat in=Heat out during long periods

● About 51% of solar energy is absorbed by Earth’s land and water

○ That is then radiated as long-wave infrared

radiation back to space

● Effective temperature of Earth would be -18 degrees celsius w/o our atmosphere

○ Inhabitable

● Thanks to the greenhouse effect, Earth’s effective temperature is about 15 degrees celsius

● Dependent on the point’s position of the sun above the horizon

● When there is extra or lack of heat, heat will transfer ○ winds/ocean currents transfer heat

○ Warm air molecules are farther while cool air

molecules are closer

○ Air pressure-weight of the column of air above you

■ When it rises, it decreases

○ Cool air sinks because the of the air’s expansion ○ Convection

■ Humid air is less dense than dry air

■ Creates clouds

○ Cold air holds less moisture

○ Ocean located at the equator is warm

■ More water evaporates

■ Air is more humid

Don't forget about the age old question of When is contact hypothesis utilized?

Why is the atmosphere thin?

What are the 3 circulation cells found in each


What is ITCZ?

Horse Latitudes 

Trade winds vs Westerlies Coriolis Effect

● Cold air doesn’t make it all the way to the poles as it sinks

○ Air can sink approximately 30 degrees lat

● Dry, sinking air warms up and goes back to the equator ○ Picks up moisture on its way

● Warm, moist air rises at equator

○ Some air ends up escaping North and warms as it travels

1. Hadley cells 

a. Found in tropical latitudes

2. Ferrel cells 

a. Found in mid-latitudes

3. Polar cells 

a. High latitudes

● Intertropical Convergence Zone 

○ Also referred as Doldrums

● Equatorial area where air moves straight up

○ Weak surface sinds, rains, thunderstorms

● Subtropical areas

● Little surface wind

● High atm pressure

● Trade winds 

○ Ceintered 15 N/S

● Westerlies 

○ Centered 45 N/S

● Apparent deflection of moving objects from their initial course

○ speed and direction are measured in reference to the surface of Earth as its rotating

● Northern Hemisphere

○ Deflected right

● Southern Hemisphere

○ Deflected left

We also discuss several other topics like Which continent is the 4th largest by landmass?

● Air mass should be deflected from moving N/S direction more as it travels towards the poles

● Intensity increases with latitude

Lesson 8: Ocean Circulation

(Readings 9)

What are the 2 main types of currents?

Geostrophic gyre 

Ekman transport

● Surface currents 

○ Driven by winds

○ Affect 10% of the ocean

● Thermohaline currents 

○ Depend on density difference caused by temp and salinity

○ Affect all of the ocean

● Oceanwide circular current bounded by continents ○ Westerly winds

○ Trade winds

● Clockwise in North

● Counterclockwise in South

● Result from a balance of different types of forces ○ Wind friction

○ Coriolis effect

○ Pressure gradient effect

● Frictional force is felt less and less as you move down the ocean

● Average movement for the whole column of water is 90 to the right of the wind

○ Northern hemisphere

● Pressure gradient-difference between center and the outside that partially counteracts movement of water around the middle area

● Gravitational pull will pull the water back down the slope

● The Coriolis effect is greater than the pressure gradient so curvature and small hill of water occurs

We also discuss several other topics like Why are non-renewable resources significant in international security?


What affects weather and climate?

What were the El Nino and La Nina events?

● Western boundary currents

○ Fastest

○ Deepest

○ Narrow

○ Gulf stream

● Eastern boundary currents

○ Slower

○ Wider

○ Shallowe

○ Canary Current

● Transverse currents

○ Move east/west

○ Driven directly by the wind

● Centers are calm

● Contains lots of plastic waste

● The weather and the climate in the area are what affect its surface temperature

● Surface ocean currents

○ Distribute heat(tropical) worldwide

○ Warm water will flow to higher latitudes which will transfer heat to air and cools to move back


○ Low latitude water gains heat

○ Cycle begins again

● Vertical currents-created by the winds near continental edges

● In a typical normal year-trade winds blow East to West ○ High pressure from the South

○ Low pressure around Australia

○ Currents driven by wind would push water

westward which will then turn into a pool of the

warmest water in the world

○ Upwelling will bring the nutrients for sea life

● El Nino year-

○ Trade winds blow from west to east

○ There was a lack of wind

○ Less rain appeared in the west while more rain appeared in the east

○ Less nutrients were made for the sea life

○ Consequences

Besides wind, what other elements can drive


How can you form saline water?

■ Warm water->More rain->Increased

amount of flooding and landslides

■ Lasted about a year

■ Same with La Nina

● They can be driven by density differences between water masses

● Denser water

○ Colder

○ Saltier

1. Freeze seawater

a. Ice is pure water and can leave behind denser

and saltier brine water

2. Evaporate seawater

a. This increases salinity

Lesson 9: Ocean Waves

(Readings 10)

Why do waves happen?

How is energy


Water particles

● As a response to applied forces, waves will form at the interference of 2 fluid layers to transmit that energy ○ The 2 fluid layers: air and water

● Internal waves also occur between water masses of different densities

● In waves

● NOT in water mass

○ Wave energy travels ahead

○ CURRENTS travel water mass/WAVES travel


● The water molecules move in orbits just by a little ● Gravitational potential energy-occurs when an object is raised above its resting height

○ Gravitational force x The change in height

○ Waves are able to transfer G.P.E between

adjacent water particles

● Move in an orbital motion

○ Orbit sizes decrease in depth


Wind waves

Deep vs Shallow waters

How to calculate wave period



● The speed of any movement

● Celerity=wavelength/period

○ C=L/T

○ meters/sec

● Capillary waves

● Wind waves

● Deep

○ The speed of waves depends on


○ Wavelengths travel faster

● Shallow

○ The speed of waves depends on the depth

○ Wavelengths travel slower

■ Waves travel slower onshore

● C=gT/2pi

● The product of 2 or more waves combining creates a single wave

● Waves typically cancel one another out

○ One moves up while another moves down

● Destructive Interference-

● Constructive Interference-

○ Rogue waves could be created through

constructive interference

○ Usually rare

● Water sloshing back and forth due to some sort of disturbance

○ Earthquake

○ Atmospheric change

○ Strong winds

How do tsunamis form?

● A seismic sea wave from the result from earthquakes ○ Earthquake causes movement in the ocean floor ○ Huge quantities of water are displaced vertically ● Shallow water waves

● Typical period

○ 1000 sec

● Typical wavelength

○ 200,000m

● These waves are preceded by their wave troughs ○ Occurs 50% of the time

○ Water recedes first

Lesson 10: The Great Wave

(Readings 11)

What are tides?

What are tides caused by?

Earth’s gravitational pull on the moon

● Variations of waves that move in rhythmic fashion ○ Periods last 12-24 hrs

○ Periods depend on where your location is on


● Equilibrium Theory of Tides 

○ Caused by an imbalance between the

gravitational force of attraction of the Sun and

the moon

■ Affects Earth’s oceans

○ Resistance to change path(inertia) of the water as the Earth is rotating

● Moon attracts the ocean

○ Evidence: bulge of Earth’s water aiming towards moon

● Explanation for why there is a bulge shown away from the moon

○ Both the Moon and the Earth are orbiting

around a common center of mass

■ Center of mass is located about 1650 km

deep within the Earth

○ Moon and Earth rotate around the same axis

Tidal generating forces

What is the most important for determining

gravitational force exerted on an object?

What causes the 12 hour period seen in tides?

What are some


● Why the Earth and Moon don’t smash right into each other

○ Both move in a stable orbit

○ Inertia opposes the gravity

● Overall:

○ The bulge of water heading towards the moon is the result of gravitational pull

○ The bulge of water heading away the moon is the result of inertia(resistance to change the

direction of a moving mass)

● The net force of gravity and inertia combined ○ They make the two bulges of Earth’s ocean

■ One points towards the moon

■ One points away from the moon

● Gravity and inertia are both equal in strength ○ Their equal in strength and opposite directions are what keeps the planet balanced

● Distance

● Due to the Earth’s spin on the axis

● NOT due to the Moon’s orbit

● Earth rotates under bulges

○ High tides=due to bulge

○ Low tides=due to trough

● Lunar tidal periods are not exactly 12 hours

○ It’s approximately 12 h 25m due to the Moon’s rotation

● Every 27.3 days, the moon moves about 28 degrees below the equator to 28 degrees above the equator ○ The maximum of bulges are more often found North or South of the equator

● The Sun also exerts gravity and tidal force

○ Sum of gravity-inertia force=tidal force

○ Estimated that the Sun exerts around half of the tidal force the Moon exerts on Earth

How often do tidal forces of the Sun and Moon aligned?

Seasonal dependence

Dynamic Theory of Tides 

What is the energy flow in tides?

● Twice every lunar month

○ Two weeks

● Spring tides

○ Happen at 2 week intervals

○ Not strictly for spring season

● High and low tides are much more extreme

○ Due to interference

● Neap tides

○ High tides aren’t as high

○ Low tides are very low

○ Moon and Sun are out of phase

● Earth is 3,700,000 km farther away from the Sun in Northern hemisphere during Summer compared to Winter

● Winter tides in Northern Hemisphere are larger compared to the summer tides

● Moon doesn’t have a perfect orbit

● Tides are shallow water waves

● Forced waves due to the driving forces that are always there

1. Due to the pull of the Sun and Moon, tides are able to gain gravitational potential energy

2. Tidal waves will then transmit that energy to the coasts 3. That energy is dissipated as heat and turbulence at the shores

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