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comm 180 exam 3

comm 180 exam 3


School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Communications
Course: Electronic Media and Telecommunications
Professor: Patrick parsons
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 50
Name: Comm 180. Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These notes are the study guide answers the professor sent the class.
Uploaded: 11/04/2018
7 Pages 8 Views 29 Unlocks

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Converging Media Chapter 4

What are the primary functions of the recording industry?

What are the primary functions of the recording industry

• Record labels don’t make as much money as online music distribution  • Online music distribution appeals to larger and more diverse audiences What is difference between major label and independent label

• Major label: recording companies, they control a lot of music industry through  distribution channels and market music to mass audiences (ex. universal music group,  Sony, music entertainment, etc.)

• Independent label: small companies that produce and distribute records producing 1 or 2  albums a year We also discuss several other topics like ger 2010 class notes

Who is Amanda Palmer and why is she mentioned?

• Media pioneer  

• She separated from her band and started making music alone

• Through social media and the internet, she could raise a lot of money to support herself  and even got places to stay and food to eat from people on the internet

What were the very earliest uses of radio technology?

• She used crowdfunding to support the music industry and for a certain price you could  get downloadable music  

What is the general trend of music revenues from various sources

• Music business made a lot less money from 2000-2015 because of free downloads  • People stopped paying for music

• Then in 2016, there was another increase in revenue because people were willing to pay  for music through iTunes and other sources but purchase of full albums still declining  • CD sales also dropping

What is payola

• Cash or gifts given to people working at radio station in exchange for playing more of  artists’ songs

• It is now illegal  

What is the long tail

• Selling few of many types of items can be just as profitable, if not more profitable, than  selling many copies of few items

• Works very well for amazon and Netflix

Why is radio so important around the world?

How do artists promote themselves today? We also discuss several other topics like bathygraphic features

• Free downloads  

How much do artists earn from record sales?

• 10-20% of list price

What is DRM and how is it used

• digital rights management

• technologies that let copyright owners control the level of access or use allowed for  copyrighted work, such as limiting the number of times a song can be copies • most common with online music  

• limits also length of time song can be played

• limits also devices that can play that music

What is the concern about file sharing

• threat of lawsuits and heavy load such sharing imposes

• it slows down networks even for users not sharing files

• universities are primary targets

What are the new business models

• more individual song sales than album sales

How many records does typical band sell

• 118 million

What is the freemium model

• subscriptions that provide some content for free but require a monthly subscription to  take advantage of all the site has to offer

o ex. advertising-supported content for free service but not for paid service or  availability of certain songs than the free version

Where did the term broadcasting come from?

• Refers to planting seeds by spreading them out in a field rather than planting them one  by one

What were the very earliest uses of radio technology?

• Ship-to-ship or ship-to-shore communication for quick energy transmission  • Was developed to broadcast wireless messages widely to multiple locations Why is radio so important around the world?

• Radio less expensive to produce, transmit and receive than tv If you want to learn more check out mac 1114 fiu

• Radio highly portable and doesn’t require literacy to understand

What characteristics make it so useful in developing countries?

• Disseminates information

o Agricultural instructions for easy, cheap and rapid farming

o Emergency broadcast system for severe weather, military conflict

• Operate easily for long periods on battery power alone

Why did Sarnoff oppose FM radio?

• It threatened to destroy the RCA empire built on mass sales of AM radios or “radio music  boxes”

o RCA = the Radio Corporation of America, started in 1919

What is consolidation in ownership?

• 1992 regulatory changes → federal law preventing any one person or org from owning  more than 20 FM stations and 20 AM stations nationwide

What did the Telecom Act of 1996 do?

• New FCC rules that eliminated such restrictions, although an owner must still be a U.S.  citizen

What is a daypart?

• Segment of time radio and tv program planners use to determine their primary audience  during that time of day or night

What is the outlook for radio?

• Experts expect slight growth in future due to increase in digital revenues • Top radio group sales remain constant  

• Rising popularity of music subscription services and downloaded music  • Podcasting – more flexible content delivery, Serial is most popular We also discuss several other topics like leitmotivos

• Satellite radio – same programming over larger territory

Be familiar with “Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves”

• Radio important in developing countries  

• UNESCO – United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Org

• Radio reaches many more people  

Chapter 5: Visual media

What is the concern over binge watching?

• 70% us consumers binge-watch  

• promotes antisocial behavior – over half of consumers binge watch alone • link btwn binge-watching and depression, loneliness and lack of self-control, obesity What are the functions of photography Don't forget about the age old question of math 220 wsu

• surveillance – primarily the journalism function of mass communication, which provides  info about processes, issues, events, and other developments in society Don't forget about the age old question of gregory weigel

• cultural transmission – process of passing on culturally relevant knowledge, skills,  attitudes and values from person to person or group to group

• photography verifies factual claims

• transmit culture by how they show it and what they show and which emotions they stir Where did the US movie industry start?

• Eadweard Muybridge’s creation of series of photos so see what the human eye cannot,  rapid movement of running horse  

• 1878

• Thomas Alva Edison → 1891, created peep show called Kinetoscope, projected series of  15-60 second glimpse of real scenes recorded outdoors

What was Hollywood star system?

• Actors would star in many many films without recognition/credits, they would be  contracted with movie companies to do many films for them and exchanged for other  actors with other companies if they wanted a different actor for a film

• Until late 1940s

Why did actors get credits?

• Recognition of stars and once there was a fan base, they deserved recognition for their  hard work as well as the producers

What was the Paramount Pictures case?

• Paramount Pictures vs. US  

• Monopolistic practice

• Independent films, produced outside major studios, could be shown in theatres and  become financially viable

• Could rent large studios per-project basis and benefit from the other networks they own  while getting income from an independent film

Why did movie studios fight VCR? What was ultimate impact?

• Encouraging illegal copying, copyright infringement

What is trend with DVDs and streaming?

• More portability, better video and audio quality, extra features, low budget directors can  shoot profession quality footage for lower cost, editing can be done on computers now • Blu-ray was the next big thing after DVDs

• Now streaming might get rid of Blu-ray

Movie Industry today

• Movie production still takes large organizations to bring everything together (like movie  studios)

• Movie studios lack vertical integration but still make money off sister companies (ex. 20th century fox picture on Fox News both owned by 21st Century Fox)

• Filmmaker presents script to movie studio → studio make revisions

Who is Kathleen Kennedy and why is she important?

• Producer of more than 60 major films

• Industry not female friendly when she started but she’s successful now What are exhibition windows?

• Retail of filmmaking  

• DVD rentals sales generate revenue, licensing deals generate revenue, product  placement  

What is importance of international distribution and licensing deals for movie industry • International distribution reaches a larger audience  

• Licensing deals – being able to make and sell merchandise based off movies What is time shifting

• Recording of an audio or video event for later listening or viewing

Where did early TV programming come from

• Came directly from radio, actors and comedians adapted their routines for tv • Stage and film had relationship too  

What is importance and role of PBS

• Broadcasting programs from National Education Television  

• Sesame street for example  

• Monday night football start in 1970

How did cable change programming?

• Fragmented and specialized approach on cable and satellite channels What is role of sports in TV

• Provided ongoing venue for technical experimentation  

• Instant replay, slow motion  

• Huge industry  

• Media play role in what sports get played → popularity of certain sports, faster paced  sports more popular

Why are reality shows so profitable?

• Versatile genre

• Viewers like watching regular people as well as celebrities in various challenging  situations

• Profitable for tv networks bc production costs lower than those of scripted program with  actors, sets and writers paid on union wages

What is multicasting

• Simultaneous transmission of multiple channels of compressed content or same content  but at different times

What are four methods of program delivery

1. Broadcasting

2. Cable

3. Direct-to-home satellite

4. Over the internet


• Community antenna tv

• Over-the-air reception was poor or nonexistent due to hilly terrain or distance so cable  created in 1970s

Cord cutters

• a person who cancels or forgoes a cable television subscription or landline phone  connection in favor of an alternative Internet-based or wireless service. 

What is biggest programming problem with DBS

• Expensive

• High switching costs because of investment in DBS

• Bad reception with bad weather

• Cannot record while watching something else

What is industry model and outlook for TV

• Ad revenue generate network profits

• Created culture along networks

• Nielsen ratings for audience measurement  

• If you subscribe to certain networks you get commercial free content

Chapter 8: Journalism

What is soft news and hard news

• Soft news: events that happen that are not that big of a deal or aren’t newsworthy • Hard news: more important concerning or extremely good news

Agenda setting

• Media’s role in deciding what topics to cover and consequently which topics the pulic deems  important and worthy of discussion


• The concept of framing is related to the agenda-setting tradition but expands the  research by focusing on the essence of the issues at hand rather than on a particular  topic. The basis of framing theory is that the media focuses attention on certain events  and then places them within a field of meaning 

Associated Press, news values and objectivity

• Objectivity – reporting should be impartial and free of bias. Because of the difficulties involved in  complete objectivity, this principle has largely been replaced by concepts of fairness and balance

• Associated press – not-for-profit members’ cooperative by group of 7 NY newspaper publishers  to share the costs of gathering news by telegraph. Today, some 1500 newspapers and 5,000 tv  and radio stations are members

• Politically neutral

• AP maintains highest standards in journalism

• Commitment to truth and accuracy: quotations should be kept in context and reported  accurately, corrections to any previously published information should be published • Commitment to integrity: do not plagiarize or copy work, avoid conflicts of interest • Commitment to ethics: moral basis for news, shield victims of sexual assault, AP reporters do not  misrepresent themselves to get a story, they do not pay for interviews or photos, source  attribution

Sensationalism, Pulitzer and Hearst

• Sensational journalism – news that exaggerates or features lurid details and depictions of events  to increase its audience

• Joseph Pulitzer – publisher of the New York World

o Used color and illustrations to gain attention

o Focus on compelling stories with attention to detail  

o Invented color comics on Sundays

o Coined the term yellow journalism

• William Hearts – publisher of San Francisco Examiner and the New York journal o Also coined the term yellow journalism

o Used color and photography for sensational tactics

o Usually criticized for his tactics

o Hearst foundation: provides support for journalism education, and other concerns,  including health and culture

Mary Ann Shadd Cary and Ida B. Wells

• Shadd Cary: first African American woman to edit a weekly newspaper and to public in North  America, also first woman publisher in Canada, she was a teacher, lawyer and second African  American woman to earn law degree

o She wrote 44 page pamphlet outlining opportunities for black in Canada  

o Wrote paper for fugitive slaves including issues of starvation amongst Canadian African  Americans

• Ida B. Wells: wrote for religious weekly paper and for several African American papers, elected  secretary of the Afro-American Press Association


• Electronic news-gathering equipment

• Tools such as video cameras and satellite dishes that allow journalists to gather and broadcast  news quicker

News hole

• Amount of total space available after ad space has been blocked out, typically in newspapers Hutchins Commission report

• Public has right to information that affects it and that the press has responsibility, even a moral  duty, to present information bc of their constitutionally guaranteed freedom

• Recommended that agencies of mass communication finance new, experimental activities in  fields and members of press engage in criticism

• Encouraged schools to exploit total resources to ensure students obtain broadest most liberal  training

• Establishment of independent agency to report annually on press performance

Fairness and balance

• Fairness: news reporting on all relevant sides of an issue that allow representatives of those  various sides the same coverage

• Balance: presenting sides equally and reporting on a broad range of news events Framing

• Structure of angle given a news story that influences reader understanding covering the event Expert sources

• Expert sources increase credibility  

• Issue → mostly male, white individuals  

• Everyone should be heard through the news

Trend of hard and soft news

Convergence in news

• Social media and digital media becoming prominent vehicle for quality news and information  • Huffington Post first commercial news website and blog to win Pulitzer Prize o Contains original news, online commentary, aggregated content from other sites on wide  spectrum of subjects (politics, business, entertainment, lifestyle, culture and comedy Citizen journalism and crowd sourcing

• Emphasize participant conversation and interaction

• Citizens give information on news and “fill holes” of information that support story • Crowdsourcing: using raw data gathered from the public and citizen-journalists to help create a  news report

Slashdot effect

• When smaller news site’s web server crashes because of increased traffic after its  mention on popular websites, names for a frequent occurrence on the very popular  technology news site Slashdot.org 

Personalization and contextualization

• Personalization: internet allows users to personalize content (news on local weather, favorite  sports teams

• Online or mobile media concentrated

• Narrows people’s range of interests and might have difficulty talking about other topics • Contextualization: people still want context and interpretation from writers about reporters’ raw  info, mash-ups help → combining geographic data with editorial content  

Diversity in the newsroom

• Marvel Cooke – 190s journalist, first black woman on paper’s staff (New York Daily Compass)  owned by white person

• Minority population actually increasing

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