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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Study Guide 3 - Study Guide

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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Study Guide 3 - Study Guide

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background image Review Questions: Multiple Choice Which of the following is false about wildfires? Before humans evolved, fires that were ignited by lightning or volcanic  eruptions would burn until they ran out of fuel or were extinguished 
naturally.
a. Wildfires date back more than 350 million years when trees evolved and  spread across the globe. b. Early European settlers of North America brought the ability to use fire for  heat, light, and cooking to Native Americans. c. Some species of trees have seed cones that open only after a fire. d. 1. Which of the following best describes what happens during the preignition  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 2. Which of the following best describes what happens during the combustion  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 3. Which of the following is NOT a good indicator of whether a region is prone to  wildfires? Humidity a. Topography b. Vegetation type c. Temperature d. Bedrock composition e. 4. Which of the following wildfire types is dominated by fires moving alone  treetops? Groundfires a. Surface fires b. Crown fires c. Tree fires d. 5. Which of the following locations in the US has the lowest risk for wildfires? California a. New Mexico b. Alaska c. Maine d. 6. Which of the following is NOT an effect of wildfires? Increased landslide activity a. Increased earthquake activity b. Increased smog c. Decreased water quality d. Destroyed animal habitats e. 7. Which of the following is NOT an example of how wildfires are beneficial to the  environment? May trigger a release of seeds for some species a. Remove surface debris for grasses b. Recycle nutrients in the ecosystem c. Increase the amount of that plants can grow d. Fires create deeper river channels that reduce flooding hazards e. 8. Which of the following is a good reason for a prescribed burn? Too much fuel is available and needs to be removed in order to prevent a  larger fire a. Animals that are invading a habitat need to be moved to another locations b. Shrubland needs to be cleared for new housing c. Vegetation on hillsides needs to be cleared before the rainy season d. 9. What is the main source of wildfires in the US? People  a. Wind b. Animals scratching on dry vegetation c. 10. Which factors strongly influence wildfires to spread? Strength of wind a. Type of vegetation b. Warm temperatures c. All of above d. 11. What is a surface fire? A fire where surface of trees ignite a. A fire so hot that dirt burns b. A grass/brush fire that burns low to ground c. Fire that is too big to contain d. 12. 3 stages of a wildfire? Drying, heating, wetting a. Pre-heating, detonation, cooling b. Smoking, flaming, glowing c. Pre-ignition, combustion, smoldering d. 13. What is current policy of US forest surface? Aggressively fight all wildfires a. Only fight small wildfires b. Don’t fight any wildfires c. Permit wildfires to burn in primitive areas where people and structures are  not in danger d. 14. What is the purpose of hotshot crews? To make sure communities comply with fire-prevention rules a. To act as look out and raise an alarm if a wildfire is spotted b. To prevent spread of wildfires c. All of the above d. 15. Why are airtanker flights so dangerous? Fly low a. Fly slow b. Old planes are not designed for this purpose and often used c. All of the above d. 16. What is the advantage that helitankers have over airtankers? Longer range a. Carry more water/fire retardant b. Can refill locally in small bodies of water c. All of the above d. 17. What is the main function of a Smoke jumper? To rescue people a. To catch dangerous criminals that escape from hot shot crews b. To jump over fires c. To get to and fight remote fires before they become too destructive d. 18. Which are fire shelters NOT designed to do? Reflect heat a. Protect against direct sustained contact with flames b. Trap breathable air c. Serve as final effort to survive wildfire d. 19. Which is NOT a good wildfire safety practice? Keeping vegetation load within 100 ft of structure a. Using fire-resistant roof shingles b. Parking on dry vegetation c. Soaking a campfire after putting it out  d. 20. What are meteoroids? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 21. What are meteors? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 22. What are meteorites? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 23. What are comets? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 24. Why do comets have tails? They have creole volcanoes a. Comets are loose collection of rocks that sun's gravity causes it to spread  out b. Solar winds c. Ice in comets turn to gas (sublimates) due to heat from sun and enabling  dust and gas to be released d. 25. Long period comets originate from the oort cloud. Where is the oort cloud? Between Mars and Jupiter a. Around Pluto's orbit b. Far beyond Pluto's orbit c. Between Jupiter and Neptune d. 26. How do we know the Oort cloud is a sphere? Comets come from all directions a. From elliptical shape of comet's orbit b. We can view from powerful telescopes c. 27. If a 1km asteroid strikes the earth, how big would the crater be? 15-30 km in diameter a. 1km in diameter b. 100 km in diameter c. Asteroid wouldn't cause a crater d. 28. Why are impacts almost always round? Asteroids typically explode on impact creating a shockwave that spreads  out equally in all directions a. Asteroids always hit from nearly straight overhead b. Impact melts rock that spreads equally in all directions c. Collapse of walls of initial crater allows for oval shaped craters to become  rounded d. 29. Which is NOT evidence that a large impact killed off dinosaurs? Abundance of iridium found at KT boundary a. Fossilized dinosaurs with severe burns b. Shocked forts evidence at KT boundary c. Discovery of chicxulub crater that is the right size and age d. 30. How many near-earth asteroids greater than or equal to 1km in diameter are  currently being tracked? 1000 a. 10,000 b. 100 c. none d. 31. Which is NOT a potential strategy for changing position of asteroid on collision  course with Earth? Detonate nuclear bomb on one side a. Land spacecraft on it to eject material off the surface b. Attach solar sail to the object c. Focus solar heat to create thrust from the resulting sublimation of ice d. 32. Which statement best characterizes water on surface of mars? Billions of years ago there was, now there is not a. No evidence of water ever existing b. There have always been lakes c. There are lakes today but they are filled with methane, not water d. 33. Which of the following about the topography of Mars is true? Largest/widest/deepest canyon a. Deepest basin in the solar system b. Largest mountain c. All of the above d. 34. Which statement about Jupiter's great red spot is NOT true? Larger than earth a. Large impact crater b. At least 300 yrs old c. Shrinking overtime  d. 35. What does Saturn's moon titan have that no other body in the solar system has  beside earth? Volcanoes that eject water a. Thick atmosphere b. Surface lakes- filled with Methane c. Magnetic field d. 36. According to IAU, Pluto is no longer considered a planet because why? Too small a. Irregular orbit b. Too far away c. Doesn't clear the neighborhood d. 37. Why do we expect life on Jupiter's moon Europa? Covered with lakes a. Oxygen rich atmosphere b. Active volcanism c. Liquid ocean below its icy surface d. 38. What are the voyager spacecrafts' golden records? Longest distance and fastest speed by a spacecraft a. Only spacecraft to be shielded in gold link b. Instruments carried by spacecraft to detect gold in cosmos c. Record that contains sounds and images from earth d. 39. What does it mean if an exoplanet exists in the habitable zone? Located right distance from its star to enable liquid water to exist on  surface a. Exoplanet has oxygen rich atmosphere b. Located same distance from star that earth is from sun c. Located at distance from its star that makes extinction-level impacts from  asteroids unlikely d. 40. Why is space travel so dangerous? Exposure to radiation a. Space craft explodes b. Exposure to micrometeoroids c. All of the above d. 41. Why did challenger explode during launch? O-ring failed a. Temperature was too cold b. Managers didn't listen to engineers c. All of the above d. 42. Short Answer Questions: Which three things are necessary for a fire to burn? Heat, oxygen, and fuel a. 1. What is a crown fire? A fire where tops of trees ignite a. 2. Which was the largest wildfire in US history? Great fire of 1910 a. 3. What was the original policy of the US forest surface? Fight all fires no matter what a. 4. What put out Yellowstone fire 1988? 1/4 inch of snow a. 5. What heroic firefighter saved others by forcing them to hide in a mine? Polaski a. 6. Where are most asteroids found? Between Mars and Jupiter in Asteroid belt a. 7. Why is the surface of some of the largest impact craters black?  Impact happens and lava is developed: called mar a. 8. Why are there more impact craters on the moon than on earth? Erosion- moon doesn't have any erosion a. 9. Why is Halley's comet the most famous? It's visible and it comes around every 75 years a. 10. How often does a 10km asteroid hit the earth? Every hundred million years a. 11. What is the average thickness of Saturn's rings? 10 meters a. 12. What is the purpose of an air-tanker? Drops water and fire-retardants on fire a. 13. Why is mars most explored planet Greatest chance of finding past/present life a. 14. How does the Kepler spacecraft detect exoplanets? Observing how star's light temporarily dims due to a planet passing in front  of it a. 15. How many security prisoners does California have trained to fight wildfires? 4,000 a. 16. 17. What is the major cause of death for wildfire firefighters? Burnover a. 18. What is the most common means for setting a house on fire? Firebrands a. 19. What are some steps for fire prevention? Don't have logs in basement a. Don't have trees very close to house b. Storage shed from home c. Fire-resistant shingled roof d. Avoid outdoor burning e. Driveway accessible with address visible f. Garden house g. Green grass h. Keep chimney cleaned and screened i. Wood pile, fuel tanks, and other burnable materials 30ft from structures j. 20. What do asteroids usually do on impact and how big is their impact crater? a. They usually explode upon impact and their impact crater is 15-30x larger  than the asteroid 21. What are the 3 basic types of craters? a. Simple crater 1km diameter meteor crater in Arizona was caused by an asteroid  only 40 m wide § b. Complex crater Complex lunar craters like Tyco (diameter = 86 km) have a central  raised peak and terraced side walls  § Complex Herschel crater on Saturn's icy moon Mimas is the largest  ratio of a crater diameter to the size of the moon or planet anywhere 
in solar system
§ c. Multi-ring basin § Multi-ring Valhalla basin on Jupiter moon Callisto is the largest  impact basin in the solar system (diameter of outer rings: 3800) 22. How do you prevent an asteroid from hitting Earth? a. Deflection: an impact of an impact spacecraft will result in the impact to  change the orbital velocity  b. Kinetic impact: crash a heavy spacecraft into it to alter trajectory c. Spacecraft propulsion: create a small sustained thrust on its side to alter  trajectory d. Focus solar heat onto a comet surface to create thrust from resulting  vaporization of material e. Solar sail: attach a large solar sail enabling solar pressure f. Nuclear weapons § Direct hit to vaporize (better not leave big chunks) Detonate a series of devices close to asteroid § 23. What are the hazards of space travel? a. Long period of weightlessness will cause muscles to atrophy, bones to  become brittle, and as of yet unknown other effects NASA developed a reduced gravity fight program to study  weightlessness § Weightlessness can be countered by generating a centrifugal force by  spinning a spacecraft § b. Micrometeoroids: fast moving tiny rocks that can damage spacecraft and  harm astronauts Astronaut suits are built to protect against micrometeoroids § c. Radiation  Radiation associated with solar flares can be very dangerous to  astronauts and spacecraft Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from  the Sun consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation Caused by magnetic reconnection Magnetic reconnection: when different magnetic field  lines are spliced together and change their patterns Typically takes a day or 2 to reach Earth and longer to  reach Mars Sun is well monitored, we will always have several  days warning ® § § d. Space junk Over 500,000 pieces of space junk at high speeds, orbiting the Earth § e. Issues on Spacecraft Fire on Apollo- electrical problems allowed the fire to continue for a  long time § Oxygen tank exploded- apollo 13 §
§ Space shuttle challenger- failure sequence
Aft joint (o-ring) failed upon ignition, took 70 seconds to burn  through strut attaching to booster to the external tank 
(mechanical)
§ Booster separated, rotated, and crushed the external tank,  releasing oxygen and hydrogen, they mixed and then ignited 
(mechanical)
§ § Space shuttle Columbia- disintegrating during reentry, killing all 7  crew members § Foam block from fuel tank bi-pod ramp dislodged and hit wing True/False:  Some types of trees require fire to regenerate True a. 1. Fires are dangerous to preservation of grassland False a. 2. A wildfire can burn down a house but leave surrounding lawn unburned True a. 3. We can find Martian meteorites on earth True a. 4. The asteroid belt is crowded False a. 5. The planets are evenly spaced False a. 6. All giant planets have rings True a. 7. At walking speed, you could traverse around Mercury and remain in a zone btw  day and night that is at a comfortable temperature True a. 8. Planets: • Venus ○ covered in dense clouds, high wind speeds
○ Our deadly sister
○ Atmospheric pressure on surface is 90x greater than on earth
○ Atmosphere is made of CO2, Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid
○ Strong greenhouse effect: traps heat from Sun that Venus has hottest 
surface of any planet, reaching temperatures of 860 degrees ○ Entire surface covered with lava and volcanoes (more than any other planet  in solar system) ○ Lightning • Mars ○ Lots of spacecraft on Mars
○ Surface: cold, dry, dusty
○ Seasonal water (described as dampness) on the surface
Likely salty, otherwise it would freeze Water channels cut into Martian surface ○ Billions of years ago there was lots of water on Mars Probably had an ocean Has many ancient river channels ○ Greatest chance of finding past or current signs of life
○ Lots of extreme topographic features
○ Olympus Mons: Tallest mountain in solar system Low topography of northern hemisphere may have been caused by  giant impact and may have been an ancient ocean basin Valles marineris: longest, widest, deepest canyon in Solar System Hellas Basin: created by giant impact, 7km deep and the deepest  basin in the solar system • Jupiter ○ Great Red Spot: is a giant storm on Jupiter, has existed for at least 300 yrs ○ Diameter is bigger than Earth's  ○ Moon Europa is thought to have a subsurface ocean- where there's water  there might be life ○ Icebergs are evidence for thin ice and a warm subsurface water • Saturn  ○ Rings consist of small water ice particles ranging in size from dust to  meters ○ Only ~10m in thickness
○ Titan: second largest moon in Solar System (bigger than Mercury)
Only moon in solar system to have a dense atmosphere
○ Only object in our Solar Sysem other than Earth with rain, snow, 
lakes, and rivers Too cold for water- liquid (and snow) is methane  § ○ Saturn's moon Enceladus Erupts water that freezes and feeds Saturn's E-ring Has water geysers, revealing existence of a subsurface ocean Pluto: dwarf planet, mountains of water-ice next to plains of smooth nitrogen ice • Kuiper belt object: one of millions of icy bodies in orbit beyond Neptune ○ Over a thousand more objects have been found, including many of similar  size Definitions: • Preigntion: the premature combustion of the fuel–air mixture in an internal  combustion engine. • Oort cloud: an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of  the solar system, mostly circular and thought to have been origin of long-period 
comets
• Maar: a broad, shallow crater, typically filled by a lake, formed by a volcanic  explosion with little lava. • Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from the Sun  consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation
Burnover: fire running over the firefighters
Fire Shelters: safety device of last resort used by firefighters when trapped by  wildfires, Designed to reflect heat and trap breathable air, NOT designed to 
protect against direct contact with flames
Firebrands: burning embers Comets: an icy small solar system body that, when close enough to the sun,  displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmospheres) and sometimes a 
tail
Mixture of ice and rock that sublimate (solid --> gas) as they approach the  sun, releasing dust and gas to form 2 sails Gas tails are pushed away from the sun by solar winds (charged particles  emitted by the Sun) and are always directed away from the Sun Dust tails are pushed away from the sun by solar radiation (light). Dust  particles slow down with distance from the sun, which causes dust tails to 
curve
Light and fluffy We can track the origin of comets by tracking trajectories around the Sun Long-period comets: come from outer solar system, far beyond Pluto, and  take 1000s of years to orbit the sun Oort cloud is estimated to have billions of small icy objects as old as  the solar system Long period comets have orbits with an elongated shape, which  indicates they come from an elliptical zone Short-period comets: orbit much closer to the Sun in a matter of decades Captured by gravity of sun Asteroid: a class of small solar system bodies in orbit around the sun the further  away that comets and don't have coma. They can break-up into meteoroids and 
burn up in earth's atmosphere
Mostly rock, some ice Large space rocks that range in size from meters to 100s of km They are smooth and with minimal flying debris  They reside in the Asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter Avg. distance btw them is about 2,000,000 miles Some asteroids orbit inside Mars Asteroids that orbit near earth are called Near Earth Asteroids  (NEAs) Estimated 1 million asteroids bigger than 1km in diameter and billions of  smaller ones Meteoroid: small rocks (less than a few meters across) travelling through space Meteors: small rocks from space that light up in the night sky as they burn up the  earth's atmosphere Meteorites: small pieces of rock that survive passage through the atmosphere to  be picked up on a planet surface. Exist because meteoroids burn in the Earth's 
atmosphere
2 types: stony-93% are stony/iron The easiest place to find meteorites is Antarctica, where flowing glaciers  collect and deposit them, easily seen against white of Antarctica Martian meteorites: trapped gas bubbles that are identical in composition  to Mars' atmosphere Thought to have been ejected from Mars by large impacts Gas Giant: mostly ice, small rocky cores Ice Giant: gas with icy mantle, small rocky core IAU Definition of a planet: orbits around the sun, nearly round in shape, clear  the neighborhood Clear the neighborhood: it must be separated from other bodies and orbit  on its own Kepler Telescope: Identifies planets by crossing their stars by the slight  dimming of the star's light Has discovered more than 2000 exoplanets Finds planets in "Habitable Zone"- where liquid water can exist on the  surface Superearths: have a similar atmosphere as Earth, larger than earth Closest exoplanet is near Proxima Centauri (our Sun) Impact Terms: • Impact breccia: angular shattered pieces of rock surrounded by melt from  impact • Ejecta: rock thrown out of the crater during impact
• Regolith: a layer of ejecta and dust- moon is covered in it, 10 m thick
Important:  Venus has hottest surface temperature of all the planets There are estimated to be more exoplanets like earth than grains of sand You can simulate gravity on spacecraft by spinning it There is so much debris/space junk in Earth's orbit that it's a danger to astronauts,  space craft, satellites Fire retardants are colored red to mark where they were dropped Smokejumper strategy:  Attack fire from back and work up sides to limit directions of spread 1. Attack the head by quenching it, using a backfire, or steering it to  unburnable areas 2. Best progress is made in night when temperatures and wind drop 3. Constant vigilance with spot fires 4. Be relentless 5. • Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the first comet we have orbited with a space craft
• The extinction of dinosaurs was to believe have been caused by a 10km diameter 
impactor 65 million years ago Cretaceous (dino ruled) Paleogene (mammal ruled) extinction event  occurred over 65 million years ago killing off 75% species on Earth § Thin layer of clay that separates Cretaceous from Paleogene sediments all  over the world contains a lot of iridium shocked quartz and soot indicative 
of a giant impact and global fire
§ § Impact could have killed off dinosaurs and 75% other species in several  ways: Heating of ejecta as it passes through atmosphere cause wildfires § Dust suspended would block sunlight hence global cooling § Ejecta: disrupt ozone layer hence extensive § Sulfate-rich marine rocks in atmosphere would have transformed into  sulfuric acid that rained down on oceans causing them to be very 
acidic
§ • Sun contains 99.86% mass of Solar System
• Crematoria
Effects of slow planetary rotation
○ 1/2 of planet that is hot and 1/2 cold
Barrier btw hot and cold parts, one region that is at a temperature  where humans could survive § ○ Happens on mercury Mercury rotates very slowly: It takes mercury two years (176 Earth  days) to complete one Mercury day/night cycle § § Could walk around the day/night terminus Moves at a leisurely walking pace of only 2mph Study Guide 3 Thursday, November 1, 2018 10:12 PM
background image Review Questions: Multiple Choice Which of the following is false about wildfires? Before humans evolved, fires that were ignited by lightning or volcanic  eruptions would burn until they ran out of fuel or were extinguished 
naturally.
a. Wildfires date back more than 350 million years when trees evolved and  spread across the globe. b. Early European settlers of North America brought the ability to use fire for  heat, light, and cooking to Native Americans. c. Some species of trees have seed cones that open only after a fire. d. 1. Which of the following best describes what happens during the preignition  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 2. Which of the following best describes what happens during the combustion  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 3. Which of the following is NOT a good indicator of whether a region is prone to  wildfires? Humidity a. Topography b. Vegetation type c. Temperature d. Bedrock composition e. 4. Which of the following wildfire types is dominated by fires moving alone  treetops? Groundfires a. Surface fires b. Crown fires c. Tree fires d. 5. Which of the following locations in the US has the lowest risk for wildfires? California a. New Mexico b. Alaska c. Maine d. 6. Which of the following is NOT an effect of wildfires? Increased landslide activity a. Increased earthquake activity b. Increased smog c. Decreased water quality d. Destroyed animal habitats e. 7. Which of the following is NOT an example of how wildfires are beneficial to the  environment? May trigger a release of seeds for some species a. Remove surface debris for grasses b. Recycle nutrients in the ecosystem c. Increase the amount of that plants can grow d. Fires create deeper river channels that reduce flooding hazards e. 8. Which of the following is a good reason for a prescribed burn? Too much fuel is available and needs to be removed in order to prevent a  larger fire a. Animals that are invading a habitat need to be moved to another locations b. Shrubland needs to be cleared for new housing c. Vegetation on hillsides needs to be cleared before the rainy season d. 9. What is the main source of wildfires in the US? People  a. Wind b. Animals scratching on dry vegetation c. 10. Which factors strongly influence wildfires to spread? Strength of wind a. Type of vegetation b. Warm temperatures c. All of above d. 11. What is a surface fire? A fire where surface of trees ignite a. A fire so hot that dirt burns b. A grass/brush fire that burns low to ground c. Fire that is too big to contain d. 12. 3 stages of a wildfire? Drying, heating, wetting a. Pre-heating, detonation, cooling b. Smoking, flaming, glowing c. Pre-ignition, combustion, smoldering d. 13. What is current policy of US forest surface? Aggressively fight all wildfires a. Only fight small wildfires b. Don’t fight any wildfires c. Permit wildfires to burn in primitive areas where people and structures are  not in danger d. 14. What is the purpose of hotshot crews? To make sure communities comply with fire-prevention rules a. To act as look out and raise an alarm if a wildfire is spotted b. To prevent spread of wildfires c. All of the above d. 15. Why are airtanker flights so dangerous? Fly low a. Fly slow b. Old planes are not designed for this purpose and often used c. All of the above d. 16. What is the advantage that helitankers have over airtankers? Longer range a. Carry more water/fire retardant b. Can refill locally in small bodies of water c. All of the above d. 17. What is the main function of a Smoke jumper? To rescue people a. To catch dangerous criminals that escape from hot shot crews b. To jump over fires c. To get to and fight remote fires before they become too destructive d. 18. Which are fire shelters NOT designed to do? Reflect heat a. Protect against direct sustained contact with flames b. Trap breathable air c. Serve as final effort to survive wildfire d. 19. Which is NOT a good wildfire safety practice? Keeping vegetation load within 100 ft of structure a. Using fire-resistant roof shingles b. Parking on dry vegetation c. Soaking a campfire after putting it out  d. 20. What are meteoroids? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 21. What are meteors? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 22. What are meteorites? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 23. What are comets? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 24. Why do comets have tails? They have creole volcanoes a. Comets are loose collection of rocks that sun's gravity causes it to spread  out b. Solar winds c. Ice in comets turn to gas (sublimates) due to heat from sun and enabling  dust and gas to be released d. 25. Long period comets originate from the oort cloud. Where is the oort cloud? Between Mars and Jupiter a. Around Pluto's orbit b. Far beyond Pluto's orbit c. Between Jupiter and Neptune d. 26. How do we know the Oort cloud is a sphere? Comets come from all directions a. From elliptical shape of comet's orbit b. We can view from powerful telescopes c. 27. If a 1km asteroid strikes the earth, how big would the crater be? 15-30 km in diameter a. 1km in diameter b. 100 km in diameter c. Asteroid wouldn't cause a crater d. 28. Why are impacts almost always round? Asteroids typically explode on impact creating a shockwave that spreads  out equally in all directions a. Asteroids always hit from nearly straight overhead b. Impact melts rock that spreads equally in all directions c. Collapse of walls of initial crater allows for oval shaped craters to become  rounded d. 29. Which is NOT evidence that a large impact killed off dinosaurs? Abundance of iridium found at KT boundary a. Fossilized dinosaurs with severe burns b. Shocked forts evidence at KT boundary c. Discovery of chicxulub crater that is the right size and age d. 30. How many near-earth asteroids greater than or equal to 1km in diameter are  currently being tracked? 1000 a. 10,000 b. 100 c. none d. 31. Which is NOT a potential strategy for changing position of asteroid on collision  course with Earth? Detonate nuclear bomb on one side a. Land spacecraft on it to eject material off the surface b. Attach solar sail to the object c. Focus solar heat to create thrust from the resulting sublimation of ice d. 32. Which statement best characterizes water on surface of mars? Billions of years ago there was, now there is not a. No evidence of water ever existing b. There have always been lakes c. There are lakes today but they are filled with methane, not water d. 33. Which of the following about the topography of Mars is true? Largest/widest/deepest canyon a. Deepest basin in the solar system b. Largest mountain c. All of the above d. 34. Which statement about Jupiter's great red spot is NOT true? Larger than earth a. Large impact crater b. At least 300 yrs old c. Shrinking overtime  d. 35. What does Saturn's moon titan have that no other body in the solar system has  beside earth? Volcanoes that eject water a. Thick atmosphere b. Surface lakes- filled with Methane c. Magnetic field d. 36. According to IAU, Pluto is no longer considered a planet because why? Too small a. Irregular orbit b. Too far away c. Doesn't clear the neighborhood d. 37. Why do we expect life on Jupiter's moon Europa? Covered with lakes a. Oxygen rich atmosphere b. Active volcanism c. Liquid ocean below its icy surface d. 38. What are the voyager spacecrafts' golden records? Longest distance and fastest speed by a spacecraft a. Only spacecraft to be shielded in gold link b. Instruments carried by spacecraft to detect gold in cosmos c. Record that contains sounds and images from earth d. 39. What does it mean if an exoplanet exists in the habitable zone? Located right distance from its star to enable liquid water to exist on  surface a. Exoplanet has oxygen rich atmosphere b. Located same distance from star that earth is from sun c. Located at distance from its star that makes extinction-level impacts from  asteroids unlikely d. 40. Why is space travel so dangerous? Exposure to radiation a. Space craft explodes b. Exposure to micrometeoroids c. All of the above d. 41. Why did challenger explode during launch? O-ring failed a. Temperature was too cold b. Managers didn't listen to engineers c. All of the above d. 42. Short Answer Questions: Which three things are necessary for a fire to burn? Heat, oxygen, and fuel a. 1. What is a crown fire? A fire where tops of trees ignite a. 2. Which was the largest wildfire in US history? Great fire of 1910 a. 3. What was the original policy of the US forest surface? Fight all fires no matter what a. 4. What put out Yellowstone fire 1988? 1/4 inch of snow a. 5. What heroic firefighter saved others by forcing them to hide in a mine? Polaski a. 6. Where are most asteroids found? Between Mars and Jupiter in Asteroid belt a. 7. Why is the surface of some of the largest impact craters black?  Impact happens and lava is developed: called mar a. 8. Why are there more impact craters on the moon than on earth? Erosion- moon doesn't have any erosion a. 9. Why is Halley's comet the most famous? It's visible and it comes around every 75 years a. 10. How often does a 10km asteroid hit the earth? Every hundred million years a. 11. What is the average thickness of Saturn's rings? 10 meters a. 12. What is the purpose of an air-tanker? Drops water and fire-retardants on fire a. 13. Why is mars most explored planet Greatest chance of finding past/present life a. 14. How does the Kepler spacecraft detect exoplanets? Observing how star's light temporarily dims due to a planet passing in front  of it a. 15. How many security prisoners does California have trained to fight wildfires? 4,000 a. 16. 17. What is the major cause of death for wildfire firefighters? Burnover a. 18. What is the most common means for setting a house on fire? Firebrands a. 19. What are some steps for fire prevention? Don't have logs in basement a. Don't have trees very close to house b. Storage shed from home c. Fire-resistant shingled roof d. Avoid outdoor burning e. Driveway accessible with address visible f. Garden house g. Green grass h. Keep chimney cleaned and screened i. Wood pile, fuel tanks, and other burnable materials 30ft from structures j. 20. What do asteroids usually do on impact and how big is their impact crater? a. They usually explode upon impact and their impact crater is 15-30x larger  than the asteroid 21. What are the 3 basic types of craters? a. Simple crater 1km diameter meteor crater in Arizona was caused by an asteroid  only 40 m wide § b. Complex crater Complex lunar craters like Tyco (diameter = 86 km) have a central  raised peak and terraced side walls  § Complex Herschel crater on Saturn's icy moon Mimas is the largest  ratio of a crater diameter to the size of the moon or planet anywhere 
in solar system
§ c. Multi-ring basin § Multi-ring Valhalla basin on Jupiter moon Callisto is the largest  impact basin in the solar system (diameter of outer rings: 3800) 22. How do you prevent an asteroid from hitting Earth? a. Deflection: an impact of an impact spacecraft will result in the impact to  change the orbital velocity  b. Kinetic impact: crash a heavy spacecraft into it to alter trajectory c. Spacecraft propulsion: create a small sustained thrust on its side to alter  trajectory d. Focus solar heat onto a comet surface to create thrust from resulting  vaporization of material e. Solar sail: attach a large solar sail enabling solar pressure f. Nuclear weapons § Direct hit to vaporize (better not leave big chunks) Detonate a series of devices close to asteroid § 23. What are the hazards of space travel? a. Long period of weightlessness will cause muscles to atrophy, bones to  become brittle, and as of yet unknown other effects NASA developed a reduced gravity fight program to study  weightlessness § Weightlessness can be countered by generating a centrifugal force by  spinning a spacecraft § b. Micrometeoroids: fast moving tiny rocks that can damage spacecraft and  harm astronauts Astronaut suits are built to protect against micrometeoroids § c. Radiation  Radiation associated with solar flares can be very dangerous to  astronauts and spacecraft Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from  the Sun consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation Caused by magnetic reconnection Magnetic reconnection: when different magnetic field  lines are spliced together and change their patterns Typically takes a day or 2 to reach Earth and longer to  reach Mars Sun is well monitored, we will always have several  days warning ® § § d. Space junk Over 500,000 pieces of space junk at high speeds, orbiting the Earth § e. Issues on Spacecraft Fire on Apollo- electrical problems allowed the fire to continue for a  long time § Oxygen tank exploded- apollo 13 §
§ Space shuttle challenger- failure sequence
Aft joint (o-ring) failed upon ignition, took 70 seconds to burn  through strut attaching to booster to the external tank 
(mechanical)
§ Booster separated, rotated, and crushed the external tank,  releasing oxygen and hydrogen, they mixed and then ignited 
(mechanical)
§ § Space shuttle Columbia- disintegrating during reentry, killing all 7  crew members § Foam block from fuel tank bi-pod ramp dislodged and hit wing True/False:  Some types of trees require fire to regenerate True a. 1. Fires are dangerous to preservation of grassland False a. 2. A wildfire can burn down a house but leave surrounding lawn unburned True a. 3. We can find Martian meteorites on earth True a. 4. The asteroid belt is crowded False a. 5. The planets are evenly spaced False a. 6. All giant planets have rings True a. 7. At walking speed, you could traverse around Mercury and remain in a zone btw  day and night that is at a comfortable temperature True a. 8. Planets: • Venus ○ covered in dense clouds, high wind speeds
○ Our deadly sister
○ Atmospheric pressure on surface is 90x greater than on earth
○ Atmosphere is made of CO2, Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid
○ Strong greenhouse effect: traps heat from Sun that Venus has hottest 
surface of any planet, reaching temperatures of 860 degrees ○ Entire surface covered with lava and volcanoes (more than any other planet  in solar system) ○ Lightning • Mars ○ Lots of spacecraft on Mars
○ Surface: cold, dry, dusty
○ Seasonal water (described as dampness) on the surface
Likely salty, otherwise it would freeze Water channels cut into Martian surface ○ Billions of years ago there was lots of water on Mars Probably had an ocean Has many ancient river channels ○ Greatest chance of finding past or current signs of life
○ Lots of extreme topographic features
○ Olympus Mons: Tallest mountain in solar system Low topography of northern hemisphere may have been caused by  giant impact and may have been an ancient ocean basin Valles marineris: longest, widest, deepest canyon in Solar System Hellas Basin: created by giant impact, 7km deep and the deepest  basin in the solar system • Jupiter ○ Great Red Spot: is a giant storm on Jupiter, has existed for at least 300 yrs ○ Diameter is bigger than Earth's  ○ Moon Europa is thought to have a subsurface ocean- where there's water  there might be life ○ Icebergs are evidence for thin ice and a warm subsurface water • Saturn  ○ Rings consist of small water ice particles ranging in size from dust to  meters ○ Only ~10m in thickness
○ Titan: second largest moon in Solar System (bigger than Mercury)
Only moon in solar system to have a dense atmosphere
○ Only object in our Solar Sysem other than Earth with rain, snow, 
lakes, and rivers Too cold for water- liquid (and snow) is methane  § ○ Saturn's moon Enceladus Erupts water that freezes and feeds Saturn's E-ring Has water geysers, revealing existence of a subsurface ocean Pluto: dwarf planet, mountains of water-ice next to plains of smooth nitrogen ice • Kuiper belt object: one of millions of icy bodies in orbit beyond Neptune ○ Over a thousand more objects have been found, including many of similar  size Definitions: • Preigntion: the premature combustion of the fuel–air mixture in an internal  combustion engine. • Oort cloud: an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of  the solar system, mostly circular and thought to have been origin of long-period 
comets
• Maar: a broad, shallow crater, typically filled by a lake, formed by a volcanic  explosion with little lava. • Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from the Sun  consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation
Burnover: fire running over the firefighters
Fire Shelters: safety device of last resort used by firefighters when trapped by  wildfires, Designed to reflect heat and trap breathable air, NOT designed to 
protect against direct contact with flames
Firebrands: burning embers Comets: an icy small solar system body that, when close enough to the sun,  displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmospheres) and sometimes a 
tail
Mixture of ice and rock that sublimate (solid --> gas) as they approach the  sun, releasing dust and gas to form 2 sails Gas tails are pushed away from the sun by solar winds (charged particles  emitted by the Sun) and are always directed away from the Sun Dust tails are pushed away from the sun by solar radiation (light). Dust  particles slow down with distance from the sun, which causes dust tails to 
curve
Light and fluffy We can track the origin of comets by tracking trajectories around the Sun Long-period comets: come from outer solar system, far beyond Pluto, and  take 1000s of years to orbit the sun Oort cloud is estimated to have billions of small icy objects as old as  the solar system Long period comets have orbits with an elongated shape, which  indicates they come from an elliptical zone Short-period comets: orbit much closer to the Sun in a matter of decades Captured by gravity of sun Asteroid: a class of small solar system bodies in orbit around the sun the further  away that comets and don't have coma. They can break-up into meteoroids and 
burn up in earth's atmosphere
Mostly rock, some ice Large space rocks that range in size from meters to 100s of km They are smooth and with minimal flying debris  They reside in the Asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter Avg. distance btw them is about 2,000,000 miles Some asteroids orbit inside Mars Asteroids that orbit near earth are called Near Earth Asteroids  (NEAs) Estimated 1 million asteroids bigger than 1km in diameter and billions of  smaller ones Meteoroid: small rocks (less than a few meters across) travelling through space Meteors: small rocks from space that light up in the night sky as they burn up the  earth's atmosphere Meteorites: small pieces of rock that survive passage through the atmosphere to  be picked up on a planet surface. Exist because meteoroids burn in the Earth's 
atmosphere
2 types: stony-93% are stony/iron The easiest place to find meteorites is Antarctica, where flowing glaciers  collect and deposit them, easily seen against white of Antarctica Martian meteorites: trapped gas bubbles that are identical in composition  to Mars' atmosphere Thought to have been ejected from Mars by large impacts Gas Giant: mostly ice, small rocky cores Ice Giant: gas with icy mantle, small rocky core IAU Definition of a planet: orbits around the sun, nearly round in shape, clear  the neighborhood Clear the neighborhood: it must be separated from other bodies and orbit  on its own Kepler Telescope: Identifies planets by crossing their stars by the slight  dimming of the star's light Has discovered more than 2000 exoplanets Finds planets in "Habitable Zone"- where liquid water can exist on the  surface Superearths: have a similar atmosphere as Earth, larger than earth Closest exoplanet is near Proxima Centauri (our Sun) Impact Terms: • Impact breccia: angular shattered pieces of rock surrounded by melt from  impact • Ejecta: rock thrown out of the crater during impact
• Regolith: a layer of ejecta and dust- moon is covered in it, 10 m thick
Important:  Venus has hottest surface temperature of all the planets There are estimated to be more exoplanets like earth than grains of sand You can simulate gravity on spacecraft by spinning it There is so much debris/space junk in Earth's orbit that it's a danger to astronauts,  space craft, satellites Fire retardants are colored red to mark where they were dropped Smokejumper strategy:  Attack fire from back and work up sides to limit directions of spread 1. Attack the head by quenching it, using a backfire, or steering it to  unburnable areas 2. Best progress is made in night when temperatures and wind drop 3. Constant vigilance with spot fires 4. Be relentless 5. • Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the first comet we have orbited with a space craft
• The extinction of dinosaurs was to believe have been caused by a 10km diameter 
impactor 65 million years ago Cretaceous (dino ruled) Paleogene (mammal ruled) extinction event  occurred over 65 million years ago killing off 75% species on Earth § Thin layer of clay that separates Cretaceous from Paleogene sediments all  over the world contains a lot of iridium shocked quartz and soot indicative 
of a giant impact and global fire
§ § Impact could have killed off dinosaurs and 75% other species in several  ways: Heating of ejecta as it passes through atmosphere cause wildfires § Dust suspended would block sunlight hence global cooling § Ejecta: disrupt ozone layer hence extensive § Sulfate-rich marine rocks in atmosphere would have transformed into  sulfuric acid that rained down on oceans causing them to be very 
acidic
§ • Sun contains 99.86% mass of Solar System
• Crematoria
Effects of slow planetary rotation
○ 1/2 of planet that is hot and 1/2 cold
Barrier btw hot and cold parts, one region that is at a temperature  where humans could survive § ○ Happens on mercury Mercury rotates very slowly: It takes mercury two years (176 Earth  days) to complete one Mercury day/night cycle § § Could walk around the day/night terminus Moves at a leisurely walking pace of only 2mph Study Guide 3 Thursday, November 1, 2018 10:12 PM
background image Review Questions: Multiple Choice Which of the following is false about wildfires? Before humans evolved, fires that were ignited by lightning or volcanic  eruptions would burn until they ran out of fuel or were extinguished 
naturally.
a. Wildfires date back more than 350 million years when trees evolved and  spread across the globe. b. Early European settlers of North America brought the ability to use fire for  heat, light, and cooking to Native Americans. c. Some species of trees have seed cones that open only after a fire. d. 1. Which of the following best describes what happens during the preignition  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 2. Which of the following best describes what happens during the combustion  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 3. Which of the following is NOT a good indicator of whether a region is prone to  wildfires? Humidity a. Topography b. Vegetation type c. Temperature d. Bedrock composition e. 4. Which of the following wildfire types is dominated by fires moving alone  treetops? Groundfires a. Surface fires b. Crown fires c. Tree fires d. 5. Which of the following locations in the US has the lowest risk for wildfires? California a. New Mexico b. Alaska c. Maine d. 6. Which of the following is NOT an effect of wildfires? Increased landslide activity a. Increased earthquake activity b. Increased smog c. Decreased water quality d. Destroyed animal habitats e. 7. Which of the following is NOT an example of how wildfires are beneficial to the  environment? May trigger a release of seeds for some species a. Remove surface debris for grasses b. Recycle nutrients in the ecosystem c. Increase the amount of that plants can grow d. Fires create deeper river channels that reduce flooding hazards e. 8. Which of the following is a good reason for a prescribed burn? Too much fuel is available and needs to be removed in order to prevent a  larger fire a. Animals that are invading a habitat need to be moved to another locations b. Shrubland needs to be cleared for new housing c. Vegetation on hillsides needs to be cleared before the rainy season d. 9. What is the main source of wildfires in the US? People  a. Wind b. Animals scratching on dry vegetation c. 10. Which factors strongly influence wildfires to spread? Strength of wind a. Type of vegetation b. Warm temperatures c. All of above d. 11. What is a surface fire? A fire where surface of trees ignite a. A fire so hot that dirt burns b. A grass/brush fire that burns low to ground c. Fire that is too big to contain d. 12. 3 stages of a wildfire? Drying, heating, wetting a. Pre-heating, detonation, cooling b. Smoking, flaming, glowing c. Pre-ignition, combustion, smoldering d. 13. What is current policy of US forest surface? Aggressively fight all wildfires a. Only fight small wildfires b. Don’t fight any wildfires c. Permit wildfires to burn in primitive areas where people and structures are  not in danger d. 14. What is the purpose of hotshot crews? To make sure communities comply with fire-prevention rules a. To act as look out and raise an alarm if a wildfire is spotted b. To prevent spread of wildfires c. All of the above d. 15. Why are airtanker flights so dangerous? Fly low a. Fly slow b. Old planes are not designed for this purpose and often used c. All of the above d. 16. What is the advantage that helitankers have over airtankers? Longer range a. Carry more water/fire retardant b. Can refill locally in small bodies of water c. All of the above d. 17. What is the main function of a Smoke jumper? To rescue people a. To catch dangerous criminals that escape from hot shot crews b. To jump over fires c. To get to and fight remote fires before they become too destructive d. 18. Which are fire shelters NOT designed to do? Reflect heat a. Protect against direct sustained contact with flames b. Trap breathable air c. Serve as final effort to survive wildfire d. 19. Which is NOT a good wildfire safety practice? Keeping vegetation load within 100 ft of structure a. Using fire-resistant roof shingles b. Parking on dry vegetation c. Soaking a campfire after putting it out  d. 20. What are meteoroids? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 21. What are meteors? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 22. What are meteorites? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 23. What are comets? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 24. Why do comets have tails? They have creole volcanoes a. Comets are loose collection of rocks that sun's gravity causes it to spread  out b. Solar winds c. Ice in comets turn to gas (sublimates) due to heat from sun and enabling  dust and gas to be released d. 25. Long period comets originate from the oort cloud. Where is the oort cloud? Between Mars and Jupiter a. Around Pluto's orbit b. Far beyond Pluto's orbit c. Between Jupiter and Neptune d. 26. How do we know the Oort cloud is a sphere? Comets come from all directions a. From elliptical shape of comet's orbit b. We can view from powerful telescopes c. 27. If a 1km asteroid strikes the earth, how big would the crater be? 15-30 km in diameter a. 1km in diameter b. 100 km in diameter c. Asteroid wouldn't cause a crater d. 28. Why are impacts almost always round? Asteroids typically explode on impact creating a shockwave that spreads  out equally in all directions a. Asteroids always hit from nearly straight overhead b. Impact melts rock that spreads equally in all directions c. Collapse of walls of initial crater allows for oval shaped craters to become  rounded d. 29. Which is NOT evidence that a large impact killed off dinosaurs? Abundance of iridium found at KT boundary a. Fossilized dinosaurs with severe burns b. Shocked forts evidence at KT boundary c. Discovery of chicxulub crater that is the right size and age d. 30. How many near-earth asteroids greater than or equal to 1km in diameter are  currently being tracked? 1000 a. 10,000 b. 100 c. none d. 31. Which is NOT a potential strategy for changing position of asteroid on collision  course with Earth? Detonate nuclear bomb on one side a. Land spacecraft on it to eject material off the surface b. Attach solar sail to the object c. Focus solar heat to create thrust from the resulting sublimation of ice d. 32. Which statement best characterizes water on surface of mars? Billions of years ago there was, now there is not a. No evidence of water ever existing b. There have always been lakes c. There are lakes today but they are filled with methane, not water d. 33. Which of the following about the topography of Mars is true? Largest/widest/deepest canyon a. Deepest basin in the solar system b. Largest mountain c. All of the above d. 34. Which statement about Jupiter's great red spot is NOT true? Larger than earth a. Large impact crater b. At least 300 yrs old c. Shrinking overtime  d. 35. What does Saturn's moon titan have that no other body in the solar system has  beside earth? Volcanoes that eject water a. Thick atmosphere b. Surface lakes- filled with Methane c. Magnetic field d. 36. According to IAU, Pluto is no longer considered a planet because why? Too small a. Irregular orbit b. Too far away c. Doesn't clear the neighborhood d. 37. Why do we expect life on Jupiter's moon Europa? Covered with lakes a. Oxygen rich atmosphere b. Active volcanism c. Liquid ocean below its icy surface d. 38. What are the voyager spacecrafts' golden records? Longest distance and fastest speed by a spacecraft a. Only spacecraft to be shielded in gold link b. Instruments carried by spacecraft to detect gold in cosmos c. Record that contains sounds and images from earth d. 39. What does it mean if an exoplanet exists in the habitable zone? Located right distance from its star to enable liquid water to exist on  surface a. Exoplanet has oxygen rich atmosphere b. Located same distance from star that earth is from sun c. Located at distance from its star that makes extinction-level impacts from  asteroids unlikely d. 40. Why is space travel so dangerous? Exposure to radiation a. Space craft explodes b. Exposure to micrometeoroids c. All of the above d. 41. Why did challenger explode during launch? O-ring failed a. Temperature was too cold b. Managers didn't listen to engineers c. All of the above d. 42. Short Answer Questions: Which three things are necessary for a fire to burn? Heat, oxygen, and fuel a. 1. What is a crown fire? A fire where tops of trees ignite a. 2. Which was the largest wildfire in US history? Great fire of 1910 a. 3. What was the original policy of the US forest surface? Fight all fires no matter what a. 4. What put out Yellowstone fire 1988? 1/4 inch of snow a. 5. What heroic firefighter saved others by forcing them to hide in a mine? Polaski a. 6. Where are most asteroids found? Between Mars and Jupiter in Asteroid belt a. 7. Why is the surface of some of the largest impact craters black?  Impact happens and lava is developed: called mar a. 8. Why are there more impact craters on the moon than on earth? Erosion- moon doesn't have any erosion a. 9. Why is Halley's comet the most famous? It's visible and it comes around every 75 years a. 10. How often does a 10km asteroid hit the earth? Every hundred million years a. 11. What is the average thickness of Saturn's rings? 10 meters a. 12. What is the purpose of an air-tanker? Drops water and fire-retardants on fire a. 13. Why is mars most explored planet Greatest chance of finding past/present life a. 14. How does the Kepler spacecraft detect exoplanets? Observing how star's light temporarily dims due to a planet passing in front  of it a. 15. How many security prisoners does California have trained to fight wildfires? 4,000 a. 16. 17. What is the major cause of death for wildfire firefighters? Burnover a. 18. What is the most common means for setting a house on fire? Firebrands a. 19. What are some steps for fire prevention? Don't have logs in basement a. Don't have trees very close to house b. Storage shed from home c. Fire-resistant shingled roof d. Avoid outdoor burning e. Driveway accessible with address visible f. Garden house g. Green grass h. Keep chimney cleaned and screened i. Wood pile, fuel tanks, and other burnable materials 30ft from structures j. 20. What do asteroids usually do on impact and how big is their impact crater? a. They usually explode upon impact and their impact crater is 15-30x larger  than the asteroid 21. What are the 3 basic types of craters? a. Simple crater 1km diameter meteor crater in Arizona was caused by an asteroid  only 40 m wide § b. Complex crater Complex lunar craters like Tyco (diameter = 86 km) have a central  raised peak and terraced side walls  § Complex Herschel crater on Saturn's icy moon Mimas is the largest  ratio of a crater diameter to the size of the moon or planet anywhere 
in solar system
§ c. Multi-ring basin § Multi-ring Valhalla basin on Jupiter moon Callisto is the largest  impact basin in the solar system (diameter of outer rings: 3800) 22. How do you prevent an asteroid from hitting Earth? a. Deflection: an impact of an impact spacecraft will result in the impact to  change the orbital velocity  b. Kinetic impact: crash a heavy spacecraft into it to alter trajectory c. Spacecraft propulsion: create a small sustained thrust on its side to alter  trajectory d. Focus solar heat onto a comet surface to create thrust from resulting  vaporization of material e. Solar sail: attach a large solar sail enabling solar pressure f. Nuclear weapons § Direct hit to vaporize (better not leave big chunks) Detonate a series of devices close to asteroid § 23. What are the hazards of space travel? a. Long period of weightlessness will cause muscles to atrophy, bones to  become brittle, and as of yet unknown other effects NASA developed a reduced gravity fight program to study  weightlessness § Weightlessness can be countered by generating a centrifugal force by  spinning a spacecraft § b. Micrometeoroids: fast moving tiny rocks that can damage spacecraft and  harm astronauts Astronaut suits are built to protect against micrometeoroids § c. Radiation  Radiation associated with solar flares can be very dangerous to  astronauts and spacecraft Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from  the Sun consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation Caused by magnetic reconnection Magnetic reconnection: when different magnetic field  lines are spliced together and change their patterns Typically takes a day or 2 to reach Earth and longer to  reach Mars Sun is well monitored, we will always have several  days warning ® § § d. Space junk Over 500,000 pieces of space junk at high speeds, orbiting the Earth § e. Issues on Spacecraft Fire on Apollo- electrical problems allowed the fire to continue for a  long time § Oxygen tank exploded- apollo 13 §
§ Space shuttle challenger- failure sequence
Aft joint (o-ring) failed upon ignition, took 70 seconds to burn  through strut attaching to booster to the external tank 
(mechanical)
§ Booster separated, rotated, and crushed the external tank,  releasing oxygen and hydrogen, they mixed and then ignited 
(mechanical)
§ § Space shuttle Columbia- disintegrating during reentry, killing all 7  crew members § Foam block from fuel tank bi-pod ramp dislodged and hit wing True/False:  Some types of trees require fire to regenerate True a. 1. Fires are dangerous to preservation of grassland False a. 2. A wildfire can burn down a house but leave surrounding lawn unburned True a. 3. We can find Martian meteorites on earth True a. 4. The asteroid belt is crowded False a. 5. The planets are evenly spaced False a. 6. All giant planets have rings True a. 7. At walking speed, you could traverse around Mercury and remain in a zone btw  day and night that is at a comfortable temperature True a. 8. Planets: • Venus ○ covered in dense clouds, high wind speeds
○ Our deadly sister
○ Atmospheric pressure on surface is 90x greater than on earth
○ Atmosphere is made of CO2, Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid
○ Strong greenhouse effect: traps heat from Sun that Venus has hottest 
surface of any planet, reaching temperatures of 860 degrees ○ Entire surface covered with lava and volcanoes (more than any other planet  in solar system) ○ Lightning • Mars ○ Lots of spacecraft on Mars
○ Surface: cold, dry, dusty
○ Seasonal water (described as dampness) on the surface
Likely salty, otherwise it would freeze Water channels cut into Martian surface ○ Billions of years ago there was lots of water on Mars Probably had an ocean Has many ancient river channels ○ Greatest chance of finding past or current signs of life
○ Lots of extreme topographic features
○ Olympus Mons: Tallest mountain in solar system Low topography of northern hemisphere may have been caused by  giant impact and may have been an ancient ocean basin Valles marineris: longest, widest, deepest canyon in Solar System Hellas Basin: created by giant impact, 7km deep and the deepest  basin in the solar system • Jupiter ○ Great Red Spot: is a giant storm on Jupiter, has existed for at least 300 yrs ○ Diameter is bigger than Earth's  ○ Moon Europa is thought to have a subsurface ocean- where there's water  there might be life ○ Icebergs are evidence for thin ice and a warm subsurface water • Saturn  ○ Rings consist of small water ice particles ranging in size from dust to  meters ○ Only ~10m in thickness
○ Titan: second largest moon in Solar System (bigger than Mercury)
Only moon in solar system to have a dense atmosphere
○ Only object in our Solar Sysem other than Earth with rain, snow, 
lakes, and rivers Too cold for water- liquid (and snow) is methane  § ○ Saturn's moon Enceladus Erupts water that freezes and feeds Saturn's E-ring Has water geysers, revealing existence of a subsurface ocean Pluto: dwarf planet, mountains of water-ice next to plains of smooth nitrogen ice • Kuiper belt object: one of millions of icy bodies in orbit beyond Neptune ○ Over a thousand more objects have been found, including many of similar  size Definitions: • Preigntion: the premature combustion of the fuel–air mixture in an internal  combustion engine. • Oort cloud: an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of  the solar system, mostly circular and thought to have been origin of long-period 
comets
• Maar: a broad, shallow crater, typically filled by a lake, formed by a volcanic  explosion with little lava. • Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from the Sun  consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation
Burnover: fire running over the firefighters
Fire Shelters: safety device of last resort used by firefighters when trapped by  wildfires, Designed to reflect heat and trap breathable air, NOT designed to 
protect against direct contact with flames
Firebrands: burning embers Comets: an icy small solar system body that, when close enough to the sun,  displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmospheres) and sometimes a 
tail
Mixture of ice and rock that sublimate (solid --> gas) as they approach the  sun, releasing dust and gas to form 2 sails Gas tails are pushed away from the sun by solar winds (charged particles  emitted by the Sun) and are always directed away from the Sun Dust tails are pushed away from the sun by solar radiation (light). Dust  particles slow down with distance from the sun, which causes dust tails to 
curve
Light and fluffy We can track the origin of comets by tracking trajectories around the Sun Long-period comets: come from outer solar system, far beyond Pluto, and  take 1000s of years to orbit the sun Oort cloud is estimated to have billions of small icy objects as old as  the solar system Long period comets have orbits with an elongated shape, which  indicates they come from an elliptical zone Short-period comets: orbit much closer to the Sun in a matter of decades Captured by gravity of sun Asteroid: a class of small solar system bodies in orbit around the sun the further  away that comets and don't have coma. They can break-up into meteoroids and 
burn up in earth's atmosphere
Mostly rock, some ice Large space rocks that range in size from meters to 100s of km They are smooth and with minimal flying debris  They reside in the Asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter Avg. distance btw them is about 2,000,000 miles Some asteroids orbit inside Mars Asteroids that orbit near earth are called Near Earth Asteroids  (NEAs) Estimated 1 million asteroids bigger than 1km in diameter and billions of  smaller ones Meteoroid: small rocks (less than a few meters across) travelling through space Meteors: small rocks from space that light up in the night sky as they burn up the  earth's atmosphere Meteorites: small pieces of rock that survive passage through the atmosphere to  be picked up on a planet surface. Exist because meteoroids burn in the Earth's 
atmosphere
2 types: stony-93% are stony/iron The easiest place to find meteorites is Antarctica, where flowing glaciers  collect and deposit them, easily seen against white of Antarctica Martian meteorites: trapped gas bubbles that are identical in composition  to Mars' atmosphere Thought to have been ejected from Mars by large impacts Gas Giant: mostly ice, small rocky cores Ice Giant: gas with icy mantle, small rocky core IAU Definition of a planet: orbits around the sun, nearly round in shape, clear  the neighborhood Clear the neighborhood: it must be separated from other bodies and orbit  on its own Kepler Telescope: Identifies planets by crossing their stars by the slight  dimming of the star's light Has discovered more than 2000 exoplanets Finds planets in "Habitable Zone"- where liquid water can exist on the  surface Superearths: have a similar atmosphere as Earth, larger than earth Closest exoplanet is near Proxima Centauri (our Sun) Impact Terms: • Impact breccia: angular shattered pieces of rock surrounded by melt from  impact • Ejecta: rock thrown out of the crater during impact
• Regolith: a layer of ejecta and dust- moon is covered in it, 10 m thick
Important:  Venus has hottest surface temperature of all the planets There are estimated to be more exoplanets like earth than grains of sand You can simulate gravity on spacecraft by spinning it There is so much debris/space junk in Earth's orbit that it's a danger to astronauts,  space craft, satellites Fire retardants are colored red to mark where they were dropped Smokejumper strategy:  Attack fire from back and work up sides to limit directions of spread 1. Attack the head by quenching it, using a backfire, or steering it to  unburnable areas 2. Best progress is made in night when temperatures and wind drop 3. Constant vigilance with spot fires 4. Be relentless 5. • Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the first comet we have orbited with a space craft
• The extinction of dinosaurs was to believe have been caused by a 10km diameter 
impactor 65 million years ago Cretaceous (dino ruled) Paleogene (mammal ruled) extinction event  occurred over 65 million years ago killing off 75% species on Earth § Thin layer of clay that separates Cretaceous from Paleogene sediments all  over the world contains a lot of iridium shocked quartz and soot indicative 
of a giant impact and global fire
§ § Impact could have killed off dinosaurs and 75% other species in several  ways: Heating of ejecta as it passes through atmosphere cause wildfires § Dust suspended would block sunlight hence global cooling § Ejecta: disrupt ozone layer hence extensive § Sulfate-rich marine rocks in atmosphere would have transformed into  sulfuric acid that rained down on oceans causing them to be very 
acidic
§ • Sun contains 99.86% mass of Solar System
• Crematoria
Effects of slow planetary rotation
○ 1/2 of planet that is hot and 1/2 cold
Barrier btw hot and cold parts, one region that is at a temperature  where humans could survive § ○ Happens on mercury Mercury rotates very slowly: It takes mercury two years (176 Earth  days) to complete one Mercury day/night cycle § § Could walk around the day/night terminus Moves at a leisurely walking pace of only 2mph Study Guide 3 Thursday, November 1, 2018 10:12 PM
background image Review Questions: Multiple Choice Which of the following is false about wildfires? Before humans evolved, fires that were ignited by lightning or volcanic  eruptions would burn until they ran out of fuel or were extinguished 
naturally.
a. Wildfires date back more than 350 million years when trees evolved and  spread across the globe. b. Early European settlers of North America brought the ability to use fire for  heat, light, and cooking to Native Americans. c. Some species of trees have seed cones that open only after a fire. d. 1. Which of the following best describes what happens during the preignition  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 2. Which of the following best describes what happens during the combustion  process in wildfire development? Fuel is heated, it loses water and is ready to be ignited a. Fuel at the front of a fire is ignited b. Gases heat and expand into fuel c. Gases cool and contract to produce fuel d. 3. Which of the following is NOT a good indicator of whether a region is prone to  wildfires? Humidity a. Topography b. Vegetation type c. Temperature d. Bedrock composition e. 4. Which of the following wildfire types is dominated by fires moving alone  treetops? Groundfires a. Surface fires b. Crown fires c. Tree fires d. 5. Which of the following locations in the US has the lowest risk for wildfires? California a. New Mexico b. Alaska c. Maine d. 6. Which of the following is NOT an effect of wildfires? Increased landslide activity a. Increased earthquake activity b. Increased smog c. Decreased water quality d. Destroyed animal habitats e. 7. Which of the following is NOT an example of how wildfires are beneficial to the  environment? May trigger a release of seeds for some species a. Remove surface debris for grasses b. Recycle nutrients in the ecosystem c. Increase the amount of that plants can grow d. Fires create deeper river channels that reduce flooding hazards e. 8. Which of the following is a good reason for a prescribed burn? Too much fuel is available and needs to be removed in order to prevent a  larger fire a. Animals that are invading a habitat need to be moved to another locations b. Shrubland needs to be cleared for new housing c. Vegetation on hillsides needs to be cleared before the rainy season d. 9. What is the main source of wildfires in the US? People  a. Wind b. Animals scratching on dry vegetation c. 10. Which factors strongly influence wildfires to spread? Strength of wind a. Type of vegetation b. Warm temperatures c. All of above d. 11. What is a surface fire? A fire where surface of trees ignite a. A fire so hot that dirt burns b. A grass/brush fire that burns low to ground c. Fire that is too big to contain d. 12. 3 stages of a wildfire? Drying, heating, wetting a. Pre-heating, detonation, cooling b. Smoking, flaming, glowing c. Pre-ignition, combustion, smoldering d. 13. What is current policy of US forest surface? Aggressively fight all wildfires a. Only fight small wildfires b. Don’t fight any wildfires c. Permit wildfires to burn in primitive areas where people and structures are  not in danger d. 14. What is the purpose of hotshot crews? To make sure communities comply with fire-prevention rules a. To act as look out and raise an alarm if a wildfire is spotted b. To prevent spread of wildfires c. All of the above d. 15. Why are airtanker flights so dangerous? Fly low a. Fly slow b. Old planes are not designed for this purpose and often used c. All of the above d. 16. What is the advantage that helitankers have over airtankers? Longer range a. Carry more water/fire retardant b. Can refill locally in small bodies of water c. All of the above d. 17. What is the main function of a Smoke jumper? To rescue people a. To catch dangerous criminals that escape from hot shot crews b. To jump over fires c. To get to and fight remote fires before they become too destructive d. 18. Which are fire shelters NOT designed to do? Reflect heat a. Protect against direct sustained contact with flames b. Trap breathable air c. Serve as final effort to survive wildfire d. 19. Which is NOT a good wildfire safety practice? Keeping vegetation load within 100 ft of structure a. Using fire-resistant roof shingles b. Parking on dry vegetation c. Soaking a campfire after putting it out  d. 20. What are meteoroids? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 21. What are meteors? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 22. What are meteorites? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 23. What are comets? Large rocks that are meters to hundreds of km in size that orbit the Sun  primarily btw Mars and Jupiter a. Small pieces of space rock that survive the passage of atmosphere to be  picked up on the planet's surface b. Small rocks from space that light up night sky as they burn up in earth's  atmosphere c. Only a few meters across and travel through space d. Dirty iceballs: a mixture of ice and rock that come form far out in the solar  system and form tails of dust and gas as they approach the Sun e. 24. Why do comets have tails? They have creole volcanoes a. Comets are loose collection of rocks that sun's gravity causes it to spread  out b. Solar winds c. Ice in comets turn to gas (sublimates) due to heat from sun and enabling  dust and gas to be released d. 25. Long period comets originate from the oort cloud. Where is the oort cloud? Between Mars and Jupiter a. Around Pluto's orbit b. Far beyond Pluto's orbit c. Between Jupiter and Neptune d. 26. How do we know the Oort cloud is a sphere? Comets come from all directions a. From elliptical shape of comet's orbit b. We can view from powerful telescopes c. 27. If a 1km asteroid strikes the earth, how big would the crater be? 15-30 km in diameter a. 1km in diameter b. 100 km in diameter c. Asteroid wouldn't cause a crater d. 28. Why are impacts almost always round? Asteroids typically explode on impact creating a shockwave that spreads  out equally in all directions a. Asteroids always hit from nearly straight overhead b. Impact melts rock that spreads equally in all directions c. Collapse of walls of initial crater allows for oval shaped craters to become  rounded d. 29. Which is NOT evidence that a large impact killed off dinosaurs? Abundance of iridium found at KT boundary a. Fossilized dinosaurs with severe burns b. Shocked forts evidence at KT boundary c. Discovery of chicxulub crater that is the right size and age d. 30. How many near-earth asteroids greater than or equal to 1km in diameter are  currently being tracked? 1000 a. 10,000 b. 100 c. none d. 31. Which is NOT a potential strategy for changing position of asteroid on collision  course with Earth? Detonate nuclear bomb on one side a. Land spacecraft on it to eject material off the surface b. Attach solar sail to the object c. Focus solar heat to create thrust from the resulting sublimation of ice d. 32. Which statement best characterizes water on surface of mars? Billions of years ago there was, now there is not a. No evidence of water ever existing b. There have always been lakes c. There are lakes today but they are filled with methane, not water d. 33. Which of the following about the topography of Mars is true? Largest/widest/deepest canyon a. Deepest basin in the solar system b. Largest mountain c. All of the above d. 34. Which statement about Jupiter's great red spot is NOT true? Larger than earth a. Large impact crater b. At least 300 yrs old c. Shrinking overtime  d. 35. What does Saturn's moon titan have that no other body in the solar system has  beside earth? Volcanoes that eject water a. Thick atmosphere b. Surface lakes- filled with Methane c. Magnetic field d. 36. According to IAU, Pluto is no longer considered a planet because why? Too small a. Irregular orbit b. Too far away c. Doesn't clear the neighborhood d. 37. Why do we expect life on Jupiter's moon Europa? Covered with lakes a. Oxygen rich atmosphere b. Active volcanism c. Liquid ocean below its icy surface d. 38. What are the voyager spacecrafts' golden records? Longest distance and fastest speed by a spacecraft a. Only spacecraft to be shielded in gold link b. Instruments carried by spacecraft to detect gold in cosmos c. Record that contains sounds and images from earth d. 39. What does it mean if an exoplanet exists in the habitable zone? Located right distance from its star to enable liquid water to exist on  surface a. Exoplanet has oxygen rich atmosphere b. Located same distance from star that earth is from sun c. Located at distance from its star that makes extinction-level impacts from  asteroids unlikely d. 40. Why is space travel so dangerous? Exposure to radiation a. Space craft explodes b. Exposure to micrometeoroids c. All of the above d. 41. Why did challenger explode during launch? O-ring failed a. Temperature was too cold b. Managers didn't listen to engineers c. All of the above d. 42. Short Answer Questions: Which three things are necessary for a fire to burn? Heat, oxygen, and fuel a. 1. What is a crown fire? A fire where tops of trees ignite a. 2. Which was the largest wildfire in US history? Great fire of 1910 a. 3. What was the original policy of the US forest surface? Fight all fires no matter what a. 4. What put out Yellowstone fire 1988? 1/4 inch of snow a. 5. What heroic firefighter saved others by forcing them to hide in a mine? Polaski a. 6. Where are most asteroids found? Between Mars and Jupiter in Asteroid belt a. 7. Why is the surface of some of the largest impact craters black?  Impact happens and lava is developed: called mar a. 8. Why are there more impact craters on the moon than on earth? Erosion- moon doesn't have any erosion a. 9. Why is Halley's comet the most famous? It's visible and it comes around every 75 years a. 10. How often does a 10km asteroid hit the earth? Every hundred million years a. 11. What is the average thickness of Saturn's rings? 10 meters a. 12. What is the purpose of an air-tanker? Drops water and fire-retardants on fire a. 13. Why is mars most explored planet Greatest chance of finding past/present life a. 14. How does the Kepler spacecraft detect exoplanets? Observing how star's light temporarily dims due to a planet passing in front  of it a. 15. How many security prisoners does California have trained to fight wildfires? 4,000 a. 16. 17. What is the major cause of death for wildfire firefighters? Burnover a. 18. What is the most common means for setting a house on fire? Firebrands a. 19. What are some steps for fire prevention? Don't have logs in basement a. Don't have trees very close to house b. Storage shed from home c. Fire-resistant shingled roof d. Avoid outdoor burning e. Driveway accessible with address visible f. Garden house g. Green grass h. Keep chimney cleaned and screened i. Wood pile, fuel tanks, and other burnable materials 30ft from structures j. 20. What do asteroids usually do on impact and how big is their impact crater? a. They usually explode upon impact and their impact crater is 15-30x larger  than the asteroid 21. What are the 3 basic types of craters? a. Simple crater 1km diameter meteor crater in Arizona was caused by an asteroid  only 40 m wide § b. Complex crater Complex lunar craters like Tyco (diameter = 86 km) have a central  raised peak and terraced side walls  § Complex Herschel crater on Saturn's icy moon Mimas is the largest  ratio of a crater diameter to the size of the moon or planet anywhere 
in solar system
§ c. Multi-ring basin § Multi-ring Valhalla basin on Jupiter moon Callisto is the largest  impact basin in the solar system (diameter of outer rings: 3800) 22. How do you prevent an asteroid from hitting Earth? a. Deflection: an impact of an impact spacecraft will result in the impact to  change the orbital velocity  b. Kinetic impact: crash a heavy spacecraft into it to alter trajectory c. Spacecraft propulsion: create a small sustained thrust on its side to alter  trajectory d. Focus solar heat onto a comet surface to create thrust from resulting  vaporization of material e. Solar sail: attach a large solar sail enabling solar pressure f. Nuclear weapons § Direct hit to vaporize (better not leave big chunks) Detonate a series of devices close to asteroid § 23. What are the hazards of space travel? a. Long period of weightlessness will cause muscles to atrophy, bones to  become brittle, and as of yet unknown other effects NASA developed a reduced gravity fight program to study  weightlessness § Weightlessness can be countered by generating a centrifugal force by  spinning a spacecraft § b. Micrometeoroids: fast moving tiny rocks that can damage spacecraft and  harm astronauts Astronaut suits are built to protect against micrometeoroids § c. Radiation  Radiation associated with solar flares can be very dangerous to  astronauts and spacecraft Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from  the Sun consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation Caused by magnetic reconnection Magnetic reconnection: when different magnetic field  lines are spliced together and change their patterns Typically takes a day or 2 to reach Earth and longer to  reach Mars Sun is well monitored, we will always have several  days warning ® § § d. Space junk Over 500,000 pieces of space junk at high speeds, orbiting the Earth § e. Issues on Spacecraft Fire on Apollo- electrical problems allowed the fire to continue for a  long time § Oxygen tank exploded- apollo 13 §
§ Space shuttle challenger- failure sequence
Aft joint (o-ring) failed upon ignition, took 70 seconds to burn  through strut attaching to booster to the external tank 
(mechanical)
§ Booster separated, rotated, and crushed the external tank,  releasing oxygen and hydrogen, they mixed and then ignited 
(mechanical)
§ § Space shuttle Columbia- disintegrating during reentry, killing all 7  crew members § Foam block from fuel tank bi-pod ramp dislodged and hit wing True/False:  Some types of trees require fire to regenerate True a. 1. Fires are dangerous to preservation of grassland False a. 2. A wildfire can burn down a house but leave surrounding lawn unburned True a. 3. We can find Martian meteorites on earth True a. 4. The asteroid belt is crowded False a. 5. The planets are evenly spaced False a. 6. All giant planets have rings True a. 7. At walking speed, you could traverse around Mercury and remain in a zone btw  day and night that is at a comfortable temperature True a. 8. Planets: • Venus ○ covered in dense clouds, high wind speeds
○ Our deadly sister
○ Atmospheric pressure on surface is 90x greater than on earth
○ Atmosphere is made of CO2, Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid
○ Strong greenhouse effect: traps heat from Sun that Venus has hottest 
surface of any planet, reaching temperatures of 860 degrees ○ Entire surface covered with lava and volcanoes (more than any other planet  in solar system) ○ Lightning • Mars ○ Lots of spacecraft on Mars
○ Surface: cold, dry, dusty
○ Seasonal water (described as dampness) on the surface
Likely salty, otherwise it would freeze Water channels cut into Martian surface ○ Billions of years ago there was lots of water on Mars Probably had an ocean Has many ancient river channels ○ Greatest chance of finding past or current signs of life
○ Lots of extreme topographic features
○ Olympus Mons: Tallest mountain in solar system Low topography of northern hemisphere may have been caused by  giant impact and may have been an ancient ocean basin Valles marineris: longest, widest, deepest canyon in Solar System Hellas Basin: created by giant impact, 7km deep and the deepest  basin in the solar system • Jupiter ○ Great Red Spot: is a giant storm on Jupiter, has existed for at least 300 yrs ○ Diameter is bigger than Earth's  ○ Moon Europa is thought to have a subsurface ocean- where there's water  there might be life ○ Icebergs are evidence for thin ice and a warm subsurface water • Saturn  ○ Rings consist of small water ice particles ranging in size from dust to  meters ○ Only ~10m in thickness
○ Titan: second largest moon in Solar System (bigger than Mercury)
Only moon in solar system to have a dense atmosphere
○ Only object in our Solar Sysem other than Earth with rain, snow, 
lakes, and rivers Too cold for water- liquid (and snow) is methane  § ○ Saturn's moon Enceladus Erupts water that freezes and feeds Saturn's E-ring Has water geysers, revealing existence of a subsurface ocean Pluto: dwarf planet, mountains of water-ice next to plains of smooth nitrogen ice • Kuiper belt object: one of millions of icy bodies in orbit beyond Neptune ○ Over a thousand more objects have been found, including many of similar  size Definitions: • Preigntion: the premature combustion of the fuel–air mixture in an internal  combustion engine. • Oort cloud: an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of  the solar system, mostly circular and thought to have been origin of long-period 
comets
• Maar: a broad, shallow crater, typically filled by a lake, formed by a volcanic  explosion with little lava. • Solar flare (prominence): a sudden, large energy release from the Sun  consisting of clouds of energetic particles and radiation
Burnover: fire running over the firefighters
Fire Shelters: safety device of last resort used by firefighters when trapped by  wildfires, Designed to reflect heat and trap breathable air, NOT designed to 
protect against direct contact with flames
Firebrands: burning embers Comets: an icy small solar system body that, when close enough to the sun,  displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmospheres) and sometimes a 
tail
Mixture of ice and rock that sublimate (solid --> gas) as they approach the  sun, releasing dust and gas to form 2 sails Gas tails are pushed away from the sun by solar winds (charged particles  emitted by the Sun) and are always directed away from the Sun Dust tails are pushed away from the sun by solar radiation (light). Dust  particles slow down with distance from the sun, which causes dust tails to 
curve
Light and fluffy We can track the origin of comets by tracking trajectories around the Sun Long-period comets: come from outer solar system, far beyond Pluto, and  take 1000s of years to orbit the sun Oort cloud is estimated to have billions of small icy objects as old as  the solar system Long period comets have orbits with an elongated shape, which  indicates they come from an elliptical zone Short-period comets: orbit much closer to the Sun in a matter of decades Captured by gravity of sun Asteroid: a class of small solar system bodies in orbit around the sun the further  away that comets and don't have coma. They can break-up into meteoroids and 
burn up in earth's atmosphere
Mostly rock, some ice Large space rocks that range in size from meters to 100s of km They are smooth and with minimal flying debris  They reside in the Asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter Avg. distance btw them is about 2,000,000 miles Some asteroids orbit inside Mars Asteroids that orbit near earth are called Near Earth Asteroids  (NEAs) Estimated 1 million asteroids bigger than 1km in diameter and billions of  smaller ones Meteoroid: small rocks (less than a few meters across) travelling through space Meteors: small rocks from space that light up in the night sky as they burn up the  earth's atmosphere Meteorites: small pieces of rock that survive passage through the atmosphere to  be picked up on a planet surface. Exist because meteoroids burn in the Earth's 
atmosphere
2 types: stony-93% are stony/iron The easiest place to find meteorites is Antarctica, where flowing glaciers  collect and deposit them, easily seen against white of Antarctica Martian meteorites: trapped gas bubbles that are identical in composition  to Mars' atmosphere Thought to have been ejected from Mars by large impacts Gas Giant: mostly ice, small rocky cores Ice Giant: gas with icy mantle, small rocky core IAU Definition of a planet: orbits around the sun, nearly round in shape, clear  the neighborhood Clear the neighborhood: it must be separated from other bodies and orbit  on its own Kepler Telescope: Identifies planets by crossing their stars by the slight  dimming of the star's light Has discovered more than 2000 exoplanets Finds planets in "Habitable Zone"- where liquid water can exist on the  surface Superearths: have a similar atmosphere as Earth, larger than earth Closest exoplanet is near Proxima Centauri (our Sun) Impact Terms: • Impact breccia: angular shattered pieces of rock surrounded by melt from  impact • Ejecta: rock thrown out of the crater during impact
• Regolith: a layer of ejecta and dust- moon is covered in it, 10 m thick
Important:  Venus has hottest surface temperature of all the planets There are estimated to be more exoplanets like earth than grains of sand You can simulate gravity on spacecraft by spinning it There is so much debris/space junk in Earth's orbit that it's a danger to astronauts,  space craft, satellites Fire retardants are colored red to mark where they were dropped Smokejumper strategy:  Attack fire from back and work up sides to limit directions of spread 1. Attack the head by quenching it, using a backfire, or steering it to  unburnable areas 2. Best progress is made in night when temperatures and wind drop 3. Constant vigilance with spot fires 4. Be relentless 5. • Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the first comet we have orbited with a space craft
• The extinction of dinosaurs was to believe have been caused by a 10km diameter 
impactor 65 million years ago Cretaceous (dino ruled) Paleogene (mammal ruled) extinction event  occurred over 65 million years ago killing off 75% species on Earth § Thin layer of clay that separates Cretaceous from Paleogene sediments all  over the world contains a lot of iridium shocked quartz and soot indicative 
of a giant impact and global fire
§ § Impact could have killed off dinosaurs and 75% other species in several  ways: Heating of ejecta as it passes through atmosphere cause wildfires § Dust suspended would block sunlight hence global cooling § Ejecta: disrupt ozone layer hence extensive § Sulfate-rich marine rocks in atmosphere would have transformed into  sulfuric acid that rained down on oceans causing them to be very 
acidic
§ • Sun contains 99.86% mass of Solar System
• Crematoria
Effects of slow planetary rotation
○ 1/2 of planet that is hot and 1/2 cold
Barrier btw hot and cold parts, one region that is at a temperature  where humans could survive § ○ Happens on mercury Mercury rotates very slowly: It takes mercury two years (176 Earth  days) to complete one Mercury day/night cycle § § Could walk around the day/night terminus Moves at a leisurely walking pace of only 2mph Study Guide 3 Thursday, November 1, 2018 10:12 PM

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School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geoscience
Professor: Ying Zhou
Term: Fall 2018
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Name: Study Guide 3
Description: These notes cover what will be on our next exam
Uploaded: 11/04/2018
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