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KSU - FDM 35012 - Class Notes - Week 11

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KSU - FDM 35012 - Class Notes - Week 11

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background image Distribution and Supply Chain Week 11 Supply chain and Designers Traditionally designers simply specify the feel, weight or respond to 
whatever the mills offer us
We leave technical decisions and their implications of pollution, or 
human and ecosystem health to manufactures or textile scientists 
because we do not feel qualified to weigh in.
This intellectual timidity or lack of engagement widens the gap of 
responsibility and marginalizes the influence of the designer. In fact we
have a great deal to offer and are the conduit between consumers and 
the “experts”
We are in a position to demand better standards in all areas of 
sustainable practice while creating a ready market
When designers become more engaged in the industrial and technical 
processes that we move closer to tangible solutions
Direct experiences raise our awareness in an immediate and visceral 
way. It starts to build reference points to inform and frame future 
decisions regarding the complex issues of sustainable practice
When designers are actively involved with the technical aspects it 
prompts further discussions with technicians, creates useful dialogue 
and creates a foundation for problem solving
Broad Principles Goal Action Make wise use of natural 
materials
Minimize the number of 
processing steps
Significantly reduce pollution Eradicate the number of 
chemicals, toxins, and harmful 
processes
Minimize water consumption Combine processes or use low-
temp
Reduce load on landfills Minimize waste generation at all 
stages
Spinning, Knitting, and Weaving These processes are mechanical sot eh major environmental burdens 
are related to energy use and chemical effluents
All yarns or threads must be treated to reduce breakage or abrasion. 
Then the chemicals used to coat the fibers must be washed off before 
the next stage of dyeing etc.
Weaving and fabric finished are normally separate activities, carried 
out by different companies, frequently in different countries. There is 
little financial incentive to not use cheap methods since the other 
factories would be the one benefitting
background image Distribution and Supply Chain Week 11 There are also biocides that are added to reduce the chance of natural 
fibers from rotting or spoiling during transport. These are often washed
out again in the desizing process and before the dye bath
Emissions from the biocides are outlawed in the EU and the US for their
negative effects in nervous, reproductive and renal systems and for 
their carcinogenic properties
Best Practices in Yarn and Fiber Manufacturing In spinning, ask suppliers to manufacture yarn with readily 
biodegradable lubricants
In Knitting, ask suppliers to use water soluble and biodegradable 
lubricants as substitutes for mineral oils
Avoid woven fabrics where PCP (biocide pentachlorophenols) has been 
added as a sizing preservative
Ask suppliers to substitute sizing agents for natural starches and use 
‘low add on techniques’ which minimize the amount of sizing used in 
the first place
If recycled sizing agents are used, check with suppliers that sizing is 
recovered and reused
If unknown sizing agents are used, check with suppliers that size is 
removed with efficient techniques such as the oxidative route and 
ensure adequate effluent treatment
Ask suppliers to combine scouring and desizing processes with 
bleaching to save chemicals, energy and water
Bleaching Chlorine based compounds can accumulate in water systems causing 
long terms damage and have been linked to abnormalities in 
psychological development and are human carcinogens
Bleaching is used in the dye process to prepare for color creating a 
uniform white
An item that has been poorly dyed or unevenly dyed may fade easier 
or display irregularities causing it to be discarded
Bleaching is a needed process but there must be a better way to do it Dyeing Sustainable dyeing is extremely variable based on fiber type, dyestuff, 
auxiliary chemicals, method of application, type and age of machinery 
and hardness of water
No single color or dyestuff is more or less  harmful but turquoise, Kelly 
green and bright blue (copper) which can be toxic and dark colors 
which have a lower exhaustion rate
background image Distribution and Supply Chain Week 11 Exhaustion is important because the higher the fixation rate, the less 
remaining dye in the dye bath and the lower level of dye chemicals 
emitted to waste water and lower the risk of pollution
The most common dye systems are reactive for cellulosic fibers. Cotton
has the lowest fixation rate. Approximately 65% with the remaining 
35% having to be disposed.
Beyond dye there are fixatives and other chemicals that are used to 
assist in color fastness or to help the dye exhaust more. Additionally, 
there is often the issue of using high temperatures which use a lot of 
energy.
Dying is extremely water intensive. The ratio of water to fabric can be 
as high as 20:1 but the industry median is 12:1 and the most water 
efficient is currently 5:1
There is some development in
creating dye that will absorb with
only the use of cold water which
would greatly reduce the amount of
energy consumed
The Ecology of a Dye House The dyeing process is a linear: resources enter, are processed and are 
then dispelled – even if being efficient reduces the chemicals etc.
If mils seek to reused water, they are restricted to dyes that use the 
same color and same chemicals for the same fabric
Research is under way to create universal dyes which would allow for 
“cross pollination” allowing for any fiber, any dye and any fixative to be
used indefinitely
Cleaning Water Some dye houses use biological digestion (natural dyes) but does not 
account for a great deal of chemicals. Research is being done to create
advanced systems such as ultrafiltration, nano-filtration and reverse 
osmosis which removes salt from the waste water
These treatments would allow the water to be safe non-contaminated 
water that could be re-circulated
Specialist Fabric Finishing After dyeing or printing fabric is often treated to increase performance.
Some are mechanical – such as caldering (fabric is pressed through 
two rollers to give it a sheen and increase the density) but most are 
chemical
Water repellency and crease resistance – traditionally with urea and 
formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is restricted sue to evidence of 
carcinogens and skin irritation

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School: Kent State University
Department: Fashion
Course: Sustainability in Fashion
Professor: Noel Palomo-Lovinski
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: sustainability, Fashion, and fabrics
Name: Week 11 Notes
Description: This is for sustainability of fashion class
Uploaded: 11/02/2018
9 Pages 81 Views 64 Unlocks
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