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UCCS / Nursing and Health Science / HSCI 2070 / What is the net number of atp produced in glycolysis?

What is the net number of atp produced in glycolysis?

What is the net number of atp produced in glycolysis?

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School: University of Colorado Colorado Springs
Department: Nursing and Health Science
Course: Nutrition for Health Professionals
Professor: Jackie berning
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Nutrition Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Exam 3
Uploaded: 11/06/2018
7 Pages 8 Views 3 Unlocks
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REVIEW FOR EXAM 3 BIOL 2050/HSCI 2070 Fall 2018 DISCLAIMER: You will be held responsible for the appropriate  information in the textbook as well as class lectures and any  handouts.  


What is the net number of atp produced in glycolysis?



Chapter 9 Metabolism

1. Know the energy currency of the body

2. Know what an ATP, ADP and AMP is

3. Know what the terms anabolic and catabolic mean

4. Know where glycolysis begins and ends

5. Know the rate-limiting step in glycolysis and how pathway keeps  going if you run out of NAD

6. Know why certain tissues produce lactic acid

7. Know the net number of ATP produced in glycolysis 8. Know the different names for the citric acid cycle

9. Know the common pathway for glucose, fat and proteins and the  role that acetyl CoA plays

10. Know what the electron transport system does 11. Know the difference between aerobic and anaerobic  metabolism  

12. Know the rate-limiting step in the Krebs cycle 13. Know the process of the Krebs cycle and the net production of ATP from NADH, FADH2 and GTP


What regulates one's metabolic pathways?



14. Know the total amount of ATP generated from glycolysis  and the Krebs cycle from 1 mole of glucose

15. Know and be able to describe where fat and protein enter  in the citric acid cycle We also discuss several other topics like emperor yung lo

16. Know what beta oxidation is

17. Know what happens to pyruvate dehydrogenase as the  concentration of acetyl CoA increases

18. Know what happens to pyruvate carboxylase as the  concentration of acetyl CoA increases

19. Know in metabolic terms why fat burns in the flame of  carbohydrate

20. Know the definition of gluconeogenesis  

21. Know what substrate is used for gluconeogenesis 22. Know what intermediate diffuses out of the mitochondria  into the cytosol during gluconeogenesis


What are some good food sources of vitamin a?



23. Know two key enzymes involved with gluconeogenesis  and where they are found in the cell  

24. Know what organ you can find glucose 6 phosphatase and  its role in glucose metabolism Don't forget about the age old question of bollowing

25. Know what regulates the metabolic pathways

Chapter 12

1. Know the definition of vitamin

2. Know the two categories of vitamins and which vitamins fall into  what category and the differences between each category 3. Be able to identify the characteristics of water and fat soluble  vitamins

4. Know the role of Vitamin A

5. Know the deficiency disease and symptoms associated with  vitamin A

6. Know good food sources of vitamin A

7. Know the toxicity levels of Vitamin A

8. Know the role of Vitamin D (be familiar with the metabolism  within the skin)

9. Know the deficiency diseases associated with vitamin D 10. Know the food sources of vitamin D and know where we  get most of our Vitamin D

11. Know the toxicity levels of Vitamin D

12. Know that Vitamin D is the most toxic of all vitamins 13. Know the role of Vitamin E

14. Know the deficiencies that are associated with Vitamin E 15. Know the food sources of Vitamin E

16. Know the toxicity of vitamin E

17. Know the role of Vitamin K,  

18. Know the deficiencies associated with vitamin K 19. Know the food sources of vitamin K and know that only half of our K is from food and the other half is synthesized in the gut  from bacteria

20. Know what happens to vitamin K levels when long-term  antibiotics are taken or when an infant is born Don't forget about the age old question of nubaine

Chapter 13

1. Know the status of Vitamin B for Americans

2. Know what enriched and fortified means and be able to give  examples

3. Know what a co-enzyme is

4. Know the role of thiamin in the body

5. Know food sources of thiamin

6. Know the deficiency disease of thiamin

7. Know toxicity levels if they exist

8. Know the role of Riboflavin in the body

9. Know the food sources of riboflavin

10. Know the deficiency disease of riboflavin

11. Know the toxicity level if they exist If you want to learn more check out food and dairy microbiology

12. Know the role of niacin

13. Know the food sources of niacin

14. Know the deficiency disease of niacin

15. Know what hepatotoxic is and know that niacin can  produce toxic effects in the liver

16. Know the role of folate in the body

17. Know the relationship between folate and neural tube  defects

18. Know when a woman should take folate to avoid neural  tube defects

19. Know food sources of folate

20. Know the deficiency disease of folate

21. Know if any toxic diseases are associated with folate 22. Know the role of Vitamin B6 in the body

23. Know the food sources of B6

24. Know the deficiency disease of B6

25. Know the toxic symptoms associated with vitamin B6 26. Know the role of vitamin B12 in the body

27. Know the food sources of B12

28. Know that strict vegetarians who eat no animal products  are at greatest risk for B12 deficiency

29. Know what intrinsic factor is

30. Know the role that B12 has in folate metabolism 31. Know the role of Vitamin C in the body

32. Know the food sources of vitamin C Don't forget about the age old question of 8 spoked wheel buddhism

33. Know the deficiency disease associated with Vitamin C 34. Know the two populations that can show sub clinical signs  of deficiency of vitamin C

35. Know the toxicity of taking too much vitamin C 36. Be familiar with the role that vitamin C plays in colds and  fighting infections

37. Know who should be taking a supplement

ANSWERS

Chapter 9

1. ATP

2. ATP: adenosine triphosphate

ADP: adenosine diphosphate

AMP: adenosine monophosphate  

3. Anabolic: Build larger complex compounds from small simpler  compounds

Catabolic: breakdown of compounds into small units

4. Glycolysis begins in the cytosol and ends in the mitochondria  5. When oxygen is not available, pyruvate is converted to lactate  and lactate then makes NAD  

6. ?

7. 7 ATP

8. Citric Acid Cycle; Krebs Cycle

9. Glucose: glycolysis; Fat: Lipolysis; Protein: OOA

10. The ETS produces the most ATP

11. Aerobic metabolism: uses oxygen; Anaerobic metabolism:  Doesn’t use oxygen  

12. Needs oxygen to turn  

13. Krebs Cycle: 6NADH=15ATP; 2FADH2=3ATP; 2GTP=2ATP 14. 32 ATP

15. By dehydrogenase, carbons are broken down and used  16. Beta oxidation: Break down of fatty acids to produce  energy (ATP) Don't forget about the age old question of comm 215 concordia

17. When acetyl CoA increases, pyruvate dehydrogenase is  turned off  

18. When acetyl CoA increases, pyruvate carboxylase is turned on  

19. Carbohydrates are needed to turn the ETC

20. Gluconeogenesis: the synthesis of glucose from a non-CHO  source  

21. Non-carbohydrate carbon substrates: Lactate, glycerol, and glycogenic acids  

22. Malate

23. Phosphofructokinase: muscles  

Pyruvate Kinase:  

24. Found in liver

25. Enzymes  

Chapter 12

1. Vitamin: any of a group of organic compounds that are essential  for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small  quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the  body.

2. Fat Soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and K

Water Soluble: Vitamins B and C

3. Characteristics

a. Fat Soluble: Found in fats of food; Absorbed in the digestive tract with the aid of bile; Carried in the blood stream;  Stored in the liver and body fat  

b. Water Soluble: Found in watery compartments of foods;  easily destroyed during cooking due to heat or alkalinity;  excesses are excreted from the body via urine; act as co enzymes; participate in energy metabolism  

4. Vitamin A: Help with vision, growth and development, and  immunity  

5. Night Blindness: can lead to Conjunctival xerosis (abnormal  dryness of the conjunctiva of the eye) and Xerophthalmia (can

lead to irreversible blindness)

6. Active: liver, fish, fortified milk, and eggs

Inactive: yellow-orange vegetables and dark leafy greens 7. 2-4 times the RDA

8. Vitamin D: Control blood levels of calcium;

9. Rickets: children (failure of bones to calcify)

Ostemalacia: Adults (soft bones)

10. We get 80-100% of the vitamin D we need just by sun  exposure. Food sources: Fortified milk, fatty fish, eggs, butter,  and liver

11. Can be very toxic  

12. MOST TOXIC VITAMIN OF ALL

13. Vitamin E: acts as an antioxidant to stop the production of  free radicals  

14. Smokers, those on low fat diets and pre-term infants are at  risk of deficiencies  

15. Food sources: Plant oils, asparagus, peanuts, oatmeal,  almonds and sunflower seeds

16. Toxicity: more prone to heart disease; doses above UL may  interfere with the body’s ability to form a blood clot  

17. Vitamin K: Synthesis of blood clotting  

18. Occur due to gut issues or newborns may be affected  19. Food sources: liver, green leafy vegetables, Brussel  sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, spinach, kale, turnips,  peas and green beans. HALF OF VITAMIN K WE NEED IS FROM  GUT AND HALF IS FROM OUR DIET

20. Long term antibiotic therapy can kill off the bacteria we  need to produce vitamin K; GI tracts of newborns are sterile thus  they don’t have the bacteria needed to synthesize vitamin K  

Chapter 13

1. Generally good sue to fortification and enrichment programs in  the US  

2. Enriched: bread and cereals products are enriched with four B  vitamins (Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate) that are lost  during processing  

Fortification: they are added to the products in higher amounts  than they originally existed in the product  

3. Co-enzyme: A nonprotein compound that is necessary for the  functioning of an enzyme  

4. Role of thiamin: Nerve function (synthesis of neurotransmitters) 5. Food sources: Bread rolls, crackers, pork, hotdogs, lunch meats,  cold cereals, and OJ. High density: pork, sunflower seeds,  legumes, wheat germ, and watermelon.

6. Beriberi: Dry and WET  

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

7. No know toxicity  

8. Role of riboflavin: Involved in the CAC and ETC (can take or give  electrons)

9. Food sources: ¼ from milk/milk products; ¾ comes from enriched breads, rolls, crackers, eggs, and meats

10. Ariboflavinosis: inflammation of tongue, cracking at corners of mouth, moist scaly skin

11. No known toxicity

12. Role of Niacin: Active participants in REDOX reactions 13. Food source: ½ synthesis of niacin from tryptophan. ¼  poultry, meat, fish. 11% from enriched and fortified bread  products  

14. Deficiencies: Pellagra (3D’s: dementia, diarrhea,  dermatitis)

15. Hepatotoxic (liver damage)

16. Role of folate: Participates in metabolic reactions by  donating and accepting single carbon groups  

17. Folate is needed for the formation of neural tubes, so  infants can get spina bifida or anencephaly due to the mother’s  lack of folate  

18. Women should start taking folate before conception if they  are planning to get pregnant  

19. Food sources: fortified breakfast cereals, legumes, dark  leafy green vegetables.

20. Deficiencies: megaloblastic or Macrocytic Anemia 21. Toxicity: people with epilepsy may experience seizures  22. Role of vitamin B6: needed for enzymes involved in CHO, P and fat metabolism

23. Food sources: Meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, bananas,  spinach, avocados, potatoes, and sunflower seeds  

24. Deficiencies: Microcytic hypochromic anemia 25. Toxicity: Damage to nervous system  

26. Role of vitamin B12: folate metabolism  

27. Food sources: Only animal foods: meat, poultry, seafood,  eggs  

28. STRICT VEGETARIANS ARE AT RISK DUE TO EATING NO  ANIMAL PRODUCTS

29. Intrinsic factor enables the body to absorb vitamin B12 30. B12 activates folate

31. Role of vitamin C: Formation of collagen; antioxidant; iron  absorption; and immune function  

32. Food sources: Citrus fruits, potatoes, tomatoes, and green  vegetables  

33. Deficiency: Scurvy  

34. Elderly and teenage boys

35. Toxicity: hemochromatosis

36. Important for the activity of certain cell lymphocytes  37. Smokers

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