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UGA - JOUR 3030 - Study Guide JOUR 3030 Test 2 - Study Guide

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UGA - JOUR 3030 - Study Guide JOUR 3030 Test 2 - Study Guide

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background image Study Guide JOUR 3030  Test 2    ★ Journalism and newspapers:      ● Both of these have been and are critical in the United States   ○ Note that they’re not one in the same but  ​intertwined  ○ Also note that the notion of objectivity has  ​changed over time    ● Major Technological Changes for newspapers:   ■ Cylinder press (1830) → Rotary press (1840s) → Linotype  machine (1880s, allowed for quicker production and automated 
typesetting so ENTIRE lines of type could be set) → Computers 
(1970s, now the REPORTERS set type… before the reporters 
would just write the information and then a typesetter would set all 
the type for production)  
  ● History of Journalism   ○ Yellow Journalism ​ → not the best type of journalism, profit-driven  ■ “Scary” headlines 
■ Pictures and imagery (full of color to draw attention to the story, 
like comic strips)   ■ Fake interviews 
■ Dramatic sympathy with “underdog” in the spotlight  
  ○ Hearst v. Pulitzer   ■ 1883 → Pulitzer buys New York World publication  
■ 1896 → Hearst buys New York Morning journal  
● They were fighting a circulation war 
● Note that Hearst had a strong political agenda and aspired 
to be a U.S. president while Pulitzer was the more 
“behind-the-scenes” guy  
○ Muckrakers ​ → exposed corporate America and corruption of U.S. public  life   ■ A product of not sensational writers but investigative reporters 
■ This was when trusts were legal, social security and life insurance 
didn’t exist, and there was no emphasis on living conditions   ○ New Journalism ​ (1960) → Also known as Gonzo journalism   ■ Activist-fueled and participatory  
background image ■ Does more than report facts… the author ACTIVELY participates  in the story (so the journalist can actually enter the story, 
something that had never been done before)  
● Objectivity is still important!     ○ The shifting in how we’ve received news over the years:   ■ 1920s → radio and movies compete with newspapers and  magazines for attention (waves versus print)   ■ 1950s → people turn to TV for news 
■ 1990s → chains buy family-owned papers (remember the 
Telecommunications Act of 1996)   ■ 2000s → Chains start buying chains (now 75% of newspapers are  owned by a few large chains)   ● NOTE: Research what  hedge fund ownership​​ is: think of  Berkshire Hathaway → it’s no longer a news organization 
owning other news outlets… now it’s just a bank buying 
everything it can to make lots of money 
■ NOTE: Throughout all of this (from early 1900s to present)  newspapers have been in DECLINE     - Note: make sure to be at least familiar with specific names of journalists, what type of 
journalist they were and what kind of work they did  
 
○ WW1 → impacted dynamics of journalism… be familiar with the following  terms:   ■ Voluntary Censorship Codes 
■ Espionage Act of 1917 
■ Sedition Act of 1918 
○ WW2 → know the name Margaret Bourke-White  ■ She was the first woman allowed into combat and was a war  correspondent   ● Known for her powerful photography  
● She photographed Buchenwald, a concentration camp  
  MCCARTHYISM  = VERY IMPORTANT    ● McCarthy was a republican senator who fueled his political campaign with  lies and hysteria regarding communism   ○ “Red Channel” → McCarthy claimed to have a list of all the people  working in federal government that were “communist”   ■ People believed him, and anti-communist suspicion was at  an alltime high  
background image ■ People lost their jobs, were threatened, and became  depressed because of McCarthy’s claims  
 
○ Edward Murrow ​​ → protects people from McCarthy’s claims   ■ On Murrow’s show  “See It Now”  he would call out all the  lies and rumors McCarthy was spreading   ■ Eventually Murrow shut down McCarthy’s campaign and  people stopped believing his crazy claims  
 
○ Why is this important in regards to journalism?   ■ Reporters covered basically anything that had to do with  politics  ■ McCarthy new reporters were writing on a strict deadline  and wanted news that would sell and keep the audience’s 
attentions  
■ So, McCarthy told his lies and named all the “communists”  on his list and the reporters scribbled on their notepads 
exactly what he said  
■ Even if the reporters doubted the truth behind his words,  they printed them anyway because technically they were, 
indeed, what had come out of McCarthy’s mouth … the 
reporters weren’t lying about that  
■ So reporters were creating NEWSWORTHY and  ACCURATE material, but the material itself was a LIE  ■ In short, McCarthy used this rushed, poorly-thought-out  style of journalism to his advantage, but Murrow used his 
investigative skills to stop this  
  - Note these two things:  TV is what brought McCarthy down ​ (on ​See It Now  with  Edward Murrow), and  be familiar with the first and second “Red Scare”      ★ Some more talk about Constitutional  Amendments!     ● European Parliament:   ○ Voted on copyright law → this law makes websites responsible for the  content users add to the website  ■ So… who’s responsible for copyright law now? The users or the  websites that hold the content? This could cause problems…   ■ In America, websites are not responsible for copyright laws… think  of Youtube → it has millions upon millions of users and billions of 
video uploads. It would be impossible to manually find and take 

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School: University of Georgia
Department: Journalism Core
Course: Media, News and Consumers
Professor: John Soloski
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: JOUR3030, journalism, Media, News, consumers, Studyguide, muckrackers, yellowJournalism, mccarthyism, RedScare, Communism, firstamendment, Stereotypes, freedomofspeech, freedomofpress, theories, Copyright, libel, Law, history, and newspapers
Name: Study Guide JOUR 3030 Test 2
Description: This study guide condense all of the class slides in an organized manner and highlights key points discussed in class. Includes things like history of journalism, types of journalists, first amendment details, copyright and libel laws, communism scares, theories of freedom of speech, and the dynamics and implications of stereotypes.
Uploaded: 11/04/2018
11 Pages 236 Views 188 Unlocks
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