Converging Media Chapter 4
What are the primary functions of the recording industry
• Record labels don’t make as much money as online music distribution • Online music distribution appeals to larger and more diverse audiences What is difference between major label and independent label
• Major label: recording companies, they control a lot of music industry through distribution channels and market music to mass audiences (ex. universal music group, Sony, music entertainment, etc.)
• Independent label: small companies that produce and distribute records producing 1 or 2 albums a year We also discuss several other topics like ger 2010 class notes
Who is Amanda Palmer and why is she mentioned?
• Media pioneer
• She separated from her band and started making music alone
• Through social media and the internet, she could raise a lot of money to support herself and even got places to stay and food to eat from people on the internet
• She used crowdfunding to support the music industry and for a certain price you could get downloadable music
What is the general trend of music revenues from various sources
• Music business made a lot less money from 2000-2015 because of free downloads • People stopped paying for music
• Then in 2016, there was another increase in revenue because people were willing to pay for music through iTunes and other sources but purchase of full albums still declining • CD sales also dropping
What is payola
• Cash or gifts given to people working at radio station in exchange for playing more of artists’ songs
• It is now illegal
What is the long tail
• Selling few of many types of items can be just as profitable, if not more profitable, than selling many copies of few items
• Works very well for amazon and Netflix
How do artists promote themselves today? We also discuss several other topics like bathygraphic features
• Free downloads
How much do artists earn from record sales?
• 10-20% of list price
What is DRM and how is it used
• digital rights management
• technologies that let copyright owners control the level of access or use allowed for copyrighted work, such as limiting the number of times a song can be copies • most common with online music
• limits also length of time song can be played
• limits also devices that can play that music
What is the concern about file sharing
• threat of lawsuits and heavy load such sharing imposes
• it slows down networks even for users not sharing files
• universities are primary targets
What are the new business models
• more individual song sales than album sales
How many records does typical band sell
• 118 million
What is the freemium model
• subscriptions that provide some content for free but require a monthly subscription to take advantage of all the site has to offer
o ex. advertising-supported content for free service but not for paid service or availability of certain songs than the free version
Where did the term broadcasting come from?
• Refers to planting seeds by spreading them out in a field rather than planting them one by one
What were the very earliest uses of radio technology?
• Ship-to-ship or ship-to-shore communication for quick energy transmission • Was developed to broadcast wireless messages widely to multiple locations Why is radio so important around the world?
• Radio less expensive to produce, transmit and receive than tv If you want to learn more check out mac 1114 fiu
• Radio highly portable and doesn’t require literacy to understand
What characteristics make it so useful in developing countries?
• Disseminates information
o Agricultural instructions for easy, cheap and rapid farming
o Emergency broadcast system for severe weather, military conflict
• Operate easily for long periods on battery power alone
Why did Sarnoff oppose FM radio?
• It threatened to destroy the RCA empire built on mass sales of AM radios or “radio music boxes”
o RCA = the Radio Corporation of America, started in 1919
What is consolidation in ownership?
• 1992 regulatory changes → federal law preventing any one person or org from owning more than 20 FM stations and 20 AM stations nationwide
What did the Telecom Act of 1996 do?
• New FCC rules that eliminated such restrictions, although an owner must still be a U.S. citizen
What is a daypart?
• Segment of time radio and tv program planners use to determine their primary audience during that time of day or night
What is the outlook for radio?
• Experts expect slight growth in future due to increase in digital revenues • Top radio group sales remain constant
• Rising popularity of music subscription services and downloaded music • Podcasting – more flexible content delivery, Serial is most popular We also discuss several other topics like leitmotivos
• Satellite radio – same programming over larger territory
Be familiar with “Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves”
• Radio important in developing countries
• UNESCO – United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Org
• Radio reaches many more people
Chapter 5: Visual media
What is the concern over binge watching?
• 70% us consumers binge-watch
• promotes antisocial behavior – over half of consumers binge watch alone • link btwn binge-watching and depression, loneliness and lack of self-control, obesity What are the functions of photography Don't forget about the age old question of math 220 wsu
• surveillance – primarily the journalism function of mass communication, which provides info about processes, issues, events, and other developments in society Don't forget about the age old question of gregory weigel
• cultural transmission – process of passing on culturally relevant knowledge, skills, attitudes and values from person to person or group to group
• photography verifies factual claims
• transmit culture by how they show it and what they show and which emotions they stir Where did the US movie industry start?
• Eadweard Muybridge’s creation of series of photos so see what the human eye cannot, rapid movement of running horse
• Thomas Alva Edison → 1891, created peep show called Kinetoscope, projected series of 15-60 second glimpse of real scenes recorded outdoors
What was Hollywood star system?
• Actors would star in many many films without recognition/credits, they would be contracted with movie companies to do many films for them and exchanged for other actors with other companies if they wanted a different actor for a film
• Until late 1940s
Why did actors get credits?
• Recognition of stars and once there was a fan base, they deserved recognition for their hard work as well as the producers
What was the Paramount Pictures case?
• Paramount Pictures vs. US
• Monopolistic practice
• Independent films, produced outside major studios, could be shown in theatres and become financially viable
• Could rent large studios per-project basis and benefit from the other networks they own while getting income from an independent film
Why did movie studios fight VCR? What was ultimate impact?
• Encouraging illegal copying, copyright infringement
What is trend with DVDs and streaming?
• More portability, better video and audio quality, extra features, low budget directors can shoot profession quality footage for lower cost, editing can be done on computers now • Blu-ray was the next big thing after DVDs
• Now streaming might get rid of Blu-ray
Movie Industry today
• Movie production still takes large organizations to bring everything together (like movie studios)
• Movie studios lack vertical integration but still make money off sister companies (ex. 20th century fox picture on Fox News both owned by 21st Century Fox)
• Filmmaker presents script to movie studio → studio make revisions
Who is Kathleen Kennedy and why is she important?
• Producer of more than 60 major films
• Industry not female friendly when she started but she’s successful now What are exhibition windows?
• Retail of filmmaking
• DVD rentals sales generate revenue, licensing deals generate revenue, product placement
What is importance of international distribution and licensing deals for movie industry • International distribution reaches a larger audience
• Licensing deals – being able to make and sell merchandise based off movies What is time shifting
• Recording of an audio or video event for later listening or viewing
Where did early TV programming come from
• Came directly from radio, actors and comedians adapted their routines for tv • Stage and film had relationship too
What is importance and role of PBS
• Broadcasting programs from National Education Television
• Sesame street for example
• Monday night football start in 1970
How did cable change programming?
• Fragmented and specialized approach on cable and satellite channels What is role of sports in TV
• Provided ongoing venue for technical experimentation
• Instant replay, slow motion
• Huge industry
• Media play role in what sports get played → popularity of certain sports, faster paced sports more popular
Why are reality shows so profitable?
• Versatile genre
• Viewers like watching regular people as well as celebrities in various challenging situations
• Profitable for tv networks bc production costs lower than those of scripted program with actors, sets and writers paid on union wages
What is multicasting
• Simultaneous transmission of multiple channels of compressed content or same content but at different times
What are four methods of program delivery
3. Direct-to-home satellite
4. Over the internet
• Community antenna tv
• Over-the-air reception was poor or nonexistent due to hilly terrain or distance so cable created in 1970s
• a person who cancels or forgoes a cable television subscription or landline phone connection in favor of an alternative Internet-based or wireless service.
What is biggest programming problem with DBS
• High switching costs because of investment in DBS
• Bad reception with bad weather
• Cannot record while watching something else
What is industry model and outlook for TV
• Ad revenue generate network profits
• Created culture along networks
• Nielsen ratings for audience measurement
• If you subscribe to certain networks you get commercial free content
Chapter 8: Journalism
What is soft news and hard news
• Soft news: events that happen that are not that big of a deal or aren’t newsworthy • Hard news: more important concerning or extremely good news
• Media’s role in deciding what topics to cover and consequently which topics the pulic deems important and worthy of discussion
• The concept of framing is related to the agenda-setting tradition but expands the research by focusing on the essence of the issues at hand rather than on a particular topic. The basis of framing theory is that the media focuses attention on certain events and then places them within a field of meaning
Associated Press, news values and objectivity
• Objectivity – reporting should be impartial and free of bias. Because of the difficulties involved in complete objectivity, this principle has largely been replaced by concepts of fairness and balance
• Associated press – not-for-profit members’ cooperative by group of 7 NY newspaper publishers to share the costs of gathering news by telegraph. Today, some 1500 newspapers and 5,000 tv and radio stations are members
• Politically neutral
• AP maintains highest standards in journalism
• Commitment to truth and accuracy: quotations should be kept in context and reported accurately, corrections to any previously published information should be published • Commitment to integrity: do not plagiarize or copy work, avoid conflicts of interest • Commitment to ethics: moral basis for news, shield victims of sexual assault, AP reporters do not misrepresent themselves to get a story, they do not pay for interviews or photos, source attribution
Sensationalism, Pulitzer and Hearst
• Sensational journalism – news that exaggerates or features lurid details and depictions of events to increase its audience
• Joseph Pulitzer – publisher of the New York World
o Used color and illustrations to gain attention
o Focus on compelling stories with attention to detail
o Invented color comics on Sundays
o Coined the term yellow journalism
• William Hearts – publisher of San Francisco Examiner and the New York journal o Also coined the term yellow journalism
o Used color and photography for sensational tactics
o Usually criticized for his tactics
o Hearst foundation: provides support for journalism education, and other concerns, including health and culture
Mary Ann Shadd Cary and Ida B. Wells
• Shadd Cary: first African American woman to edit a weekly newspaper and to public in North America, also first woman publisher in Canada, she was a teacher, lawyer and second African American woman to earn law degree
o She wrote 44 page pamphlet outlining opportunities for black in Canada
o Wrote paper for fugitive slaves including issues of starvation amongst Canadian African Americans
• Ida B. Wells: wrote for religious weekly paper and for several African American papers, elected secretary of the Afro-American Press Association
• Electronic news-gathering equipment
• Tools such as video cameras and satellite dishes that allow journalists to gather and broadcast news quicker
• Amount of total space available after ad space has been blocked out, typically in newspapers Hutchins Commission report
• Public has right to information that affects it and that the press has responsibility, even a moral duty, to present information bc of their constitutionally guaranteed freedom
• Recommended that agencies of mass communication finance new, experimental activities in fields and members of press engage in criticism
• Encouraged schools to exploit total resources to ensure students obtain broadest most liberal training
• Establishment of independent agency to report annually on press performance
Fairness and balance
• Fairness: news reporting on all relevant sides of an issue that allow representatives of those various sides the same coverage
• Balance: presenting sides equally and reporting on a broad range of news events Framing
• Structure of angle given a news story that influences reader understanding covering the event Expert sources
• Expert sources increase credibility
• Issue → mostly male, white individuals
• Everyone should be heard through the news
Trend of hard and soft news
Convergence in news
• Social media and digital media becoming prominent vehicle for quality news and information • Huffington Post first commercial news website and blog to win Pulitzer Prize o Contains original news, online commentary, aggregated content from other sites on wide spectrum of subjects (politics, business, entertainment, lifestyle, culture and comedy Citizen journalism and crowd sourcing
• Emphasize participant conversation and interaction
• Citizens give information on news and “fill holes” of information that support story • Crowdsourcing: using raw data gathered from the public and citizen-journalists to help create a news report
• When smaller news site’s web server crashes because of increased traffic after its mention on popular websites, names for a frequent occurrence on the very popular technology news site Slashdot.org
Personalization and contextualization
• Personalization: internet allows users to personalize content (news on local weather, favorite sports teams
• Online or mobile media concentrated
• Narrows people’s range of interests and might have difficulty talking about other topics • Contextualization: people still want context and interpretation from writers about reporters’ raw info, mash-ups help → combining geographic data with editorial content
Diversity in the newsroom
• Marvel Cooke – 190s journalist, first black woman on paper’s staff (New York Daily Compass) owned by white person
• Minority population actually increasing