wish it was more in line with the review given in class to make studying easier
Test 3 Study Guide
RTV- Right to vote, very valued.
Basic forms of political participation- mentioning voting, groups, protests, running for office, financing a campaign, and wearing/displaying things political.
Retrospective voting: to vote for or against candidate based on past performances in office
Statistically, TX votes less than most states in country. ¼ of TX doesn’t vote- 28.5 voter turnout
∙ Traditionalistic & Individualistic mindset + Past office holders Verba & Nie on voter participation: Don't forget about the age old question of What does charge mean?
1. Inactive: don’t do anything at all
2. Voting Specialists: only vote
3. Pro Participants: only participant if it affects them
If you want to learn more check out What does hominin mean?
4. Campaigners: Go to vote about controversies
5. Communalists: Don’t like controversial activities
6. Complete Activists: do everything
Social networks increased voter participation in recent years.
Highest voter turnout is White and African American and lowest turnout are Asian American and Hispanic of any race.
∙ Non-Hispanic whites>Minority groups in voting & registering Don't forget about the age old question of What does it mean when a firm has comparative advantage?
We also discuss several other topics like What are demographic measures?
VEP (voting eligible population) & VAP different (voting age population, population 18+)
Measure voter participation by VEP, which is calculated by correcting VAP to eliminate ineligible groups, such as noncitizens and convicted felons.
Why we vote
Give citizens a voice Don't forget about the age old question of What is linear electron flow?
Holds office holders accountable We also discuss several other topics like Give an example of interest rate and bonds.
Advocate fof beliefs
Why we don't vote
"vote doesn't count"
Doesn't affect me/Don't care Vote too often
∙ Poll taxes- 24th amendment abolished in 1964
∙ Literacy tests- Voting Rights Act of 1965 abolished
∙ White primaries- Smith v. Allwright: can’t prevent minorities from participating
∙ Grandfather clauses- vote if grandfather was eligible to vote – Guinn v. US: clause violated 15th amendment
Universal Suffrage- 18+ can vote from 26th amendment in 1971. ∙ 1918 suffrage in TX elections, 1920 women suffrage in US.
Qualifications to vote
∙ Native born or naturalized citizen
∙ 18 on election day
∙ Resident of state & county for 30 days before election, resident of district on election day
∙ Registered voter 30 days before election
∙ Not convicted felon (unless sentence, etc. is finished)
∙ Mentally competent
7 acceptable forms of gov’t issued photo ID, or provide other forms of identification such as birth certificate, bills, etc. by signing “reasonable impediment”
For bilingual ballots to be printed- More than 5% or 10,000 VAP within the precinct. Early voting opens 17-4 days before election, vote as usual
Absentee voting - request or apply for their mail-in ballot more than 17 days before election. And marked ballots must be return to the voting clerk and received by 7pm on election date.
National voter registration a.k.a. Motor Voter Act
How to campaign & win in TX
∙ Self run (announce)
∙ Have a message
∙ Raise money
∙ National/ state local party support
∙ Understand & reach the voters
Media plays a big role in the portrayal of candidates, so candidates try to shine themselves in the most positive light
4 Types of elections
Primary, Runoff, General, Referendum/Special- recall, bond, proposed laws
Primaries- choose candidates who will run in general election Held on the 2nd Tuesday in March of even numbered years
States have caucuses to meet and vote in the open
∙ Filing fee $3,750- to run for statewide office in primary or general election Required for political parties that receive 20% of the vote in gubernational elections
Semi-open primaries in TX - don’t have to register w/ a party to vote (open), but primaries are private (closed) so then you must pick a side
Parties administer the elections, closed to those choosing to vote in their primary Little to no representation
Democratic party previously supported white primaries in TX
Runoff- if no candidates receives a majority of the vote
Voter turnout lower than primary
General- every 2 years on nonpresidential years
Highest voter turnout
Ballots include candidates nominated in primaries + submitted petitions signed by registered voters
∙ Registered/Minority parties must obtain 5%-19% of vote in previous governors’ election
Independent candidate- person whose name appears on the ballot wo/ political party
to run for statewide office, candidate must file a petition w/ specified # of signatures- must collect 1% of the total previous governors’ election and must do so by January 2nd of the year of the election
∙ Signers must be a registered voter and must not have participated in the primary elections of other parties in that electoral cycle
∙ “Sore loser” law- a person who lost the primary vote from running as an independent candidate
Write-in candidate- A person whose name does not appear on the ballot; voters must write in that person’s name, and the person must have led a formal notice that he or she was a write-in candidate before the election
Referendum or Special Elections
Non-candidate elections, proposed constitutional amendments, bond, & recall ∙ One contest- to fill in a vacancy
State & local elections
city council, mayor, municipal, & school board
Very low turnout but are important
Bonds subject to approval by voters since voters will be taxed to pay for a public agency/state gov’t that’s raising money.
Since 1994, TX has been republican in its state-held offices.
5 Party Eras
1. 1873-1940 100% Democratic- one party gov’t, North was R 2. 1940-1952 Conservative vs. liberal D’s b/c support of new deal moves more towards R’s
3. 1952-1977 Voters wanted change from recession unrest, Shivercrats Eisenhower Republican carried TX, John Tower: R senator won statewide election
4. 1978-1994 Ronald Reagan brought R to the South, Bill Clements 1st R governor
∙ Ronald Reagan: GOP (pro-market, libertarian R’s) & shift in conservative D’s becoming R’s
∙ Clements built R party in TX, causing party realignment
5. Now 100% Republican- one party gov’t, D haven’t won statewide election since 1994
• Urban areas
• environemtnal legislation
• civil & women's rights
• pro-choice, no capital punishment
• increased taxation & spending
• gun control
3rd Parties in TX- Libertarians most successful TEA party most aligns w/ conservative R’s
• Rural or suburban areas • pro-business
• reduced taxes
• pro-guns, 2nd amendment • religious
Yellow Dogs: defined as democrats regardless of the party’s ideological position
∙ Importance: voted for R candidate Eisenhower w/ help from Shivercrats, breaking tradition
∙ 1956: voting R for presidency, D for state
TX court cases
Grovey v. Townsend
Form of dejure discrimination
Smith v. Allwright
abolished white primary
Sweatt v. Painter
denied entry to UT law-then admitted Hernandez v. Texas
Hispanics should be separate class Ruiz v. Estelle
8th amendment violation
only 95% capacity for prisons
Roe v. Wade
Women have levels of privacy, abortion San Antonio ISD v. Rodriguez
Education is a state issue, not a federal issue Jurek v. Texas
Lethal injection most humane
Plyer v. Doe
In favor of education illegal alien children Texas v. Brown
Plain view doctrine
Texas v. Johnson
Edgewood v. Kirby
14th Amendment violation
Creates "Robin Hood" plan
US v. Lopez
Gun in school doesn't affect interstate commerce
Hopwood v. Texas
10% rule- 10% of grad class automatic admit
Carmell v. Texas
Ex post facto- can't add to an offense when it wasn't requirement at time of crime Penry v. Johnson
"Mitigating evidence" Regarding mental capacity.
Lawrence and Garner v. Texas
state violates 14th amendment
Van Orden v. Perry
monument had historical meaning, not religious
McCreary County v. ACLU
1st amendment establishment of religion
LU LAC v. Perry
violated voting rights act, diluted minorities
Medellin v. Texas
treaty is not binding upon state courts
Salinas v. Texas
5th amendment self-incrimination clause: claim right first
Fisher v. University of Texas
the strict scrutiny test may be used when groups w/ a history of discrimination are considered
Whole Women's Health v. Hellerstedt
undue burden on women exercising their right under the U.S. Constitution to end a pregnancy,